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Second International

The Second International was an organisation of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on 14 July 1889. At the Paris meeting, delegations from twenty countries participated; the International continued the work of the dissolved First International, though excluding the powerful anarcho-syndicalist movement and unions. From 1922 it began to reorganise into the Socialist International. Among the Second International's famous actions were its 1889 declaration of 1 May as International Workers' Day and its 1910 declaration of the International Women's Day, first celebrated on 19 March and on 8 March after the main day of the women's marches in 1917 during the Russian Revolution, it initiated the international campaign for the eight-hour working day. The International's permanent executive and information body was the International Socialist Bureau based in Brussels and formed after the International's Paris Congress of 1900. Emile Vandervelde and Camille Huysmans of the Belgian Labour Party were its secretary.

Vladimir Lenin was a member from 1905. The Second International became ineffective in 1916 during World War I because the separate national parties that composed the International did not maintain a unified front against the war, instead supporting their respective nations' role; the Secretary General of the ISB, Camille Huysmans, moved the ISB from German-occupied Brussels to The Hague in December 1914 and attempted to coordinate socialist parties from the warring states to at least July 1916. French Section of the Workers' International leader Jean Jaurès's assassination, a few days before the beginning of the war, symbolised the failure of the antimilitarist doctrine of the Second International. At the Zimmerwald Conference in 1915, anti-war socialists attempted to maintain international unity against the social patriotism of the social democratic leaders. In July 1920 at Geneva, the last congress of the Second International was held, following its functional collapse during the war. However, some European socialist parties refused to join the reorganised International and decided instead to form the International Working Union of Socialist Parties influenced by Austromarxism.

In 1923, IWUSP and the Second International merged to form the social democratic Labour and Socialist International which continued to exist until 1940. After World War II, a new Socialist International was formed to continue the policies of the Labour and Socialist International and it continues to this day. Another successor was the Third International organised in 1919 under the soon-to-be Communist Party of the Soviet Union, it was called the Communist International and lasted until 1943 when it was dissolved by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. In Latin America, the International had two affiliates, namely the Socialist Party of Argentina and the Socialist Party of Uruguay. Anarchists tended to be excluded from the Second International "anarchism had in fact dominated the London Congress of the Second International"; this exclusion received the criticism from anti-authoritarian socialists present at the meetings. It has been argued that at some point the Second International turned "into a battleground over the issue of libertarian versus authoritarian socialism.

Not only did they present themselves as champions of minority rights, they provoked the German Marxists into demonstrating a dictatorial intolerance, a factor in preventing the British labour movement from following the Marxist direction indicated by such leaders as Henry Hyndman. Source: Julius Braunthal. History of the International: Volume 3, 1943-1968. London. Victor Gollancz. P. 562. After World War I, there were three Socialist Conferences in Switzerland; these were as a bridge to the creation of the Socialist International. Source: Julius Braunthal. History of the International: Volume 3, 1943-1968. London. Victor Gollancz. Pp. 562–563. Communist International Fifth International Fourth International and Trotskyist internationals French Section of the Workers' International Inter-Allied Socialist Conferences of World War I International Anarchist Congresses International Federation of Socialist Young People's Organizations International Socialist Women's Conferences International Workingmen's Association International Working Union of Socialist Parties Neutral Socialist Conferences during the First World War Socialist International Vienna Socialist Conference of 1915 "The Second International".

Marxists.org. "History of the Second International". "German social-democratic party and the Second International". Fractal-vortex. Dutt, R. Palme. "International, The". Encyclopædia Britannica

Joe Auer

Joseph Auer was an American football former running back. He graduated from Coral Gables Senior High School in Coral Gables and played collegiately for Georgia Tech and professionally in the American Football League for the Buffalo Bills, the Miami Dolphins, he played in the National Football League for the Atlanta Falcons. He is most remembered for returning the opening kickoff for a touchdown for the Dolphins in their first regular-season football game in 1966, against the Oakland Raiders. Subsequently, he was the Dolphins' Most Valuable Player. Auer is best known as a professional American football player, he played college football at Georgia Tech. He was drafted by the Kansas City Chiefs, traded that preseason to the Buffalo Bills for a first round draft pick, where he played for two years as a running back on their 1964 and 1965 championship team, he played for the Miami Dolphins before ending his career with the Atlanta Falcons. Auer is most famous for taking the opening kickoff in the Miami Dolphins' first-ever game in 1966 and returning it 95 yards for a touchdown in front of 26,000 fans including Steve Siegert, Les Clements and Ware Cornell.

He went on to be the Dolphins’ leading scorer that year. After retiring from football, Auer founded RaceCar Engineering, a company that built high-quality racecars, some of which set track records and won championships for the company's customers, he began Competitive Edge Motorsports, racing both the Busch and Nextel Cup Series in NASCAR between 2004 and 2006. Other American Football League players Joe Auer owner statistics at Racing-Reference

South Gare & Coatham Sands SSSI

South Gare & Coatham Sands SSSI is a 381.2 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest in North Yorkshire, England notified in 1971. SSSIs are designated by Natural England, formally English Nature, which uses the 1974–1996 county system; this means there is no grouping of SSSIs by Redcar and Cleveland unitary authority, or North Yorkshire, the relevant ceremonial county. As such South Gare & Coatham Sands is one of 18 SSSIs in the Cleveland area of search. South Gare English Nature citation sheet for the site English Nature Site boundary map at English Nature's "Nature on the Map" website