Second French Empire

The Second French Empire the French Empire, was the regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. Historians in the 1930s and 1940s disparaged the Second Empire as a precursor of fascism; that interpretation is no longer promulgated and by the late 20th century they were celebrating it as leading example of a modernising regime. Historians have given the Empire negative evaluations on its foreign-policy, somewhat more positive evaluations of domestic policies after Napoleon III liberalised his rule after 1858, he exports. The greatest achievements came in material improvements, in the form of a grand railway network that facilitated commerce and tied the nation together and centered it on Paris, it had the effect of stimulating economic growth, bringing prosperity to most regions of the country. The Second Empire is given high credit for the rebuilding of Paris with broad boulevards, striking public buildings, attractive residential districts for upscale Parisians.

In international policy, Napoleon III tried to emulate his uncle, engaging in numerous imperial ventures around the world as well as several wars in Europe. Using harsh methods, he built up the French Empire in North Africa and in Southeast Asia. Napoleon III sought to modernise the Mexican economy and bring it into the French orbit, but this ended in a fiasco, he badly mishandled the threat from Prussia, by the end of his reign, Napoleon III found himself without allies in the face of overwhelming German force. On 2 December 1851, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, elected President of the Republic, staged a coup d'état by dissolving the National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so, he thus became sole ruler of France, re-established universal suffrage abolished by the Assembly. His decisions were popularly endorsed by a referendum that month that attracted an implausible 92 percent support. At that same referendum, a new constitution was approved. Formally enacted in January 1852, the new document made Louis-Napoléon president for 10 years, with no restrictions on re-election.

It concentrated all governing power in his hands. However, Louis-Napoléon was not content with being an authoritarian president; as soon as he signed the new document into law, he set about restoring the empire. In response to inspired requests for the return of the empire, the Senate scheduled a second referendum in November, which passed with 97 percent support; as with the December 1851 referendum, most of the "yes" votes were manufactured out of thin air. The empire was formally re-established on 2 December 1852, the Prince-President became "Napoléon III, Emperor of the French"; the constitution had concentrated so much power in his hands that the only substantive changes were to replace the word "president" with the word "emperor" and to make the post hereditary. The popular referendum became a distinct sign of Bonapartism, which Charles de Gaulle would use. With dictatorial powers, Napoleon III made building a good railway system a high priority, he consolidated three dozen incomplete lines into six major companies using Paris as a hub.

Paris grew in terms of population, finance, commercial activity, tourism. Working with Georges-Eugène Haussmann, Napoleon III spent lavishly to rebuild the city into a world-class showpiece; the financial soundness for all six companies was solidified by government guarantees. Although France had started late, by 1870 it had an excellent railway system, supported as well by good roads and ports. Napoleon, in order to restore the prestige of the Empire before the newly awakened hostility of public opinion, tried to gain the support from the Left that he had lost from the Right. After the return from Italy, the general amnesty of 16 August 1859 had marked the evolution of the absolutist or authoritarian empire towards the liberal, parliamentary empire, to last for ten years; the idea of Italian unification – based on the exclusion of the temporal power of the popes – outraged French Catholics, the leading supporters of the Empire. A keen Catholic opposition sprang up, voiced in Louis Veuillot's paper the Univers, was not silenced by the Syrian expedition in favour of the Catholic Maronite side of the Druze–Maronite conflict.

Ultramontane Catholicism, emphasising the necessity for close links to the Pope at the Vatican played a pivotal role in the democratisation of culture. The pamphlet campaign led by Mgr Gaston de Ségur at the height of the Italian question in February 1860 made the most of the freedom of expression enjoyed by the Catholic Church in France; the goal was to mobilise Catholic opinion, encourage the government to be more favourable to the Pope. A major result of the ultramontane campaign was to trigger reforms to the cultural sphere, the granting of freedoms to their political enemies: the Republicans and freethinkers; the Second Empire favoured Catholicism, the official state religion. However, it tolerated Protestants and Jews, there were no persecutions or pogroms; the state dealt with the small Protestant community of Calvinist and Lutheran churches, whose members included many prominent businessmen who supported the regime. The emperor's Decree Law of 26 March 1852 led to greater government interference in Protestant church affairs, thus reducing self-regulation.

Catholic bureaucrats both were biased against it. The administration of their policies affected not only church-state relations but the internal lives of Protestant c

Stade Louis II

The Stade Louis II is a stadium located in the Fontvieille district of Monaco. It serves as a venue for football, being the home of AS Monaco and the Monaco national football team; the stadium is most notable for its distinctive nine arches at the away end of the ground. The arena is used for the Herculis, a track and field meet of the IAAF Diamond League. From 1998 to 2012, the stadium hosted the annual UEFA Super Cup match; the original Stade Louis II was opened in 1939 as the home of AS Monaco. The decision to build a new sports centre in Monaco dates back to 1979. Prince Rainier III decided to establish a sports area in the Fontvieille district; the prince brought in Parisian architects to build the complex. The work began in May 1981 and ended in 1984, required 120,000 m3 of concrete, 9,000 tonnes of iron and 2,000 tonnes of steel structure on a median land reclaimed from the sea; the complex was inaugurated on 25 January 1985 by Rainier III. The stadium has a curent seating capacity of 16,360, is named after Louis II, Prince of Monaco, the Sovereign Prince of Monaco when the original stadium was built.

The vast majority of the stadium's facilities are located underground, including the multi-sports centre Gaston-Medecin, the aquatic centre Prince Albert II and a large car park directly under the pitch. The Salle Gaston Médecin indoor arena is located under the stands of the football stadium. Salle Gaston Médecin is able to host basketball and handball games, as well as judo and fencing matches, weightlifting and gymnastics competitions; the stadium complex, besides the football stadium and athletics track and the Salle Gaston Médecin contains the aquatic centre Prince Albert II, a large office complex, houses the International University of Monaco, which specializes in business education. Geography of Monaco Presentation Stade Louis II Stadium Guide Article

Jon Mamoru Takagi

Jon Mamoru Takagi was a pioneer of aikido in the United States. He founded Arizona Aikikai, the first aikido dojo in Arizona, one of the earliest martial arts schools in the western United States. A second-generation American of Japanese descent born in Hawaii, Takagi's career was unexpectedly cut short when he was killed by a drunk driver. Jon Takagi was born in Honolulu, Hawaii to first generation Japanese immigrants from Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Takagi was raised with his four siblings in the Kaimuki neighborhood of Honolulu, on the island of Oahu. In 1966, he toured the mainland United States by motorcycle, he had two children. On a Sunday morning in 1984, while on a bicycle ride near South Mountain, Takagi was killed by a drunk driver. Takagi began training in aikido in 1958 with Yukiso Yamamoto in Hawaii. During his tour of the mainland United States, he trained with Yoshimitsu Yamada at the New York Aikikai. In 1968, Takagi settled in Phoenix and began teaching aikido at the Downtown Phoenix Y.

M. C. A. There, he continued his aikido training with Fumio Toyoda in Chicago, Rodney Kobayashi in California, Koichi Tohei, head instructor of Aikido World Headquarters in Japan, receiving 4th dan from Tohei in 1977. With the support of Isao Takahashi and Chester Sasaki, Takagi founded Arizona Aikikai on First Street in downtown Phoenix. Through the 1970s and 1980s, Takagi taught regular aikido classes at Glendale Community College, Phoenix College, Arizona State University, PREHAB of Arizona. Takagi was a frequent instructor at aikido dojos in Tucson and Flagstaff, at seminars throughout the western United States; when Koichi Tohei formed Shin Shin Toitsu Aikido in 1974, Arizona Aikikai maintained its ties to that organization through Fumio Toyoda. Tohei visited Arizona Aikikai several times in the early 1970s. Takagi co-founded the Aikido Association of America with Toyoda in 1981. Takagi opened the doors at Arizona Aikikai to other martial arts schools, including T'ai chi ch'uan and Iaido, as the predecessor to the Arizona Arts Center in Phoenix.

Takagi wrote that, "... As an art of self-defense, aikido takes as the basis of its philosophy the concept of harmonizing with our partner, as opposed to conflicting with him... aikido is not an art of self-defense. Into its techniques and movements are woven elements of philosophy and dynamics; the concepts of total harmony and non-aggression can only increase one's self-respect. When self-respect is achieved, kindness, compassion and affection follow."Toyoda posthumously awarded Takagi 6th dan. Arizona Aikido Aikido Association of America