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Second Italo-Ethiopian War

The Second Italo-Ethiopian War referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war, fought between October 1935 and February 1937. It is seen as an example of the expansionist policy that characterized the Axis powers and the inefficiency of the League of Nations before the outbreak of World War II. On 3 October 1935 one hundred thousand soldiers of the Italian Army commanded by Marshal Emilio De Bono attacked from Eritrea without prior declaration of war. At the same time a minor force under General Rodolfo Graziani attacked from Italian Somalia. On 6 October, Aduwa was conquered, a symbolic place for the Italian army. On 15 October, Italian troops seized Aksum, the obelisk adorning the city was torn from its site and sent to Rome to be placed symbolically in front of the building of the Ministry of Colonies created by the Fascist regime. Exasperated by De Bono's slow and cautious progress, Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini put General Pietro Badoglio in his place. Ethiopian forces attacked the newly arrived invading army and launched a counterattack in December 1935, but their rudimentary armed army could not resist well against the modern weapons of the Italians.

The communications service of the Ethiopian forces depended on foot messengers, as they did not have radio devices. This was enough for the Italians to impose a narrow fence on Ethiopian detachments to leave them ignorant about the movements of their own army. Despite being allied with Italy, Nazi Germany sent arms and munitions to Ethiopia because it was frustrated over Italian objections to its policy towards Austria; the Ethiopian counteroffensive managed to stop the Italian advance for a few weeks, but the superiority of the Italians' weapons prevented the Ethiopians from taking advantage of their initial successes. The Italians resumed the offensive in early March. On 29 March 1936, Graziani bombed the city of Harar and two days the Italians won a great victory in the battle of Maychew, which nullified any possible organized resistance of the Ethiopians. Emperor Haile Selassie was forced to escape into exile on 2 May, Badoglio's forces arrived in the capital Addis Ababa on 5 May. Italy annexed the territory of Ethiopia on 7 May and Italian King Victor Emmanuel III was proclaimed emperor.

The provinces of Eritrea, Italian Somaliland and Abyssinia were united to form the Italian province of East Africa. Fighting between Italian and Ethiopian rebels persisted until February 1937. War crimes were committed by both sides in this conflict. Crimes by Ethiopian troops included the use of Dum-Dum bullets and the mutilation of captured Eritrean Askari and Italian troops with castration, since the first weeks of war. Italian troops used mustard gas in aerial bombardments against combatants and civilians in an attempt to discourage the Ethiopian people; the Kingdom of Italy began its attempts to establish colonies in the Horn of Africa in the 1880s. The first phase of this colonial expansion concluded with the disastrous First Italo-Ethiopian War and the defeat of the Italian forces in the battle of Adwa, on 1 March 1896, inflicted by the Ethiopian army of the negus Menelik II During the following years, Italy abandoned its expansionist plans in the area and limited itself to administering the small possessions it retained in there: the Eritrean colony and the protectorate of Italian Somalia.

For the next few decades, Italian-Ethiopian economic and diplomatic relations remained stable. On 14 December 1925, Italy's Fascist government signed a secret pact with Britain aimed at reinforcing Italian dominance in the region. London recognized that the area of high Ethiopia was of Italian interest and agreed to the Italian request to build a railroad connecting Somalia and Eritrea. Although the signatories had wished to maintain the secrecy of the agreement, the plan soon leaked and caused indignation in the French and Ethiopian governments; the latter denounced it as a betrayal of a country, for all intents and purposes a member of the League of Nations. As Fascist rule in Italy continued to radicalize, its colonial governors in the Horn of Africa began pushing outward the margins of their imperial foothold; the governor of Italian Eritrea, Jacopo Gasparini, focused on the exploitation of Teseney and an attempt to win over the leaders of the Tigre people against Ethiopia. The governor of Italian Somaliland, Cesare Maria de Vecchi, began a policy of repression which led to the occupation of the fertile Jubaland, the cessation, in 1928, of collaboration between settlers and traditional Somali chiefs.

The Italo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1928 stated that the border between Italian Somaliland and Ethiopia was twenty-one leagues parallel to the Benadir coast. In 1930, Italy garrisoned it with Somali dubats; the fort at Welwel was well beyond inside Ethiopian territory. On 23 November 1934, an Anglo–Ethiopian boundary commission studying grazing grounds to find a definitive border between British Somaliland and Ethiopia arrived at Welwel; the party contained Ethiopian and British technicians and an escort of around 600 Ethiopian soldiers. Both sides knew that the Italians had installed a military post at Welwel and were not surprised to see an Italian flag at the wells; the E

Paeromopus paniculus

Paeromopus paniculus is a species of millipede endemic to the Sierra Nevada mountains in the United States state of California. Reaching up to 16.5 centimeters in length, it is the longest known millipede in North America. P. paniculus is bluish gray in color with faint bands. The body possesses around 75 segments at maturity, adults measure 6.5 mm wide and 8 to 15 cm long, with the longest known specimen reaching a length of 16.5 cm. Like other members of the family Paeromopodidae, each body ring is marked with small parallel grooves running lengthwise, mature males have two pair of modified legs on the seventh body segment that are used in mating. P. paniculus lives in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, has been found within Yosemite National Park and other parts of Mariposa County. P. paniculus is the southernmost species of Paeromopus in the Sierra Nevada. Little is known of its ecology but P. paniculus has been found in moist microhabitats under dead logs and bark and is known to co-occur with Californiulus yosemitensis, another member of the Paeromopodidae, distinguished from P. paniculus by having a broad yellow dorsal stripe with a black line down the middle.

Although formally described in 1997, the first specimens were collected as early as 1952. The holotype is a male collected in 1969 and housed in the Bohart Museum of Entomology at the University of California, Davis; the specific epithet paniculus means "tuft" in Latin, in reference to a tuft of small spines on the hind gonopods that distinguishes P. paniculus from its northern relative, P. eldoradus. Ecology of the Sierra Nevada Ecology of California

Nina's Heavenly Delights

Nina's Heavenly Delights is a 2006 British drama Romance comedy film, directed by Pratibha Parmar. The film was released on 29 September 2006 in the United Kingdom, on 21 November 2007 in the United States; when young Glaswegian cook Nina Shah returns home for her father's funeral after three estranged years in London, she begins a romantic relationship with Lisa, an old childhood friend who now owns half the late father's Indian restaurant, The New Taj. Together they seek to save the restaurant by winning the national "Best in the West Curry Competition" for a third time. Nina's mother Suman and brother Kary, want to sell the place to fellow restaurateur Raj, whose chef son Sanjay had been left at the altar by Nina. Lending the young women moral support is Nina's flamboyant gay friend Bobbi, Nina's younger sister Priya. AfterEllen said "showcasing a positive lesbian relationship while avoiding some of the typical queer film catch traps is where Nina’s Heavenly Delights succeeds.... If we’re measuring ingredients by heart, this one is just right."The New York Times said, "Diluted by menu pornography and cringeworthy dance routines... the movie's central romance qualifies as such.'It's all about chemistry,' Nina says.

Too bad she and her co-star possess so little." The film's soundtrack includes the Shelly Poole's song "Lost in You" and "Maybe That's What It Takes" by Alex Parks. List of LGBT-related films directed by women UK official site US official site Nina's Heavenly Delights on IMDb Nina's Heavenly Delights at Metacritic Nina's Heavenly Delights at Box Office Mojo Nina's Heavenly Delights at AllMovie Nina's Heavenly Delight's review and Trailer at Movies For Lesbians