click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Second Congo War

The Second Congo War began in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in August 1998, little more than a year after the First Congo War, involved some of the same issues. The war ended in July 2003, when the Transitional Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo took power. Although a peace agreement was signed in 2002, violence has continued in many regions of the country in the east. Hostilities have continued since the ongoing Lord's Resistance Army insurgency, the Kivu and Ituri conflicts. Nine African countries and around twenty-five armed groups became involved in the war. By 2008, the war and its aftermath had caused 5.4 million deaths, principally through disease and starvation, making the Second Congo War the deadliest conflict worldwide since World War II. Another 2 million were sought asylum in neighboring countries. Despite a formal end to the war in July 2003 and an agreement by the former belligerents to create a government of national unity, 1,000 people died daily in 2004 from preventable cases of malnutrition and disease.

The war was driven among other things. The First Congo War began in 1996 as Rwanda expressed concern that Hutu members of Rassemblement Démocratique pour le Rwanda militias were carrying out cross-border raids from Zaire, planning an invasion of Rwanda; the militias Hutu, had entrenched themselves in refugee camps in eastern Zaire, where many had fled to escape the Tutsi-dominated Rwandan Patriotic Front in the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide of 1994. The new Tutsi-dominated RPF government of Rwanda protested this violation of Rwandan territorial integrity, began to arm the ethnically Tutsi Banyamulenge of eastern Zaire; the Mobutu regime of Zaire vigorously denounced this intervention, but possessed neither the military capability to halt it nor the political capital to attract international assistance. With active support from Uganda and Angola, the Tutsi forces of Laurent-Désiré Kabila moved methodically down the Congo River, encountering only light resistance from the poorly trained, ill-disciplined forces of Mobutu's crumbling regime.

The bulk of Kabila's fighters were Tutsis, many were veterans of various conflicts in the Great Lakes region of Africa. Kabila himself had credibility as a long-time political opponent of Mobutu, had been a follower of Patrice Lumumba, executed by a combination of internal and external forces in January 1961, was replaced by Mobutu in 1965. Kabila had declared himself an admirer of Mao Zedong, he had been waging armed rebellion in eastern Zaire for more than three decades, though Che Guevara in his account of the early years of the conflict portrayed him as an uncommitted and uninspiring leader. Kabila's army began a slow movement west in December 1996, near the end of the Great Lakes refugee crisis, taking control of border towns and mines and solidifying control. There were reports of massacres and of brutal repression by the rebel army. A UN human-rights investigator published statements from witnesses claiming that Kabila's ADFLC engaged in massacres, that the advancing army killed as many as 60,000 civilians, a claim the ADFLC strenuously denied.

Roberto Garreton stated that his investigation in the town of Goma turned up allegations of disappearances and killings. He quoted Moïse Nyarugabo, an aide to Mobutu, as saying that killings and disappearances should be expected in wartime. Kabila's forces launched an offensive in March 1997, demanded that the Kinshasa government surrender; the rebels took Kasenga on 27 March. The government denied the rebels' success, starting a long pattern of false statements from the Defense Minister on the progress and conduct of the war. Negotiations were proposed in late March, on 2 April a new Prime Minister of Zaire, Étienne Tshisekedi—a longtime rival of Mobutu—was installed. Kabila, by this point in control of one-quarter of the country, dismissed this as irrelevant and warned Tshisekedi that he would have no part in a new government if he accepted the post; the ADFLC made consistent progress in its advance from the east throughout April 1997, by May its troops had reached the outskirts of Kinshasa.

Mobutu fled Kinshasa on May 16, the "libérateurs" entered the capital without serious resistance. Mobutu died in exile in Morocco four months later. Kabila proclaimed himself president on May 17, 1997; when Kabila gained control of the capital in May 1997, he faced substantial obstacles to governing the country, which he renamed the Democratic Republic of Congo from Zaïre. Beyond political jostling among various groups to gain power and an enormous external debt, his foreign backers proved unwilling to leave when asked; the conspicuous Rwandan presence in the capital rankled many Congolese, who began to see Kabila as a pawn of foreign powers. Tensions reached new heights on 14 July 1998, when Kabila dismissed his Rwandan chief of staff James Kabarebe, replaced him with a native Congolese, Celestin Kifwa. Although the move chilled what was a troubled relationship with Rwanda, Kabila softened the blow by making Kabarebe the military adviser to his successor. Two weeks Kabila chose to abandon his previous decision.

He thanked Rwanda for its help, ordered all Rwandan and U

Tour de France

The Tour de France is an annual men's multiple stage bicycle race held in France, while occasionally passing through nearby countries. Like the other Grand Tours, it consists of 21 day-long stages over the course of 23 days, it has been described as "the world’s most prestigious and most difficult bicycle race". The race was first organized in 1903 to increase sales for the newspaper L'Auto and is run by the Amaury Sport Organisation; the race has been held annually since its first edition in 1903 except when it was stopped for the two World Wars. As the Tour gained prominence and popularity, the race was lengthened and its reach began to extend around the globe. Participation expanded from a French field, as riders from all over the world began to participate in the race each year; the Tour is a UCI World Tour event, which means that the teams that compete in the race are UCI WorldTeams, with the exception of the teams that the organizers invite. It has become "the world's biggest annual sporting event."

A women's Tour de France was held under different names between 1984 and 2009. Since 2014, the La Course by Le Tour de France is held for women in a one- or two-day format during the men's race. Traditionally, the race is held in the month of July. While the route changes each year, the format of the race stays the same with the appearance of time trials, the passage through the mountain chains of the Pyrenees and the Alps, the finish on the Champs-Élysées in Paris; the modern editions of the Tour de France consist of 21 day-long segments over a 23-day period and cover around 3,500 kilometres. The race alternates between counterclockwise circuits of France. There are between 20 and 22 teams, with eight riders in each. All of the stages are timed to the finish; the rider with the lowest cumulative finishing times is the leader of the race and wears the yellow jersey. While the general classification garners the most attention, there are other contests held within the Tour: the points classification for the sprinters, the mountains classification for the climbers, young rider classification for riders under the age of 26, the team classification, based on the first three finishers from each team on each stage.

Achieving a stage win provides prestige accomplished by a team's sprint specialist or a rider taking part in a breakaway. The Tour de France was created in 1903; the roots of the Tour de France trace back to the emergence of two rival sports newspapers in the country. On one hand was Le Vélo, the first and the largest daily sports newspaper in France which sold 80,000 copies a day. On the other was L'Auto, set-up by journalists and business-people including Comte Jules-Albert de Dion, Adolphe Clément, Édouard Michelin in 1899; the rival paper emerged following disagreements over the Dreyfus Affair, a cause célèbre that divided France at the end of the 19th century over the innocence of Alfred Dreyfus, a French army officer convicted—though exonerated—of selling military secrets to the Germans. The new newspaper appointed Henri Desgrange as the editor, he was a prominent owner with Victor Goddet of the velodrome at the Parc des Princes. De Dion knew him through his cycling reputation, through the books and cycling articles that he had written, through press articles he had written for the Clément tyre company.

L'Auto was not the success. Stagnating sales lower than the rival it was intended to surpass led to a crisis meeting on 20 November 1902 on the middle floor of L'Auto's office at 10 Rue du Faubourg Montmartre, Paris; the last to speak was the most junior there, the chief cycling journalist, a 26-year-old named Géo Lefèvre. Desgrange had poached him from Giffard's paper. Lefèvre suggested a six-day race of the sort popular on the track but all around France. Long-distance cycle races were a popular means to sell more newspapers, but nothing of the length that Lefèvre suggested had been attempted. If it succeeded, it would help L'Auto match its rival and put it out of business, it could, as Desgrange said, "nail Giffard's beak shut." Desgrange and Lefèvre discussed it after lunch. Desgrange was doubtful but the paper's financial director, Victor Goddet, was enthusiastic, he handed Desgrange the keys to the company safe and said: "Take whatever you need." L'Auto announced the race on 19 January 1903.

The first Tour de France was staged in 1903. The plan was a five-stage race from 31 May to 5 July, starting in Paris and stopping in Lyon, Marseille and Nantes before returning to Paris. Toulouse was added to break the long haul across southern France from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. Stages would go through the night and finish next afternoon, with rest days before riders set off again, but this proved too daunting and the costs too great for most and only 15 competitors had entered. Desgrange had never been wholly convinced and he came close to dropping the idea. Instead, he cut the length to 19 days, changed the dates to 1 to 19 July, offered a daily allowance to those who averaged at least 20 kilometres per hour on all the stages, equivalent to what a rider would have expected to earn each day had he worked in a factory, he cut the entry fee from 20 to 10 francs and set the first prize at 12,000 francs and the prize for each day's winner at 3,000 francs. The winner would thereby win six times.

That attracted between 60 and 80 entrants – the higher number may have included serious inquiries and some who dropped out – among them not just professionals

Elsa Osorio

Elsa Osorio was born in the Argentine capital of Buenos Aires in 1952. She studied literature at the university there in order to become a teacher, has since worked as a writer, journalist and assistant professor. In 1994 she left Argentina and resettled in Madrid, nowadays she live again in Argentina. At the centre of her literary work lies an examination of contemporary Argentine history. In the process, she turns her attention in particular to the ramifications of politics for the individual, which she illustrates using striking biographies; the »Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung« wrote that the author succeeds in »convincing readers that the instruments of the art of story-telling are shown to be most effective at that point at which they lead us back to reality, where our perspective and our interests, whetted by the imagination, are recalled to reality.« In 1982 she debuted with the volume of short stories »Ritos privados«, for which she was awarded the most prestigious literature prize of her country, the Premio Nacional de Literatura Argentina, in the following year.

She published »Beatriz Guido«, a novel of this Argentine writer's life, a collection of political and linguistic essays »Las malas lenguas«. Her sixth novel, »A veinte anos, Luz«, was greeted with acclaim on the international scene, it won her Amnesty International's literary prize, was translated into more than fifteen languages, published in twenty-three countries – only in Argentina was she unable to find a publisher at first. The novel deals with a dark chapter of the Argentine military dictatorship, it tells the story of the fate and search for identity of a young woman, born to opponents of the Junta, taken away by the family of an officer, loyal to the regime. Another prevailing theme in Osorio's work is tango, which she focused on in her screenplay, »La Lección de tango«, her most recent novel, »Cielo de tango« deals with the Argentine dance and merges history and imagination. Like the former work, it unfolds over various temporal planes and tells of two families of differing social backgrounds whose lives are intertwined through tango, beginning with the rise of Argentina in the late eighteenth century and leading up to the present day.

The narrative technique of this recent work, which describes the history of tango, is adopted from the movements of the dance itself: it moves forwards and sideways, changes direction. For this novel she received the Premio de Bibliotecas in the Premio Acerbi. Among Osorio's further distinctions are an award for best comedy as well as a prize for journalistic satire, she has been living since 2006 once again in Buenos Aires, where she is running creative writing workshops. From 2007 to 2010 she took part in different congresses and fairs, as for example in Saint Malo, "Etonnants Voyageurs", the International Literature Festival in Berlin, the Bookfair in Paris, the Bookfair in the Spanish Gijón, the "Festival de la Palabra" in Puerto Rico, the Bookfair in Medellin and the Bookfair in Frankfurt. In 2009 she spent a month in Berlin under the LiteraturRaum project. In 2009 she published "Callejón con salida" a collection of short stories which received the Premio Roma for foreign literature in 2010.

Ritos Privados Reina Mugre Ya no hay hombres Como tenerlo todo Las Malas lenguas A veinte años, Luz Cielo de Tango Callejón con salida La Capitana Doble Fondo www.elsaosorio.com Official site Official blog

Zulfugar Hajibeyov

Zulfugar Hajibeyov was an Azerbaijani composer and a member of a family noted for its musical talents. He was one of the founders of the Azerbaijan Music Comedy Theater. Hajibeyov was born in Shusha on 17 April 1884. Hajibeyov's brother Uzeyir Hajibeyov is considered the "Father of Classical Music" in Azerbaijan, their brother Jeyhun was a publicist and ethnographer, helped Uzeyir compose the opera Layla and Majnun. His son, Niyazi Hajibeyov, was a composer, directed the Azerbaijan State Symphony Orchestra for 40 years. Hajibeyov died on 30 September 1950, he is buried in the Alley of Honor in Azerbaijan. Hajibeyov's house in Shusha is classified as a historical monument "bearing state importance" by Azerbaijan. Ashiq Qarib, after the anonymous Azerbaijani romantic dastan of the same name, 1915. With his son Niyazi, Hajibeyov wrote the music for one of the first films of Azerbaijan, released in 1936

Nikitin

Nikitin, or Nikitina is a common Russian surname that derives from the male given name Nikita and means Nikita's. It may refer to: Yevgeny Nikitin, bass-baritone Ivan Nikitich Nikitin, Russian painter Gury Nikitin, Russian icon painter Ivan Savvich Nikitin, Russian poet Sergey Nikitin, contemporary Russian composer and bard Tatyana Nikitina, contemporary Russian singer and composer Victor Ivanovich Nikitin, Soviet soloist with the Alexandrov Ensemble Yuri Nikitin, contemporary Russian sci-fi writer Larisa Nikitina, contemporary Russian heptathlete Vera Nikitina, contemporary Soviet hurdling athlete Yuri Nikitin, Ukrainian trampolinist Boris Nikitin, Georgian swimmer Nikita Nikitin, Russian ice hockey player Sarah Nikitin, Brazilian Archer Boris Nikitin, Soviet radiochemist Nikolai Nikitin, Soviet structural design and construction engineer Vasilii Vasilyevich Nikitin, Soviet aircraft engineer There are at least five botanists with this surname, shown here followed by their standard author abbreviations:Sergei Alekseevich Nikitin S.

A. Nikitin Sergei Nikolaevic Nikitin Nikitin Vasilii Vasilevich Nikitin V. V. Nikitin Vladimir Alekseevich Nikitin V. A. Nikitin Vladimir V. Nikitin Vl. V. Nikitin The Nikitin surname spread from Russia to the rest of the world, including Europe, Canada, USA, South America, it is present in the 1913 New Israel migration from Voronezh to San Javier, Uruguay. Mateo Nikitin, a New Israel member in the Voronezh region back in 1800-1900 contemporary of the leader of the New Israel sect, Vasily Lubkov, contemporary of Ivan Savvich Nikitin, Russian poet, he is one of the New Israel members who migrate with Vasily Lubkov from the Voronezh region to San Javier, Uruguay in 1913. Basilio Nikitin, born in San Javier, Uruguay in 1934 and deceased in 1998. Fernando Nikitin, born in San Javier, Uruguay. **** Seeking genealogical information about his ancestors back in Voronezh, including Mateo Nikitin. **** Afanasiy Nikitin, a Russian explorer and merchant Alexander Nikitin, contemporary Russian environment activist and a dissident Navy officer Alexey Petrovich Nikitin, Russian artillery officer of the Napoleonic Wars Anfal Nikitin, Novgorod boyar and ushkuynik Basil Nikitin Soviet orientalist and diplomat Rodrigo Nikitin, Brazilian Specialist IT Vladilen Nikitin, Russian engineer and politician Vladimir Nikitin, multiple people Viktor Nikitin and Serbian pilot, killed in the first disaster of Yugoslav civil aviation

Abraham Gouverneur

Abraham Gouverneur was a Dutch born colonial American merchant and Leislerian politician who served as the Speaker of the New York General Assembly. Gouverneur was born in 1671 "upon the Single, near the Konings Pleyn" in the Netherlands, he moved to New York City in what was the Province of New York, a part of British America. He was the son of Maghteld Gouverneur, he was the brother of Elisabeth Gouverneur, Isaac Gouverneur, Elisabeth Gouverneur. After the death of his father in 1682, his mother remarried to Jasper Nissepadt, had another child, Jannetje Nissepadt. Gouverneur, a successful merchant, was involved in the organization of Harlem in upper Manhattan, received land known as the Abraham Gouverneur Patent that he purchased in February 1713. Along with fellow merchant Nicholas Stuyvesant, he was an associate of German-born businessman Jacob Leisler, the 8th Colonial Governor of New York known for his rabid anti-Catholic Calvinist views and the leader of a populist political faction known as "Leislerians".

Four days before Gov. Henry Sloughter arrived in New York, Gouverneur shot the parish clerk and was charged with his murder. After Sloughter arrived, he put down Leisler's Rebellion and Leisler was hanged in May 1691. A year after Leisler's execution and Jacob Leisler Jr. traveled to London and lobbied government officials, members of Parliament, cabinet officers to clear Leisler's name, were helped by the powerful Whigs. He was a member of the New York General Assembly, representing Orange County, from 1699 to 1702, representing New York County, from 1701 to 1702. From May 15, 1699 to May 3, 1702, he was the Speaker of the Assembly, he served as Recorder of New York City the deputy mayor of New York City, from 1701 to 1703 under mayors Isaac De Riemer, Thomas Noell, Phillip French. Gouverneur was married to the daughter of his associate Jacob Leisler. Mary was the widow of Jacob Milborne, the English born clerk, an ally and secretary of Mary's father, both of whom were executed for their part in Leisler's Rebellion.

Together, they were the parents of four children who reached maturity, including: Nicholas Gouverneur, the father of Abraham, Esther and Nicholas Gouverneur. Jacoba Gouverneur Elizabeth Gouverneur Jacob Gouverneur, who died young. Maria Gouverneur, who married Henry Myer Jr. and Captain Jasper Farmer. Gouverneur died in New York City on June 16, 1740. Gouverneur Street, Gouverneur Lane, Gouverneur Slip were all named after Abraham. Jacob Leisler Papers Project