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Second Hungarian Republic

The Second Hungarian Republic was a parliamentary republic established after the disestablishment of the Kingdom of Hungary on 1 February 1946 and was itself dissolved on 20 August 1949. It was succeeded by the People's Republic of Hungary. From September 1944 until April 1945, as World War II in Europe drew to a close, the Red Army occupied Hungary; the Siege of Budapest lasted two months and much of the city was destroyed. Neither the Western Allies nor the Soviet Union supported any changes to Hungary's pre-1938 borders, so the peace treaty signed by Hungary in 1947 declared that "The decisions of the Vienna Award of 2 November 1938 are declared null and void"; this meant that Hungary's borders were moved back to those that existed on 1 January 1938 and it lost the territories it had regained between 1938 and 1941. The Soviet Union annexed Sub-Carpathia, some of, part of Hungary before 1938. Between 1946 and 1948, half of Hungary's ethnic German minority were deported to Germany and there was a forced "exchange of population" between Hungary and Czechoslovakia.

The Soviets set up an alternative government in Debrecen on 21 December 1944 before capturing Budapest on 18 January 1945. Zoltán Tildy became the provisional prime minister. In elections held in November 1945, the Independent Smallholders' Party won 57% of the vote; the Hungarian Communist Party, now under the leadership of Mátyás Rákosi and Ernő Gerő, two survivors from the Hungarian Soviet Republic of 1919, received support from only 17% of the population. The Soviet commander in Hungary, Marshal Kliment Voroshilov, refused to allow the Smallholders Party to form a government. Instead Voroshilov established a coalition government with the communists holding some of the key posts. Under Parliament, the leader of the Smallholders, Zoltán Tildy, was named president and Ferenc Nagy prime minister in February 1946. Mátyás Rákosi became deputy prime minister. During 1945 and 1946, the national currency, the pengő, was all but destroyed by the most ruinous hyperinflation in recorded history; the only way to restore sanity to the economy was a new currency, so the forint was reintroduced in 1946.

László Rajk in this post established the security police. In February 1947 the police began arresting leaders of the Smallholders Party and the National Peasant Party, it pressured both parties to expel those members who weren't willing to do the Communists' bidding as "fascists." Several prominent figures in both parties escaped abroad. Rákosi boasted that he had dealt with his partners in the government, one by one, "cutting them off like slices of salami."By 1947, the power of the other parties in the coalition had been reduced in favour of the Communists, they became the largest single party in elections held that year. The Communists were the dominant partners in the coalition People's Independence Front government. Nagy was replaced as prime minister by the more pliable Lajos Dinnyés. In October 1947, Rákosi gave the leaders of the non-Communist parties an ultimatum: cooperate with a new, Communist-dominated coalition government or go into exile; the Social Democratic Party ceased to exist as an independent organization, Independent Smallholders' Party secretary Béla Kovács was arrested and sent to Siberia.

Other opposition leaders such as Anna Kéthly, Ferenc Nagy and István Szabó were imprisoned or sent into exile. The Republic of Hungary ended in June 1948, when the Social Democrats were forced to merge with the Communists to form the Hungarian Working People's Party. However, the few independent-minded Social Democrats still left in the party were pushed out in short order. For all intents and purposes, this left the MDP as the MKP under a new name. In August, Tildy was forced out as president in favour of Social Democrat-turned-Communist Árpád Szakasits; that December, Dinnyés was replaced as leader of the Smallholders and prime minister by the pro-Communist István Dobi. At the 1949 elections, voters were presented with a single list from the Communist-controlled Independent People's Front, which carried 95 percent of the vote. By this time, fellow travelers had taken over the other parties and turned them into loyal partners of the Communists. On 18 August 1949, the Parliament passed Hungary's first written constitution – a near-carbon copy of the 1936 constitution of the Soviet Union.

The name of the country became the People's Republic of Hungary, "the country of the workers and peasants" where "every authority is held by the working people". Socialism was declared as the main goal of the nation. A new coat of arms was adopted with Communist symbols, such as the red star, a hammer, an ear of wheat. History of Hungary

741st Missile Squadron

The 741st Missile Squadron is a United States Air Force unit stationed at Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota. The squadron is equipped with the LGM-30G Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile, with a mission of nuclear deterrence; the squadron was first activated as the 741st Bombardment Squadron in June 1943. After training in the United States with the Consolidated B-24 Liberator bombers, the 741st deployed to the Mediterranean Theater of Operations, participating in the strategic bombing campaign against Germany, it earned two Distinguished Unit Citations for its combat operations. Following V-E Day, it remained in Italy without its flight echelon until inactivating in September 1945 The squadron was activated in the reserve in 1947, but was not manned or equipped before inactivating in June 1949 and transferring its resources to another unit, it was redesignated the 741st Fighter-Day Squadron and activated, but did not become operational before inactivating in July 1957. In November 1962 it was organized as the 741st Strategic Missile Squadron, an LGM-30B Minuteman I squadron.

In 1971 it upgraded to the Minuteman III, is a part of the 91st Operations Group. The 741st Missile Squadron controls and maintains 50 launch facilities and 5 missile alert facilities; the squadron is divided into missile operations flights, which are responsible for day-to-day operations and security, an operations support flight, responsible for ensuring the readiness of the missile alert facilities. The squadron was first activated at Alamogordo Army Air Field, New Mexico on 1 June 1943 as the 741st Bombardment Squadron, one of the four squadrons of the 455th Bombardment Group; the initial cadre for the squadron was drawn from the 302d Bombardment Group. In July, a group cadre was given advanced tactical training by the Army Air Forces School of Applied Tactics at Orlando Army Air Base and Pinecastle Army Air Field, Florida. After organizing at Alamogordo, the squadron moved to Utah, where the ground echelon was stationed at Kearns Army Air Base, although flying operations were based at Salt Lake City Army Air Base.

After completing training at Langley Field, the squadron departed the United States for the Mediterranean Theater of Operations in December 1943. The air echelon began staging through Mitchel Field, New York to ferry their Liberators via the southern ferry route; the ground echelon sailed on the USS President Monroe. The air echelon of the squadron was delayed in Tunisia and was not lodged at the squadron's combat station of San Giovanni Airfield, Italy until 1 February 1944, the squadron flew its first mission that month; the squadron was engaged in the strategic bombing campaign against Germany, attacking targets like airfields, oil refineries, marshalling yards in Italy, Germany, Hungary and Yugoslavia. On 2 April 1944, the squadron attacked a ball bearing plant at Steyr, Austria for which it earned a Distinguished Unit Citation; the primary target, the Daimler-Pusch aircraft engine factory was obscured by clouds, so the unit attacked the nearby ball bearing plant although attacks by an estimated 75 twin engine fighters continued through the bomb run and heavy, accurate flak was encountered.

The squadron was the only one in the 455th Group not to suffer any losses in this operation. On 26 June 1944, the squadron encountered fighter opposition, described as the strongest Fifteenth Air Force had encountered to date, which destroyed several Liberators of the 455th Group, leading the 304th Bombardment Wing on the raid; the enemy fighters intensified their attacks on the squadron after they were able to separate the 741st from its fighter escort. One squadron bomber was lost; the Liberator continued on the bomb run and dropped its bombs on the target before crashing into the ground. Other fighters continued their attacks to within 100 feet of the squadron's planes; the squadron pressed its attack on an oil refinery at Moosbierbaum, for which it received a second DUC. The squadron provided air support to ground forces in Operation Shingle, the landings at Anzio and the Battle of Monte Cassino in the spring of 1944, it knocked out coastal defenses to clear the way for Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern France in September.

As Axis forces were withdrawing from the Balkan peninsula in the fall of 1944, the squadron bombed marshalling yards, troop concentrations and airfields to slow their retreat. It flew air interdiction missions to support Operation Grapeshot, the Spring 1945 offensive in Northern Italy; the squadron flew its last combat mission on 25 April 1945 against rail yards at Austria. Following the surrender of German forces in Italy, it flew some supply missions and transported personnel to ports and airfields for shipment back to the United States. Most of the air echelon returned to the United States. Many of the squadron's remaining personnel were transferred to other units in the 304th Bombardment Wing for shipment back to the United States, while the squadron remained in Italy, serving as a replacement depot; the last of the air echelon departed Italy in July and the squadron was inactivated on 9 September 1945. The squadron was reactivated as a reserve unit under Air Defense Command at Hensley Field, Texas in June 1947, where its training was supervised by ADC's 4122d AAF Base Unit.

It was nominally a heavy bomber unit, but the squadron does not appear to have been manned or equipped while a reserve unit. In 1948 Continental Air Command assumed responsibility for managing reserve and Air National Guard units from ADC

Am Ende der Sonne

Am Ende der Sonne is the second solo album of the German musician Farin Urlaub, released in 2005. The title translates to At Sun's end. All songs written by Farin Urlaub. "Mehr" – 3:14 "Noch einmal" is hidden in the pregap of "Mehr", hearable by rewinding to – 4:42. "Sonne" – 4:40 "Augenblick" – 3:08 "Porzellan" – 3:52 "Unter Wasser" – 4:02 "Wie ich den Marilyn-Manson-Ähnlichkeitswettbewerb verlor" – 3:12 "Unsichtbar" – 3:14 "Apocalypse wann anders" – 4:02 "Schon wieder" – 1:19 "Immer noch" – 4:38 "Alle dasselbe" – 3:28 "Kein Zurück" – 4:54 "Dermitder" – 4:03 "Dusche" – 4:12 On the vinyl version "Noch einmal" is a hidden track after "Dusche". Note: Track 6 is titled "Wie ich den Farin-Urlaub-Ähnlichkeitswettbewerb gewann" in the CD-Text. 2005: "Dusche" 2005: "Porzellan" 2005: "Sonne" Farin Urlaub Peter Quintern R. S. Göhring Hans-Jörg Fischer Hardy Appich Lioudmila Ralf Hübner Rachel Rep