Second Industrial Revolution

The Second Industrial Revolution known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid standardization and industrialization from the late 19th century into the early 20th century. The First Industrial Revolution, which ended in the middle of 19th century, was punctuated by a slowdown in important inventions before the Second Industrial Revolution in 1870. Though a number of its events can be traced to earlier innovations in manufacturing, such as the establishment of a machine tool industry, the development of methods for manufacturing interchangeable parts and the invention of the Bessemer Process to produce steel, the Second Industrial Revolution is dated between 1870 and 1914. Advancements in manufacturing and production technology enabled the widespread adoption of technological systems such as telegraph and railroad networks and water supply, sewage systems, which had earlier been concentrated to a few select cities; the enormous expansion of rail and telegraph lines after 1870 allowed unprecedented movement of people and ideas, which culminated in a new wave of globalization.

In the same time period, new technological systems were introduced, most electrical power and telephones. The Second Industrial Revolution continued into the 20th century with early factory electrification and the production line, ended at the beginning of World War I; the Second Industrial Revolution was a period of rapid industrial development in the United Kingdom and the United States, but in France, the Low Countries and Japan. It followed on from the First Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the late 18th century that spread throughout Western Europe and North America. While the First Revolution was marked by the introduction of such concepts as interchangeable parts and mass production, was water-powered, the Second was characterized by the build out of railroads, large-scale iron and steel production, widespread use of machinery in manufacturing increased use of steam power, widespread use of the telegraph, use of petroleum and the beginning of electrification, it was the period during which modern organizational methods for operating large scale businesses over vast areas came into use.

The concept was introduced by Patrick Geddes, Cities in Evolution, was being used by economists such as Erick Zimmerman, but David Landes' use of the term in a 1966 essay and in The Unbound Prometheus standardized scholarly definitions of the term, most intensely promoted by Alfred Chandler. However, some continue to express reservations about its use. Landes stresses the importance of new technologies the internal combustion engine and petroleum, new materials and substances, including alloys and chemicals and communication technologies. Vaclav Smil called the period 1867–1914 "The Age of Synergy" during which most of the great innovations were developed since the inventions and innovations were engineering and science-based. A synergy between iron and steel and coal developed at the beginning of the Second Industrial Revolution. Railroads allowed cheap transportation of materials and products, which in turn led to cheap rails to build more roads. Railroads benefited from cheap coal for their steam locomotives.

This synergy led to the laying of 75,000 miles of track in the U. S. in the 1880s, the largest amount anywhere in world history. The hot blast technique, in which the hot flue gas from a blast furnace is used to preheat combustion air blown into a blast furnace, was invented and patented by James Beaumont Neilson in 1828 at Wilsontown Ironworks in Scotland. Hot blast was the single most important advance in fuel efficiency of the blast furnace as it reduced the fuel consumption for making pig iron, was one of the most important technologies developed during the Industrial Revolution. Falling costs for producing wrought iron coincided with the emergence of the railway in the 1830s; the early technique of hot blast used iron for the regenerative heating medium. Iron caused problems with contraction, which stressed the iron and caused failure. Edward Alfred Cowper developed the Cowper stove in 1857; this stove used firebrick as a storage medium, cracking problem. The Cowper stove was capable of producing high heat, which resulted in high throughput of blast furnaces.

The Cowper stove is still used in today's blast furnaces. With the reduced cost of producing pig iron with coke using hot blast, demand grew and so did the size of blast furnaces; the Bessemer process, invented by Sir Henry Bessemer, allowed the mass-production of steel, increasing the scale and speed of production of this vital material, decreasing the labor requirements. The key principle was the removal of excess carbon and other impurities from pig iron by oxidation with air blown through the molten iron; the oxidation raises the temperature of the iron mass and keeps it molten. The "acid" Bessemer process had a serious limitation in that it required scarce hematite ore, low in phosphorus. Sidney Gilchrist Thomas developed a more sophisticated process to eliminate the phosphorus from iron. Collaborating with his cousin, Percy Gilchrist a chemist at the Blaenavon Ironworks, Wales, he patented his process in 1878, his process was valuable on the continent of Europe, where the proportion of phosphoric iron was much greater than in England, both in Belgium and in Germany the name of the inventor became more w

Ricardo Saludo

Ricardo L. Saludo is the former chairperson of the Philippine Civil Service Commission. Under his term as chairperson, the SSL-3 or the third Salary Standardization Law was passed, resulting to a hike in monthly compensation of all government officials and employees, he served the Philippine government the executive branch, in various capacities: Head of the Presidential Management Staff, Cabinet Secretary, Deputy Presidential Spokesperson to President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Saludo earned his Master of Science degree, major in public policy and management, from the University of London, he completed his undergraduate studies in 1977 at the Ateneo de Manila University with a bachelor's degree in literature, cum laude. Saludo worked as a senior business editor of AsiaWeek from 1989 to 1995, he became a commentator of Asia Affairs for CNN and CNBC news networks in 1995 until 2001. He worked as the Assistant Managing Director of AsiaWeek magazine from 1996 to 2001. In 2002, he left the private sector to join the Arroyo administration.

Presently, he is the Managing Director, co-founder along with fellow former presidential spokesperson Sec. Gary Olivar, of the Center for Strategy and Intelligence, a management and media consultancy firm, he is lecturer at the National College of Public Administration and Governance of the University of the Philippines. He teaches the course The Administrator in the Philippine Public Service

Tropical house gecko

The tropical house gecko, Afro-American house gecko or cosmopolitan house gecko is a species of house gecko native to sub-Saharan Africa. It is currently found in North and South America and the Caribbean, where it has been inadvertently introduced by humans; this species can attain a maximum length, of 12.7 cm. Being nocturnal, it has large eyes which are useful in spotting prey in low light conditions, it can change color from light brown to a darker brown to better match its surroundings). This Gecko is from Africa, its diet is varied, includes animals such as spiders, cockroaches, moths and other geckos with the most important element being Orthoptera species. As with many gecko species, it has the ability to vocalize, its vocalizations range from quiet peeps to rapid short squeaking sounds. They may be heard most on a quiet night when they are sitting near an open window; the tropical house gecko can be found predominantly in urban locations. Tropical house geckos are nocturnal and are voracious hunters of nocturnal flying and crawling insects.

They have learned to wait near outside wall-mounted lighting fixtures so as to catch the insects that are drawn to the light. In some Caribbean cultures it is considered good luck to have a tropical house gecko residing in your home, they do eat a lot of household insect pests. However, the feces of the tropical house gecko are 5 mm long, 2 mm wide, dark brown in color; the gecko will confine its feces to one area of a home, but if that area happens to be a pale-colored carpet, drapes, or any other stained surface, the stains are not removed, the droppings have to be physically scooped up as well. Boulenger, G. A. 1885. Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum. Second Edition. Volume I. Geckonidae... London: Trustees of the British Museum.. Xii + 436 pp. + Plates I- XXXII.. Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1836. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Tome troisième.. Paris: Librairie Encyclopédique Roret. Iv + 517 pp.. Moreau de Jonnès. 1818. "Monographie du Mabouia des murailles, ou Gecko Mabouia des Antilles."

Bulletin des Sciences par la Société Philomatique de Paris, Series 3, 5: 138-139.. Schwartz, A. and R. Thomas. 1975. A Check-list of West Indian Amphibians and Reptiles. Special Publication No. 1. Pittsburgh: Carnegie Museum of Natural History. 216 pp.. "Florida's Exotic Wildlife. Species detail - Tropical house gecko". Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Retrieved April 3, 2006