The Third Doctor is an incarnation of the Doctor, the protagonist of the BBC science fiction television series Doctor Who. He was portrayed by actor Jon Pertwee. Within the series' narrative, the Doctor is a centuries-old Time Lord from the planet Gallifrey who travels in time and space in his TARDIS with companions. At the end of life, the Doctor can regenerate his body. Pertwee portrays the third such incarnation, a dapper man of action of stark contrast to his wily but less action-oriented predecessors. While previous Doctors' stories had all involved time and space travel, for production reasons Pertwee's stories depicted the Doctor stranded on Earth in exile, where he worked as a scientific advisor to the international military group UNIT. Within the story, the Third Doctor came into existence as part of a punishment from his own race, the Time Lords, who forced him to regenerate and disabled his TARDIS; this restriction is lifted and the Third Doctor embarks on more traditional time travel and space exploration stories.
His initial companion is UNIT scientist Liz Shaw, who unceremoniously leaves the Doctor's company between episodes to be replaced by the more wide-eyed Jo Grant, who continues to accompany the Doctor after he regains use of his TARDIS. His final companion was intrepid journalist Sarah Jane Smith; the Third Doctor was a suave, technologically oriented, authoritative man of action who practised Venusian Aikido. A keen scientist, he maintained a laboratory at UNIT where he enjoyed working on gadgets in his TARDIS. In his spare time, he was fond of handing all manner of vehicles, his favourite car was a canary-yellow vintage roadster that he nicknamed "Bessie", a construct which featured such modifications as a remote control increased speed capabilities, inertial dampers. He maintained a hovercraft-like vessel that fans nicknamed the Whomobile; the First Doctor, upon meeting the Third, described him indignantly as a "dandy", while the Second Doctor, with whom the Third had something of an antagonistic relationship on the occasions they encountered each other, referred to him as "Fancy Pants".
While this incarnation spent most of his time exiled on Earth, where he grudgingly worked as UNIT's scientific advisor, he was sent on covert missions by the Time Lords, where he would act as a reluctant mediator. Though he developed a fondness for Earthlings with whom he worked, he jumped at any chance to return to the stars with the enthusiasm of a far younger man than himself. If this Doctor had a somewhat patrician and authoritarian air, he was just as quick to criticise authority, having little patience with self-inflated bureaucrats, parochially narrow ministers, knee-jerk militarists, or red tape in general, his courageousness could turn to waspish indignation. Despite his occasional arrogance, the Third Doctor genuinely cared for his companions in a paternal fashion, held a thinly veiled but grudging admiration for his nemesis, the Master, for UNIT's leader, Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart, with whom he became friends. In fact when his much-resented exile was lifted, the moral and dashing Third Doctor continued to help UNIT protect the Earth from all manner of alien threats, a role that continued into his future incarnations.
In general, this incarnation of the Doctor was more physically daring than the previous two and was the first to confront an enemy physically if cornered. This took the form of quick strikes, with the occasional joint lock or throw—usually enough to get himself and anyone accompanying him out of immediate danger, but not to the extent of a brawl, in keeping with the Doctor's non-violent nature, he only used his fighting skills if he had no alternative, then disarmed his opponents rather than knocking them unconscious. Indeed, his martial prowess was such that a single, sudden strike was enough to halt whatever threatened him, at one point he reminded Captain Yates of UNIT that Yates would have a difficult time removing him from somewhere when he did not want to be removed; the Third Doctor was a skilled linguist, as well as having a penchant for disguises. When asked to attend a Radio Times photo-call in 1969, Jon Pertwee arrived in what he thought was "a suitably eccentric outfit" from his family wardrobe, the flamboyant image stuck with producer Barry Letts.
Through the first two seasons, he wore a flowing, red-lined cape over a black velvet smoking jacket and a ruffled shirt with a variety of neckties. Beginning in the 1971 season, when the look was refashioned by Ken Trew, Pertwee wore a red jacket and a cloak with purple lining. In the final two seasons, the colour scheme changed from story to story, though the basic look was maintained. In his first episode, when the Doctor evades capture by taking a shower, a tattoo of a serpent can be seen on his arm. Whereas Pertwee obtained it during his service in the Royal Navy, an in-universe reason for it was provided in the New Adventures novel Christmas on a Rational Planet as being a Time Lord symbol signifying exile, removed once the Doctor's exile was formally ended following the events of The Three Doctors; the Third Doctor stories were the first to be broadcast in colour. The e
William Henry Hartnell was an English actor. Hartnell played the first incarnation of the Doctor in Doctor Who, from 1963 to 1966, he was well known for his roles as Sergeant Grimshaw, the title character of the first Carry On film, Carry On Sergeant in 1958, as Company Sergeant Major Percy Bullimore in the sitcom The Army Game from 1957 until 1958, again in 1960. William Hartnell, known as Billy to family and friends, was born in St Pancras, England, the only child of Lucy Hartnell, an unmarried mother. Hartnell never discovered the identity of his father, whose particulars were left blank on his birth certificate, despite his efforts to trace him, he was brought up by a foster mother, spent many holidays in Devon with his mother's family of farmers, from whom he learned to ride horses. He was a second cousin of the fashion designer Norman Hartnell, he dabbled in petty crime. Through a boys' boxing club, at the age of 14 Hartnell met the art collector Hugh Blaker, who became his unofficial guardian, arranged for him to train as a jockey and helped him to enter the Italia Conti Academy.
Theatre being a passion of Blaker's, he paid for Hartnell to receive some "polish" at the Imperial Service College, though Hartnell found the strictures too much and ran away. Hartnell entered the theatre in 1925 working under Frank Benson as a general stagehand, he appeared in numerous Shakespearian plays, including The Merchant of Venice, Julius Caesar, As You Like It, The Tempest and Macbeth. He appeared in She Stoops to Conquer, School for Scandal and Good Morning, before performing in Miss Elizabeth's Prisoner; this play was written by E. Lyall Swete, it featured the actress Heather McIntyre. His first of more than 60 film appearances was in Say It With Music. Radio work featured in his career, with his earliest known performance – in a production of Chinese Moon Party – being broadcast by the BBC on 11 May 1931. From the outbreak of the Second World War Hartnell served in the British Army in the Tank Corps, but he was invalided out after 18 months as the result of suffering a nervous breakdown and returned to acting.
In 1942 he was cast as Albert Fosdike in Noël Coward's film. He turned up late for his first day of shooting, Coward berated him in front of the cast and crew for his unprofessionalism, made him apologise to everyone and sacked him. Michael Anderson, the first assistant director, took over the part. Hartnell continued to play comic characters until he was cast in the robust role of Sergeant Ned Fletcher in The Way Ahead. From on his career was defined by playing policemen and thugs; this typecasting bothered him, for when he was cast in comedies he found he invariably played the "heavy". In 1958 he played the sergeant in the first Carry On Carry On Sergeant, he appeared as Will Buckley, another military character, in the film The Mouse That Roared, which starred Peter Sellers, he played a town councillor in the Boulting brothers' film Heavens Above!, again with Sellers. His first regular role on television was as Sergeant Major Percy Bullimore in The Army Game from 1957 to 1961. Again, although it was a comedy series, he found.
He appeared in a supporting role in the film version of This Sporting Life, giving a sensitive performance as an ageing rugby league talent scout known as "Dad". Hartnell's performance in This Sporting Life was noted by Verity Lambert, the producer, setting up a new science-fiction television series for the BBC entitled Doctor Who. Although Hartnell was uncertain about accepting a part in what was pitched to him as a children's series, in part due to his success in films and director Waris Hussein convinced him to take the part, it became the character for which he gained the highest profile and is now most remembered. Hartnell revealed that he took the role because it led him away from the gruff, military parts in which he had become typecast, having two grandchildren of his own, he came to relish the attention and affection that playing the character brought him from children, his first episode of Doctor Who was aired on 23 November 1963. Doctor Who earned Hartnell a regular salary of £315 an episode by 1966, equivalent to £5,764 in 2018.
By comparison, in 1966 his co-stars Anneke Wills and Michael Craze were earning £68 and £52 per episode at the same time, respectively. Throughout his tenure as the Doctor, William Hartnell wore a wig when playing the part, as the character had long hair. According to some of his colleagues on Doctor Who, he could be a difficult person to work with. Others, such as the actors William Russell and Peter Purves, the producer Verity Lambert, spoke glowingly of him after more than 40 years. Carole Ann Ford, who played the Doctor's granddaughter Susan, has said that she and Hartnell "got on well", saying "It upsets me when I hear people saying he was difficult to work with, he was sweet". Hartnell adored Verity Lambert and had great respect for Waris Hussein. Hartnell admired singer Paul Robeson. In his Desert Island Discs interview, Hartnell stated that Paul Robeson was his hero and described him as having a voice like crushed velvet. Hartnell's deteriorating health (he suffered from arteriosclerosis began to affect his ability to learn his
Patrick George Troughton was an English actor. He was classically trained for the stage but became most known for his roles in television and film, his work included appearances in several fantasy, science fiction and horror films, but he became best known for his role as the second incarnation of the Doctor in the long-running British science-fiction television series Doctor Who, which he played from 1966 to 1969. Troughton was born on 25 March 1920 in Mill Hill, England, to Alec George Troughton, a solicitor, Dorothy Evelyn Offord, who married in 1914 in Edmonton. Patrick had an elder brother, Alec Robert, a younger sister, Mary Edith. Troughton continued to live in Mill Hill for most of his life. While at Mill Hill School, he acted in a production of J. B. Priestley's Bees on the Boat Deck in March 1937, his brother A. R. Troughton shared the 1933 Walter Knox Prize for Chemistry with the future Nobel Prize winner Francis Crick, who attended Mill Hill School. Troughton attended the Embassy School of Acting at Swiss Cottage, studying under Eileen Thorndike.
After his time at the Embassy School of Acting, Troughton won a scholarship to the Leighton Rallius Studios at the John Drew Memorial Theatre on Long Island, New York. When the Second World War began, he returned home on a Belgian ship which struck a sea mine and sank off the coast of Great Britain, Troughton escaping in a lifeboat, on arrival back in England in 1939 he joined the Tonbridge Repertory Company. In 1940 he joined the Royal Navy and was commissioned as a lieutenant with the RNVR, being first deployed on East Coast Convoy duty from February to August 1941, with Coastal Forces' Motor Gun Boats based at Great Yarmouth from November 1942 to 1945, operating in the North Sea and English Channel. During his service with the M. G. B.'s, he was on one occasion involved in an action against Kriegsmarine E-boats which resulted in one of the enemy craft being destroyed by ramming, whilst Troughton's boat and another destroyed two more with their gunfire. His decorations included the 1939-45 Star, Atlantic Star, he was Mentioned in Dispatches "for outstanding courage and skill in many daring attacks on enemy shipping in hostile waters".
He used to wear a tea cosy on his head in cold weather in the North Sea. After the war, Troughton returned to the theatre, he worked with the Amersham Repertory Company, the Bristol Old Vic Company and the Pilgrim Players at the Mercury Theatre, Notting Hill Gate. He made his television debut in 1947. In 1948, Troughton made his cinema debut with small roles in Olivier's Hamlet, the Joseph L. Mankiewicz directed Escape, a minor role as a pirate in Disney's Treasure Island appearing only during the attack on the heroes' hut. Television though, was his favourite medium. In 1953 he became the first actor to play the folk hero Robin Hood on television, starring in six half-hour episodes broadcast from 17 March to 21 April on the BBC, titled Robin Hood, his grandson Sam Troughton played one of Robin's colleagues in the 2006 BBC TV series of the same name, Patrick himself would make an appearance in The Adventures of Robin Hood starring Richard Greene. He appeared as the murderer Tyrrell in Olivier's film of Richard III.
He was Olivier's understudy on the film and appears in many long shots as Richard. Troughton's other notable film and television roles included Kettle in Chance of a Lifetime, Sir Andrew Ffoulkes in The Scarlet Pimpernel, Vickers in the episode entitled "Strange Partners" in The Invisible Man, Phineus in Jason and the Argonauts, Quilp in The Old Curiosity Shop, Paul of Tarsus, Dr. Finlay's Casebook, he voiced Winston Smith in a 1965 BBC Home Service radio adaptation of Nineteen Eighty-Four. Prior to Doctor Who he appeared in numerous TV shows, including The Count of Monte Cristo, Dial 999, Danger Man, Compact, The Third Man, Detective, Sherlock Holmes, No Hiding Place, The Saint, Armchair Theatre, The Wednesday Play, Z-Cars, Adam Adamant Lives! and Softly, Softly. Troughton was offered the part of Johnny Ringo in the Doctor Who story The Gunfighters but turned it down. In 1966, Doctor Who producer Innes Lloyd looked for a replacement for William Hartnell in the series' lead role; the continued survival of the show depended on audiences accepting another actor in the role, despite the bold decision that the replacement would not be a Hartnell lookalike or soundalike.
Lloyd stated that Hartnell had approved of the choice, saying, "There's only one man in England who can take over, that's Patrick Troughton". Lloyd chose Troughton because of his versatile experience as a character actor. After he was cast, Troughton considered various ways to approach the role, to differentiate his portrayal from Hartnell's amiable-yet-tetchy patriarch. Troughton's early thoughts about how he might play the Doctor included a "tough sea captain", a piratical figure in blackface and turban. Doctor Who creator Sydney Newman suggested that the Doctor could be a "cosmic hobo" in the mould of Charlie Chaplin, this was the interpretation chosen. Troughton was the first Doctor to have his face appear in the opening titles of the show. In one serial, The Enemy of the World, Troughton played two parts – as the protagonist and the antagonist. During his time on the series, Troughton tended to shun publicity and gave interviews, he told one
Recorder (musical instrument)
The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument in the group known as internal duct flutes—flutes with a whistle mouthpiece. A recorder can be distinguished from other duct flutes by the presence of a thumb-hole for the upper hand and seven finger-holes: three for the upper hand and four for the lower, it is the most prominent duct flute in the western classical tradition. Recorders are made in different sizes with names and compasses corresponding to different vocal ranges; the sizes most in use today are the soprano, alto and bass. Recorders are traditionally constructed from wood and ivory, while most recorders made in recent years are constructed from molded plastic; the recorders' internal and external proportions vary, but the bore is reverse conical to cylindrical, all recorder fingering systems make extensive use of forked fingerings. The recorder is first documented in Europe in the Middle Ages, continued to enjoy wide popularity in the Renaissance and Baroque periods, but was little used in the Classical and Romantic periods.
It was revived in the 20th century as part of the informed performance movement, became a popular amateur and educational instrument. Composers who have written for the recorder include Monteverdi, Purcell, Vivaldi, Johann Sebastian Bach, Paul Hindemith, Benjamin Britten, Leonard Bernstein, Luciano Berio, Arvo Pärt. Today, there are many professional recorder players who demonstrate the instrument's full solo range and a large community of amateurs; the sound of the recorder is described as clear and sweet, has been associated with birds and shepherds. It is notable for its quick response and its corresponding ability to produce a wide variety of articulations; this ability, coupled with its open finger holes, allow it to produce a wide variety of tone colors and special effects. Acoustically, its tone is pure and odd harmonics predominate in its sound; the instrument has been known by its modern English name at least since the 14th century. David Lasocki reports the earliest use of "recorder" in the household accounts of the Earl of Derby in 1388, which register i. fistula nomine Recordour.
By the 15th century, the name had appeared in English literature. The earliest references are in John Lydgate's Temple of Glas: These lytylle herdegromys Floutyn al the longe day.. In here smale recorderys, In floutys. and in Lydgate's Fall of Princes: Pan, god off Kynde, with his pipes seuene, / Off recorderis fond first the melodies. The instrument name "recorder" derives from the Latin recordārī, by way of Middle French recorder and its derivative MFr recordeur; the association between the various disparate, meanings of recorder can be attributed to the role of the medieval jongleur in learning poems by heart and reciting them, sometimes with musical accompaniment. The English verb "record" meant "to learn by heart, to commit to memory, to go over in one's mind, to recite" but it was not used in English to refer to playing music until the 16th century, when it gained the meaning "silently practicing a tune" or "sing or render in song", long after the recorder had been named. Thus, the recorder cannot have been named after the sound of birds.
The name of the instrument is uniquely English: in Middle French there is no equivalent noun sense of recorder referring to a musical instrument. Partridge indicates that the use of the instrument by jongleurs led to its association with the verb: recorder the minstrel's action, a "recorder" the minstrel's tool; the reason we know this instrument as the recorder and not one of the other instruments played by the jongleurs is uncertain. The introduction of the Baroque recorder to England by a group of French professionals in 1673 popularized the French name for the instrument, "flute douce", or "flute", a name reserved for the transverse instrument; until about 1695, the names "recorder" and "flute" overlapped, but from 1673 to the late 1720s in England, the word "flute" always meant recorder. In the 1720s, as the transverse flute overtook the recorder in popularity, English adopted the convention present in other European languages of qualifying the word "flute", calling the recorder variously the "common flute", "common English-flute", or "English flute" while the transverse instrument was distinguished as the "German flute" or "flute."
Until at least 1765, some writers still used "flute" to mean recorder. Until the mid 18th century, musical scores written in Italian refer to the instrument as flauto, whereas the transverse instrument was called flauto traverso; this distinction, like the English switch from "recorder" to "flute," has caused confusion among modern editors and performers. Indeed, in most European languages, the first term for the recorder was the word for flute alone. In the present day, cognates of the word "flute," when used without qualifiers, remain ambiguous and may refer to either the recorder, the modern concert flute, or other non-western flutes. Starting the 1530s, these languages began to add qualifiers to specify this particular flute. In the case of the recorder, these describe variously Since the
Yeti (Doctor Who)
The Yeti are fictional robots in the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. They were created by Henry Lincoln and Mervyn Haisman, first appeared in the 1967 serial The Abominable Snowmen, where they encountered the Second Doctor and his companions Jamie and Victoria; the Yeti resemble the cryptozoological creatures called the Yeti, with an appearance Radio Times has described as "cuddly but ferocious", disguising a small spherical device that provides its motive power. The Yeti serve the Great Intelligence, a disembodied entity from another dimension, which first appeared trying to form a physical body so as to conquer the Earth; the Yeti are a ruse to scare off curiosity seekers serving as an army for the Great Intelligence. Disagreements arose between Lincoln and Haisman with the BBC in 1968 over a serial introducing another new monster, The Dominators, leading to the writers' departure from the series and the retirement of the Yeti as antagonists; the Yeti have since appeared infrequently in flashbacks or cameo appearances.
One did have a part in the 20th anniversary special The Five Doctors. They appear in the 1990s Virgin Missing Adventures novels and the 1995 Reeltime spin-off production Downtime; the Great Intelligence has since returned in Series 7 of the revived series, portrayed by Sir Ian McKellen and Richard E Grant, without the aid of its Yeti servants. The Yeti, along with contemporary villains such as the Cybermen and Ice Warriors, were an effort by the production team to create replacement monsters for the Daleks, who creator and part-copyright owner Terry Nation desired to have appear in an American spin-off series; the Evil of the Daleks, the last serial of the fourth season, had been intended as a final confrontation between the Doctor and the Daleks. Producer Innes Lloyd had overseen the creation of the Cybermen by Gerry Davis and Kit Pedler and saw the monsters as an alternative to Daleks. Lloyd recollected that the need to replace the Daleks influenced the decision to pick up the Yeti as recurring monsters.
After Henry Lincoln and Mervyn Haisman had spoken with Patrick Troughton, who expressed disappointment in the lack of Earth-bound stories in his first season as the Doctor, Lincoln chose the stories of the yeti as a suitable concept around which to create a serial for the program. Lincoln and Haisman pitched the idea to the Doctor. Lloyd and script editor Peter Bryant were impressed with The Abominable Snowmen and commissioned Haisman and Lincoln for a second Yeti adventure. Martin Baugh designed the Yeti costume; this serial used different Yeti costumes from those of their debut, which were not considered threatening enough and had deteriorated. The Yeti robots that appear in The Abominable Snowmen are large with a blackened face; these costumes have clawed hands and feet, they house control spheres in their chest, used by the Great Intelligence to remotely operate them. These original costumes were deemed'a little too cuddly' and so when the robots returned in The Web of Fear they were redesigned.
These Yeti robots had glowing eyes. Brian Hodgson of the BBC Radiophonic Workshop developed a Yeti roar for this serial, created by slowing down the sound of a flushing toilet. One of the original Yeti from The Abominable Snowmen appeared as a museum display and, upon being reactivated by a control sphere, transformed into the newer model. In The Abominable Snowmen the control spheres are depicted as capable of seeking out inactive Yeti and crawling into the robots to activate them, emitting a series of whistle-like beeps whilst doing so. If the cavity intended to house the sphere is blocked, as Jamie does with a rock, the sphere ignores that Yeti and falls silent; the Web of Fear expanded upon the spheres as a plot device with Professor Edward Travers and, as the serial progresses, the Doctor experimenting upon them. The experiments of both Travers and the Doctor allow the protagonists to control the sphere, by extension any Yeti it is stored within, using a short-range remote control; the Yeti appeared twice in the fifth season of the series as adversaries of the Doctor’s second incarnation.
They are introduced in the 1967 serial The Abominable Snowmen guarding a cave near a Buddhist monastery in the Himalayas, scaring or killing travellers. The Yeti robots are protecting a pyramid of spheres that house the Great Intelligence, who has possessed the body of the High Lama Padmasamabhava since encountering the man on the astral plane some centuries ago. Using Padmasambhava the Great Intelligence moves small Yeti pieces around a chess-like map of the monastery and mountainside; the Great Intelligence intends to create a physical body for itself, but these plans are foiled by the Doctor and his companions. With the Intelligence banished back to the astral plane the Yeti fall dormant. Several Yeti curiosities are taken back to England by Travers, who had come in the hopes of encountering the real Yeti. In The Web of Fear, aired in 1968 and set forty years after The Abominable Snowmen, the Yeti artifacts that Travers brought to England reawaken due to the return of the Great Intelligence.
The Yeti subjugate London and engulf the Underground in web. The only resistance offered is by a band of soldiers, led first by Captain Knight and by Colonel Lethbridge-Stewart, with scientific support provided by Travers, his daughter Anne Travers and the Doctor; the invasion of the London Underground is revealed as a trap designed to draw in the Doctor so that t
Gallifrey is a fictional planet in the long-running British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It is the original home world of the Time Lords, the civilisation to which the main character, the Doctor, belongs, it is located in a binary star system 250 million light years from Earth. It was first shown in The War Games during the Second Doctor's trial though was not identified by name until The Time Warrior. In the revived series Gallifrey was referred to as having been destroyed in the Time War, fought between the Time Lords and the Daleks, it appeared prominently in The End of Time. Gallifrey is revealed at the conclusion of "The Day of the Doctor" to have survived the Time War, although it was frozen in time and shunted into another dimension, before returning to the universe at some point before "Hell Bent", it is never definitively stated. As the planet is reached by means of time travel, its relative present could conceivably exist anywhere in the Earth's past or future. From space, Gallifrey is seen as a yellow-orange planet and was close enough to central space lanes for spacecraft to require clearance from Gallifreyan Space Traffic Control as they pass through its system.
The planet was protected from physical attack by an impenetrable barrier called the quantum force field, from teleportation incursions by the transduction barrier—which could be reinforced to repel most levels of this type of technological attack. The Time Lords' principal city, named The Capitol, comprises shining towers protected by a mighty glass dome. Outside the Capitol is a wilderness with plains of red grass, as mentioned by the Doctor in Gridlock and The End of Time; the planet's "second city" is Arcadia, is seen falling to the Daleks in the 2013 minisode "The Last Day."The Doctor's granddaughter Susan first describes her home world as having bright, silver-leafed trees and a burnt orange sky at night in the serial The Sensorites. This casts an amber tint on anything outside the city. However, Gallifrey's sky appears blue and Earth-like in The Five Doctors within the isolated Death Zone. In The Time Monster, the Third Doctor says that "When I was a little boy, we used to live in a house, perched halfway up the top of a mountain", explaining, "I ran down that mountain and I found that the rocks weren't grey at all—but they were red and purple and gold.
And those pathetic little patches of sludgy snow were shining white. Shining white in the sunlight." In "Gridlock", the Tenth Doctor echoes Susan's description of the world now named as Gallifrey and goes further by mentioning the vast mountain ranges "with fields of deep red grass, capped with snow". He elaborates how Gallifrey's second sun would "rise in the south and the mountains would shine", with the silver-leafed trees looking like "a forest on fire" in the mornings. Outer Gallifrey's wastelands are where the "Outsiders" reside, The Doctor Who Role Playing Game released by FASA equates the Outsiders with the "Shobogans", who are mentioned in the serial The Deadly Assassin; the wastes of Gallifrey include the Death Zone, an area, used as a gladiatorial arena by the first Time Lords, pitting various species kidnapped from their respective time zones against each other. Inside the Death Zone stands the Tomb of the founder of Time Lord society. Somewhere on Gallifrey there is an institute called the Academy, which the Doctor and various other Time Lords have attended."The Last Day" mentions birds as something expected in Gallifrey's skies.
Gallifrey appeared in the Doctor Who 50th anniversary special, "The Day of the Doctor" which aired on November 23, 2013. Several of the spin-off novels have further information about Gallifrey, it is said to have one being the copper-coloured Pazithi Gallifreya. Cat's Cradle: Time's Crucible mentions edible rodent-like mammals called tafelshrews. For general Time Lord history, see History of the Time Lords. Few details on the history of the planet itself emerge from the original series run from 1963–1989. In "The End of the World", the Ninth Doctor states that his home planet has been destroyed in a war and that he is the last of the Time Lords; the episode indicates that the Time Lords are remembered in the far future. Subsequently, in "Dalek", it is revealed that the last great Time War was fought between the Time Lords and the Daleks, ending in the obliteration of both sides and with only two apparent survivors. At the conclusion of that episode, that surviving Dalek self-destructs, leaving the Ninth Doctor believing that he was the sole survivor of the Time War.
However, the Daleks return in "Bad Wolf"/"The Parting of the Ways", subsequently in several other stories. The Tenth Doctor's reference to Gallifrey in "The Runaway Bride" is the first time the name of his homeworld has been given onscreen since the new series began; the Doctor's revelation that he is from Gallifrey elicits terror from the Empress of the Racnoss. The Tenth Doctor in human form mentions Gallifrey in "Human Nature" and is asked if it was in Ireland.
The Krotons is the fourth serial of the sixth season of the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, first broadcast in four weekly parts from 28 December 1968 to 18 January 1969. In the serial, the time traveller the Second Doctor and his travelling companions Jamie McCrimmon and Zoe Heriot battle alongside the Gond race against the crystalline aliens the Krotons, who enslaved the Gonds in their city for thousands of years. On an unnamed planet, a race called the Gonds are subject to the mysterious Krotons, unseen beings to whom they provide their brightest intelligences as “companions”. Thara, son of the Gond leader Selris, is the only one of his race to object to this practice; the Doctor and Zoe arrive in time to witness the death of one of the chosen companions, vaporised by smoke sprayed from nozzles on either side of the doorway from which he emerges, intervene to save Vana, the other selected for this fate, using her survival as a means to convince Selris and the Gonds of the malign influence of the Krotons on their society.
The Doctor calls it "self-perpetuating slavery” by which the brightest in Gond society have been removed. There are large gaps in their knowledge relating to chemistry; this situation has been in existence for many years since the Krotons arrived in their spaceship, releasing a poison that polluted the lands beyond the Gond city — which the Gonds call'the Wasteland' — and killed much of the Gond population. Thara uses the disquiet of the situation to lead a rebellion and attack the Teaching Machines of the Krotons in the Hall of Learning; this prompts a crystalline probe to appear and defend the Machines, warn the Gonds to cease their rebellion. Zoe now is selected to be a "companion" of the Krotons; the Doctor elects the same fate and both are summoned into the Dynotrope where they are subjected to a mental attack. Zoe deduces that the Krotons have found a way to transfer mental power into pure energy, while the Doctor busies himself with taking chemical samples of the Kroton environment. Circumstances now trigger the creation of two Krotons from chemical vats within the Dynatrope.
The newly created Krotons capture Jamie, but are seeking the Doctor and Zoe, the “High Brains”, who have now left the Dynatrope. It takes Jamie quite some time. Eelek and Axus, two councillors loyal to the Krotons, who begin to rally for all-out war with the Krotons, have now seized the initiative in Gond society; the more level headed Selris is deposed, but warns that an all-out attack will not benefit his people. Instead he has decided to attack the machine from underneath by destabilising its foundation in the underhall. Eelek has Selris arrested and reasserts control by negotiating with the Krotons that they will leave the planet if provided with the two “High Brains” who can help them power and pilot their ship. Zoe and the Doctor are forced into the Dynatrope and Selris dies, providing them with a phial of acid which the Doctor adds to the Kroton vats. Outside and the scientist Beta launch an attack on the structure of the ship using sulphuric acid; this two-pronged assault destroys their craft.
The Dynatrope dissolves away and the Gonds are free at last — choosing Thara rather than the cowardly and ambitious Eelek to lead them. Leaving the Gonds to find their own answers for the future, the Doctor and Zoe return to the Tardis. Working titles for this story included The Space Trap. Holmes had submitted The Trap to the BBC as a stand-alone science-fiction serial in 1965. Head of Serials Shaun Sutton rejected the serial as being not the kind of thing the BBC was interested in making at the time, but suggested the writer pitch it to the Doctor Who production office as an idea for that series. Holmes did so, although story editor Donald Tosh was interested, the scripts went no further at the time; some years assistant script editor Terrance Dicks found the story in the production office files when clearing a backlog, decided to develop it with Holmes as a personal project, in case other scripts fell through. When the latter event occurred, Dicks was able to present the serial to his superiors as a ready production.
Director David Maloney agreed the serial was viable, it went before the cameras quickly as an emergency replacement. Robert La'Bassiere is a pseudonym for Robert Grant, who requested that he be credited under this name for his appearance as one of the Krotons. Scenes set on the planet's surface were filmed at the Tank Quarry and West of England Quarry on the Malvern Hills. One of the guest actors for The Krotons is Philip Madoc, who appeared in a different role in the season in The War Games as well as in other roles with Tom Baker's Fourth Doctor; the serial was repeated on BBC2 in November 1981, daily at 5:40 pm as part of "The Five Faces of Doctor Who", a series of repeats to bridge the long gap between seasons 18 and 19. At the time, it was the only four-part Patrick Troughton serial; the viewing figures for the repeats were 4.6, 4.6 and 4.5 million viewers respectively. According to the BBC's Audience Research Report on the first episode the story received a mixed reception from viewers.
Some enjoyed the story, describing it as "intriguing" and "compelling". More critical viewers thought the series was becoming "stale" a