click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Second Czechoslovak Republic

The Second Czechoslovak Republic existed for 169 days, between 30 September 1938 and 15 March 1939. It was composed of Bohemia, Moravia and the autonomous regions of Slovakia and Subcarpathian Rus', the latter being renamed on 30 December 1938 to Carpathian Ukraine; the Second Republic was the result of the events following the Munich Agreement, where Czechoslovakia was forced to cede the German-populated Sudetenland region to Germany on 1 October 1938, as well as southern parts of Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia to Hungary. After the Munich Agreement and the German government made clear to foreign diplomats that Czechoslovakia was now a German client state, the Czechoslovak government attempted to curry favour with Germany by banning the country's Communist Party, suspending all Jewish teachers in German educational institutes in Czechoslovakia, enacted a law to allow the state to take over Jewish companies. In addition, the government allowed the country's banks to come under German–Czechoslovak control.

The Second Republic was dissolved when Germany invaded it on 15 March 1939, annexed the Czech region into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. On the same day as the German occupation, the President of Czechoslovakia, Emil Hácha was appointed by the German government as the State President of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia which he held throughout the war. Czechoslovakia had become a shell of its former self and was now a weakened state; the Munich Agreement had resulted in Bohemia and Moravia losing about 38 percent of their combined area to Germany, with some 3.2 million German and 750,000 Czech inhabitants. Lacking its natural frontier and having lost its costly system of border fortification, the new state was militarily indefensible. Hungary received 11,882 km2 in southern Ruthenia. Poland acquired the town of Těšín with the surrounding area—some 906 km2, some 250,000 inhabitants Poles—and two minor border areas in northern Slovakia, more in the regions Spiš and Orava – 226 km2, 4,280 inhabitants, only 0.3 percent Poles.

The Czechoslovak government had problems in taking care of the 115,000 Czech and 30,000 German refugees, who had fled to the remaining rump of Czechoslovakia. The political system of the country was in chaos. Following the resignation of Edvard Beneš on 5 October, Prime Minister Jan Syrový took over most presidential duties—as per the Constitution—until Emil Hácha was chosen as President on 30 November 1938. Hácha was chosen because of his Catholicism and conservatism and because of not being involved in any government that led to the partition of the country, he appointed Rudolf Beran, the leader of the Agrarian Party since 1933, as prime minister on 1 December 1938. Unlike most Agrarians, Beran was sceptical of democracy; the Communist Party was dissolved. Tough censorship was introduced, an Enabling Act was introduced, which allowed the government to rule without parliament. Most of the non-socialist parties in the Czech Lands. Merged into the Party of National Unity, with Beran as leader; the weakened Czechoslovak Republic was forced to grant major concessions to the non-Czechs.

Following the Munich Agreement, the Czechoslovak army transferred parts of its units in the Czech lands, to Slovakia, meant to counter the obvious Hungarian attempts to revise the Slovak borders. The Czechoslovak government accepted the Žilina Agreement stipulating the formation of an autonomous Slovak government with all Slovak parties except the Social Democrats on 6 October 1938. Jozef Tiso was nominated as its head; the only common ministries that remained were those of National Defence, Foreign Affairs and Finances. As part of the deal, the country adopted the short-form name of Czecho-Slovakia; the two major factions in Subcarpathian Ruthenia, the Russophiles and Ukrainophiles, agreed on the establishment of an autonomous government, constituted on 8 October 1938. Reflecting the spread of modern Ukrainian national consciousness, the pro-Ukrainian faction, led by Avhustyn Voloshyn, gained control of the local government and Subcarpathian Ruthenia was renamed Carpatho-Ukraine. On 17 October, Franz Karmasin and Alexander Mach were received by Adolf Hitler.

On 1 January 1939, the Slovak State Assembly was opened. On 18 January, the first elections of the Slovak Assembly took place, where the Party of Slovak National Unity–a merger of all nonsocialist Slovak parties–received 98 percent of the votes. On 12 February, Vojtech Tuka and Karmazin met with Adolf Hitler, on 22 February, Tiso proposed the formation of an autonomous Slovak state during his presentation of the Slovak Government to the assembly. On 27 February, the Slovak government asked the central government for the Slovakisation of the Czecho-Slovak army units stationed in Slovakia and for Slovak ambassadors and consuls to be named as representatives of the autonomous Slovak state. Disputes continued and, on 1 March 1939, the Ministerial Committee of the Czecho-Slovak government met, where the question of Slovak departure from the state was in focus. There were some disagreement between Tiso and other Slovak politicians, Karol Sidor returned to Bratislava to discuss the matter with Tiso.

On 6 March, the Slovak government proclaimed its loyalty to the Czecho-Slovak Republic and its wish to remain a part of the state. In a meeting with Hermann Göring on 7 March, Ďurčanský and Tuka were pressed to decla

William Davila

William "Bill" Davila was a Mexican American soldier and businessman. He was involved with many nationally known companies in the United States, including Vons Supermarkets, which he presided twice, first from 1984 to 1990 and as president emeritus from 1992 to 1998, he was president of the Western Association of Food Chains. Davila became a television and radio personality in the Los Angeles area, the Los Angeles Times once declaring he had been "catapulted to near-celebrity status by his television and radio pitches", he participated on Vons television commercials. Bill Davila was born to Salvador Davila and Polly Lopez-Davila in Los Angeles, California on April 25, 1931, he was the couple's only child. Davila attended the Mount Lowe Military Academy from where he went on to the Polytechnic High School in Los Angeles; as a young man, Davila obtained a job at Vons sweeping floors. It wasn't long. Davila joined the United States Air Force in 1951. In 1952, he married Dorothy Davila. Davila returned to work at Vons immediately after being honorably discharged from the Air Force, in 1955.

Twenty years in 1975, Kenneth O. Olsen president of the Vons Grocery Company, announced that Davila, along with Donald Stuetz, J. R. Risher, William Birney and Richard London would be named Vice-President of the company. Vons became the official supermarket chain of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. About that time, Davila was named the company's president and C. E. O. Becoming the first Mexican-American to be named president of a large American supermarket chain. Davila soon lead Vons' expansion into the Southern-Californian Hispanic market by opening a series of stores named Tianguis, as well as Von's Pavilion. Davila decided to retire in 1990, but returned to Vons in 1992, being appointed President Emeritus of the company during that era. In 1994, Davila was honored by the University of Southern California Marshall School of Business with their Food Industry Executive of the Year Award for that year, he would be a keynote speaker at the school's annual "legends of the industry" luncheon.

Davila was a customer of Panda Express, where he met and befriended Panda Express' founder Andrew Cherng. Cherng convinced Davila to let him open some Panda Express restaurants inside Vons stores. Davila retired for a second time from Von's in 1998. William and Dorothy Davila had three daughters and two sons Towards the end of his life, Davila suffered from Alzheimer's disease, which led to his death on February 14, 2014

Titan T-51 Mustang

The Titan T-51 Mustang is a 75%-scale look alike replica of the P-51 Mustang. It is a two-seat experimental aircraft. T-51 kits are fabricated by Titan Aircraft Company at Austinburg, Ohio, in the United States and are being assembled and flown in several countries where they are popular with pilots and with spectators at airshows; the aircraft has a wide range of handling abilities, from a stall speed of only 60 mph to high performance up to 197 mph and agility afforded by a +6g / -4g load limit capability. Titan has a long history with building aircraft to be flown under ultralight regulations, now including the FAA Light-sport Aircraft category. Pilots choose whether they want to buy a kit, complete and ready to assemble or a basic kit to which they add their own choices of propellers and instruments. Two versions are available: the experimental with retractable gear which must be flown by pilots with retractable gear experience and the amateur built fixed-landing-gear version which qualifies for the 1,200 lb and under weight category in New Zealand and Australia and can be flown by a sport pilot in the US.

The most applied powerplant is either the Honda V-6 or the GM LS3. One builder considered a Mazda Rotary engine due to its power-to-weight ratios. Several planes used a Suzuki V-6 engine; the construction-to-flying time for the Titan T-51 is about 1400–1600 hours, longer if you have not experience. Stewart S-51D Mustang Jurca Gnatsum W. A. R. P-51 Mustang Loehle 5151 Mustang Papa 51 Thunder Mustang Cameron P-51G FK-Lightplanes SW51 Mustang Titan Aircraft website Aircraft specification brochure Media related to Titan T-51 Mustang at Wikimedia Commons

Young Ladies of the Village

Young Ladies of the Village or The Village Maids is an 1852 oil on canvas painting by Gustave Courbet, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. It is signed bottom left "G. Courbet". In the centre three young women offer a barefoot peasant girl something to eat. One of the three holds an umbrella against the sun; the same artist had painted a set of three sisters in Courbet's Three Sisters, the Stories of grandmother Salvan and the preparatory sketch for Young Ladies, which shows the same figures placed further back within a composition more dominated by vegetation and the landscape than the final work ·. The artist redesigned the composition for an 1862 etching published by Alfred Cadart and Jules Luquet with different use of perspective. A dog stands behind the trio, whilst to the right two cows graze in a hilly landscape with rocky outcrops and a sunny blue sky; the landscape draws on real locations near Ornans, Courbet's native area, were re-used by him in other landscapes with and without human figures.

Courbet first exhibited the work at the Paris Salon in April 1852 entitled The Village Maids give alms to a cowherd in a valley near Ornans - this was the first time in thirty years he had first exhibited a work there. It was bought by the duc de Morny despite a public and press polemic against the work - for example, the art critic Théophile Gautier expressesd reservations and felt the canvas was under-finished, whilst Gustave Planche, Eugène Loudun and Louis Énault felt it flouted the rules of perspective in the smallness of the figures relative to the cows - they held the portrayal of the young women to be "rather ugly" and "incongruously diminished"; the painting was displayed again in the 1855 Exposition universelle, provoking yet more criticism, this time against "this representation of provincial women dressed in Parisian fashion" provoking discomfort in its viewers. The painting provoked as much or more discussion about Courbet as his Burial at Ornans and according to Michael Fried was one of his "breakthrough canvases" as part of a deliberate strategy to arouse scandal.

The poor reception of the work is explained by the social and historical context of the late Second French Republic - the rural electorate helped bring Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte to power as emperor and to keep him in power, yet the painting showed the Franche-Comté, a republican area, forcing rich Parisians to face up to the harsh realities of the countryside - rather than showing an idealised and pacified countryside, it showed a potential enemy of middle-class city-dwellers, enriched by the industrial revolution and about to take part in the 1848 Revolution. Some saw the painting as the start of Courbet's political engagement, which took root both in his home-town and in his painting of the class struggle, as embodied in the tense eye contact between the women's lapdog and the young calves. Others see it as reusing an old philosophical archetype of generously giving charity to the poor, albeit in a balanced and distanced manner far from the Roman Catholic aesthetic rules at the forefront of other painters' work, abandoning their high level of finish and heightening the format and line.

The Duchess of Morny resold the work to the hôtel Drouot in 1878 for 5000 francs. It arrived in the USA just before 1901; the art dealer Paul Durand-Ruel's New York branch exhibited it in June 1906 and - after passing through a number of different hands - Harry Payne Bingham offered it to its present owners in 1940. Laurence Des Cars, Dominique de Font-Réauls, Gary Tinterow and Michel Hilaire, Gustave Courbet: Exposition Paris, New York, Montpellier 2007-2008, Réunion des musées nationaux, 2007

Michael Mancuso

Michael "The Nose" Mancuso is an American mobster. He is a member of the American Mafia and the boss of the Bonanno crime family, one of Five Families in New York City. During the early 1980s, Mancuso was an associate of the Purple Gang. In 1984, Mancuso fatally shot his wife Evelina and left her body on a bench in front of Jacobi Hospital in the Bronx. Mancuso served ten years in prison. In 2004, acting boss Vincent Basciano promoted him to the acting underboss position, he became acting boss in November 2004. In May 2005, Joseph Massino implicated Mancuso in the 1999 murder of Gerlando Sciascia. In early 2006, Basciano ordered Mancuso's murder. On February 16, 2006, Mancuso was arrested for ordering a 2004 murder. Mancuso and the imprisoned Basciano ordered the November 30, 2004, murder of Bonanno associate Randolph Pizzolo; the hit was carried out by soldier Anthony "Ace" Aiello. On August 6, 2008, Mancuso and soldier Aiello pleaded guilty to murdering Pizzolo. On December 16, 2008, Mancuso was sentenced to 15 years and soldier Aiello was sentenced to 30 years in prison.

In June 2013, while imprisoned for the next five years, was picked as the new official boss of the family. He is the first mobster in the family to hold this title since boss Joseph Massino became a government witness in 2004. Mancuso underboss Thomas DiFiore, he appointed Joseph Cammarano Jr as the Bonanno family street boss and as the acting underboss in 2015. In April 2015, it was reported that Mancuso was imprisoned at the Federal Correctional Institution, Danbury, in Danbury, Connecticut. On March 12, 2019, Mancuso was released

Kate Tupper Galpin

Kate Tupper Galpin was an American educator and woman's club leader. For several years President of the Woman's Parliament of Southern California, Galpin was a natural teacher. Before instituting her classes in Southern California, she occupied the position of Professor of Pedagogy in the University of Nevada. During the five years of her residence in California, Galpin played an active part in the club life of the State, occupied many positions of honor, through her classes in Shakespeare and Current Topics, conducted in Los Angeles and numerous outlying towns, contributed to the educational and intellectual life of the community, she gave five addresses before the Women's Congress at the Columbian Exposition, lectured upon the suffrage platform throughout California. Born in Brighton, Iowa in 1855, she was educated as a teacher at the Iowa State College, she was the daughter of Ellen Smith Tupper. She lived during her girlhood on a farm near Brighton; as a child she was frail. Her first teacher was her mother.

Her mother would go to school with Kate behind her and a baby sister in her lap. She attended the village school until she was 15, when she was sent to the Iowa Agricultural College in Ames, Iowa where she was graduated in 1874; the vacations of the college were in the winter, in the vacation following her sophomore year she had her first experience in teaching, in a district school 3 miles out of Des Moines, where the family was living. The next winter, when seventeen years of age, she served as an assistant in a Baptist College in Des Moines, her earnings enabling her to pay most of her college expenses, her first schools after graduating were in Iowa. From 1875 to 1879, she taught in Iowa high school. In 1878, she taught an ungraded school in the little village of Beloit, Iowa, in order to be near her parents, who were living on a homestead in Dakota, to have with her in the school her younger brother and sister, she taught for four years as principal of the academic department of the Wisconsin Normal School in Whitewater, Wisconsin.

During the following three years, she held positions in the high school of Oregon. Next she was called to the professorship of pedagogy in the State University of Nevada, with salary and authority the same as the men of the faculty. In 1890, she resigned her professorship in the university and received a call to the presidency of a prominent normal school, which she refused; that summer she became the wife of Cromwell Galpin, of Los Angeles, consummating a somewhat romantic attachment of her college life. She taught special classes in oratory in the University of Los Angeles. In 1892, Galpin opened a class in Shakespeare for mature women; the Kate Tupper Galpin Shakespeare Club met monthly, by 1922, it had 133 active members 133. She had a daughter, Ellen Galpin, her stepdaughter Lloy Galpin was a suffragist and clubwoman. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: L. S. Lyons & J. Wilson's Who's who Among the Women of California: An Annual Devoted to the Representative Women of California, with an Authoritative Review of Their Activities in Civic, Athletic, Philanthropic and Music, Literary and Dramatic Circles...

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: F. A. Pattee's Out West: A Magazine of the Old Pacific and the New This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: F. E. Willard & M. A. R. Livermore's American Women: Fifteen Hundred Biographies with Over 1,400 Portraits: a Comprehensive Encyclopedia of the Lives and Achievements of American Women During the Nineteenth Century Lyons, Louis S.. Who's who Among the Women of California: An Annual Devoted to the Representative Women of California, with an Authoritative Review of Their Activities in Civic, Athletic, Philanthropic and Music, Literary and Dramatic Circles... Security publishing Company. Pattee, F. A.. Out West: A Magazine of the Old Pacific and the New. F. A. Pattee & Company. Willard, Frances Elizabeth. American Women: Fifteen Hundred Biographies with Over 1,400 Portraits: a Comprehensive Encyclopedia of the Lives and Achievements of American Women During the Nineteenth Century. Mast, Crowell & Kirkpatrick.

P. 311