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Second Major ministry

John Major formed the second Major ministry following the 1992 general election after being invited by Queen Elizabeth II to begin a new government. His government fell into minority status on 13 December 1996; the change of leader from Margaret Thatcher to John Major saw a dramatic turnaround in Tory support, with the double-digit lead in the opinion polls for the Labour Party being replaced by a narrow Conservative one by the turn of 1991. Although a general election did not have to be held until June 1992, Labour leader Neil Kinnock kept pressurising Major to hold an election during 1991, but Major resisted the calls and there was no election that year; the recession which began in the autumn of 1990 deepened during 1991, with unemployment standing at nearly 2.5 million by December 1991, compared to 1.6 million just 18 months earlier. Despite this, Tory support in the opinion polls remained strong, with any Labour lead now being by the narrowest of margins, although Labour still made some gains at the expense of the Tories in local elections, seized the Monmouth seat from the Tories in a by-election.

Major called an election for 9 April 1992 which ended the first Major ministry. In a surprise to most pollsters, Major won the election, which led to the formation of the Second Major Ministry and a fourth consecutive Conservative term in office. There was widespread media and public debate as to whether the Labour Party could win a general election again, as they had failed to do so in 1992, despite the Conservative government having been in power for over a decade and presiding over a recession for the second time. At the same time, there was much private debate within the Conservative government as to whether a fifth successive general election victory was a realistic possibility; the new term of parliament saw Major gain a new opponent in John Smith, who succeeded Neil Kinnock as Labour leader. However, the months which followed the 1992 general election saw a series of events which went a long way towards deciding the outcome of the next general election long before it was on the political horizon.

On Wednesday 16 September 1992, the pound sterling crashed out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism after Chancellor of the Exchequer Norman Lamont had invested in trying to keep it there, adjusting interest rates four times in one day as a desperate measure, an event which became known as Black Wednesday, leaving the Conservative government's reputation for economic excellence in tatters. Labour was soon ascendant in the opinion polls, next few years brought a string of heavy defeats for the Conservatives in local council elections and parliamentary by-elections, with both Labour and the Liberal Democrats benefiting at their expense. Internal Conservative Party feuding on Europe and the government defeat on the Maastricht Treaty further dented the government's popularity, as did coal mine closures announced in late 1992, a series of scandals involving MPs; the end of the recession was declared in April 1993 after nearly three years, unemployment – which had peaked at nearly 3,000,000 people by the end of 1992 – began to fall.

It had fallen below 2,500,000 within two years of the recession's end, by the end of 1996 it was below the 2,000,000 mark. Freed from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, the British economy outperformed the rest of the continent for the first time in a generation. However, the strong economic recovery failed to make much difference to the dismal Conservative performance in the opinion polls. Labour leader John Smith died of a sudden heart attack in May 1994 and was succeeded by Tony Blair, who continued the modernisation process of the party which began under Smith's predecessor Neil Kinnock, by branding the party as: "New Labour", by the end of that year the opinion polls were showing Labour support as high as 60% – putting them more than 30 points ahead of the Conservatives. With the Conservative government remaining divided on Europe and much more, John Major, in an attempt to silence his critics and opponents, announced his resignation as party leader – but not as Prime Minister – in June 1995, triggering a leadership election.

He was opposed by John Redwood, the Secretary of State for Wales, Major won the leadership election without much difficulty. The Conservative majority of 21 seats was eroded by a string of by-election defeats as well as the defection of one MP to Labour, by the turn of 1997 the Conservatives were without a majority in the House of Commons. Major left it until the last possible moment before calling a general election holding it on Thursday 1 May 1997, he pinned his hopes of election success on a six-week campaign exposing New Labour's policies to scrutiny, as well as pointing towards a booming economy and falling unemployment. However, as the Conservatives had denied responsibility for the recession at the turn of the decade, few voters were willing to give them credit for the economic recovery, Labour returned to power after eighteen years in opposition, with a 179-seat majority that saw several powerful Conservative figures lose their seats and the loss of all Conservative seats in Wales and Scotland.

The Conservatives did not return to government until 2010, did not win a parliamentary majority until 2015, having had to form a coalition with the Liberal Democrats in order to form their first government under D

USS Halloran

USS Halloran was a Evarts-class destroyer escort named by the United States Navy after William Ignatius Halloran, born on 23 July 1915, at Cleveland, enlisted in the Naval Reserve as an apprentice seaman on 14 August 1940. Commissioned Ensign on 12 June 1941, he was assigned to Naval Air Station, San Pedro, to USS Arizona. Ens. Halloran was among those lost in the Arizona at Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. Halloran was laid down by Mare Island Navy Yard, California, on 21 June 1943. J. G. Scripps in command. After shakedown, Halloran departed California as a convoy escort on 31 July arriving Pearl Harbor on 9 August. Sailing for Eniwetok on 16 August, she arrived on 24 August and two days she became part of the escort screen for fast oiler replenishment group steaming to the Western Pacific. Based at Manus, Ulithi, Halloran continued this duty until on 29 November, helping to bring vital fuel to fleet units off Palau and Luzon. While moored at Ulithi on 20 November, she witnessed the torpedoing of oiler Mississinewa and in company with Rail searched the harbor fruitlessly for a suspected midget submarine.

From 5 to 7 December, Halloran screened two escort carriers transporting replacement aircraft to Manus, on 14 December she sailed to escort tankers to Eniwetok. She departed on 19 December for arriving Christmas Eve. Halloran was underway again on 22 January 1945, this time as a unit of the escort screen for the amphibious task force designated to capture Iwo Jima. After patrolling the area around the training site at Saipan, she served as a barrier patrol ship during the actual landings on 19 February, she continued this duty until 28 February. Steaming via Saipan and Tulagi, she reached Espiritu Santo on 15 March; the far-steaming destroyer escort's next assignment was with the Okinawa assault forces. Departing Espiritu Santo on 25 March, she arrived off Okinawa on 9 April and began vital anti-submarine barrier patrols, she repelled six attacking Japanese aircraft on 12 April, splashing one and damaging two others, was narrowly missed by a torpedo on 20 April. After performing various other duties, including assistance to the stricken Isherwood and escort duty to Saipan and'back, she resumed her barrier patrols on 30 May.

A suicide kamikaze aircraft attacked Halloran on 21 June, but her gunners shot it down in the nick of time a scant 75 yards from the ship. However, an exploding bomb killed three men and caused considerable damage to hull and superstructure. After repairs at Kerama Retto, Halloran patrolled off Ie Shima from 5 to 13 July assumed tactical command of an escort screen for LST's en route to the Philippines. After arriving Leyte Gulf on 17 July, she patrolled at San Pedro Bay and Lopez Bay, prior to departing the Philippines for the United States on 10 September. Halloran arrived San Diego, California, on 29 September and sailed three days for Charleston, South Carolina, where she arrived on 11 October, she decommissioned at Charleston on 2 November 1945. Her name was struck from the Navy List on 28 November 1945, she was sold on 7 March 1947. Halloran received three battle stars for World War II service. List of United States Navy ships This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.

The entry can be found here. Photo gallery of USS Halloran at NavSource Naval History Ships of the U. S. Navy, 1940-1945 DE-305 USS Halloran DE Action And Damage Timeline of World War II - Evarts class Destroyer Escorts USS Halloran

Fargal O'Reilly

Fargal O'Reilly was an Irish Roman Catholic prelate who served as the Bishop of Kilmore from 1807 to 1829. A native of the parish of Bailieborough in County Cavan, Ireland, he was the parish priest of Drumlane from 1790 to 1807, he was elected Bishop of the Diocese of Kilmore by the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith on 4 October 1806 and was confirmed by Pope Pius VII on 14 December 1806. O'Reilly's papal brief to the See of Kilmore was dated 16 January 1807 and was consecrated on 24 August 1807 by the Most Reverend Richard O'Reilly, Archbishop of Armagh, he died in office on 30 April 1829, was buried in the graveyard at Moybolgue, near Bailieborough

Tyson Mao

Tyson Mao is an American Rubik's Cube speedsolver. He is a co-founder and a former board member of the World Cube Association, an organization that holds competitive events for the Rubik's Cube. In 2005, he set the world record for 3x3x3 blindfolded. In 2006, he appeared on the CW Television Network's "Beauty and the Geek" as one of the participants of the second incarnation of the reality television show. Tyson Mao was born in San Francisco to immigrant parents from Taiwan, he lives in the San Francisco Bay Area and used to work as a Poker Product Manager for Zynga. Mao graduated from the California Institute of Technology in 2006 with a degree in astrophysics, his father is a doctor based in South San Francisco. Mao opened the Wursthall Restaurant & Bierhaus in San Mateo, CA with partners Adam Simpson and J. Kenji López-Alt. Tyson began solving the cube during the Rubik's Cube's second boom in 2003, first using a beginner's method the Petrus and Fridrich methods. Tyson is credited for popularizing the "Caltech move" for solving the three diagonal corner permutation in blindfold solving.

Tyson has been the main organizer of major U. S competitions. Tyson Mao's unofficial beginner method is a set of 8 videos; this method is most famous for being used by Will Smith in a past film The Pursuit of Happyness, released in 2006. The method is a simplified layer-by-layer approach which works much the same way as the Fridrich method; the difference is that the cross is first built around the opposite side to simplify the permutation foresight required, the first two layers are permuted individually, the last layer requires an algorithm to construct a cross, repetition of Lars Petrus' Sune algorithm to orient, permutation requires the use of two algorithms, one for the corners and one for the edges. These algorithms may have to be executed multiple times. Beauty and the Geek Season 2 CNN's Anderson Cooper 360° Identity The Tonight Show with Jay Leno Twins USA Network: Show Us Your Character Good Morning America "Brain Trust Behind'Beauty And The Geek' Says More Stereotype Breaking In Works".

The Tampa Tribune. 18 January 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-02-14. Retrieved 2020-01-30. Brothers square off in cubing contest, San Francisco Chronicle Tyson Mao, entry on The Internet Movie Database Tyson's Blog

Pirate Party of Kazakhstan

The Pirate Party of Kazakhstan is a political party in Kazakhstan. Based on the model of the Swedish Pirate Party, it supports intellectual property reform, freedom of speech and privacy, it was a founding member of Pirate Parties International. The Pirate Party of Kazakhstan supports the following principles: Free-for-profit information sharing in any way in any medium, in any medium; the persecution of its members is unacceptable. Laws of Copyright and other laws should not be a pretext for punishing non-commercial participants in the exchange of information, limiting the right of the author to choose how to work a publisher or Censorship; the Copyright System should encourage and reward writers and observing the rights of others. Kazakhstan's legislation should respect internationally recognized free licenses such as licenses Creative Commons, GNU GPL /GFDL, BSD License and others, contribute to their performance in full. Patents should be encouraging and rewarding inventors, not an artificial impediment of free competition.

In industries where this is impossible, patents should be abolished. Citizens have the right to communicate with the state, using the Open Standards, Network Protocols, open formats and files using Free software programs. All the results of intellectual activity of the authorities, including laws and standards should have the status of public domain and be available for free inspection and copying; the authorities shall require. Claims may be appealed in court. Gathering information about the citizen is permissible only by court order and only to persons reasonably suspected of committing crimes. Official website

The Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ—Against the Fanatics

The Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ—Against the Fanatics is a book by Martin Luther, published in late September or early October 1526 to aid Germans confused by the spread of new ideas from the Sacramentarians. At issue was whether Christ's true body and blood were present in the Lord's Supper, a doctrine that came to be known as the sacramental union; the real presence of Christ's true body and blood in the Lord's Supper was a controversial issue at the time of Luther. The Sacramentarians Andreas Karlstadt, Valentine Krautwald, Caspar Schwenckfeld, Huldrych Zwingli, Johannes Oecolampadius were open combatants against Luther on this topic. Martin Bucer, while translating Johannes Bugenhagen's commentary on the Psalms, fraudulently replaced Bugenhagen's statements on the Lord's Supper with commentary aligning with Zwingli's views. Since this work included forewords from both Luther and Philipp Melanchthon, it gave the appearance that the Wittenberg faculty agreed with Zwingli. Bucer, in the middle of translating Luther's sermons for publication, inserted his own comments rebutting Luther's teaching on the sacrament into the published book.

Inspired by Bucer's tactics, Leo Jud put forth an essay in Zürich claiming that Luther agreed with the Swiss understanding of the Lord's Supper. As a result of all these adversaries, Luther found it necessary to respond to them. However, he did not want to. Luther felt he would have time to oppose them later. Instead of writing a new essay, he sent three sermons that he had preached the preceding March to a printer; the first one, dealing with the Lord's Supper, was from the Wednesday of Holy Week. One each of the second two from Maundy Thursday dealt with Confession. After editing them and adding extra material without Luther's involvement, the printer published them sometime in late September or early October 1526 under the name The Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ–Against the Fanatics. Today, scholars have been able to compare this printed text with two records of notes taken down while Luther preached the original sermons; the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ opens with a two part exposition of the Christian faith as applied to the Lord's Supper.

First, one must consider the object of faith, "what one should believe". One may consider how one may make use of this object, which in this case refers to how one should use the sacrament. A large portion of this opening section is devoted to logical refutations of logical arguments built up by Zwingli and those who agreed with him; these rational arguments are not intended to persuade his opponents, who in Luther's view do not accept God's Word and therefore may believe as they please apart from the church, but instead to help the "reasonable souls" who are still willing to "concern themselves" with God's Word. What one must believe is explained by "the clear text and the plain words of Christ" in the Words of Institution. Whoever does not believe these words has fallen into a mind trick devised by the devil and has a perspective distorted by "colored glass"; the word "is" means "is" in the literal way that one uses for common speaking at the dinner table. Christ distributes his body and blood in the sacrament in a way similar to how he distributes himself across the entire world.

To those who claim that there must be a location for Christ's body to be present under the bread, Luther responds that the soul is illocal, yet is still present throughout the body. Lest anyone think that the real presence is too great a miracle to be present in all the churches all the time, Luther cites the sprouting of seeds and the power of words to persuade as common, proliferating miracles; when objectors cite the incompatibility of non-living objects with Christ, Luther reminds them that the presence of Christ in the hearts of faithful is an a greater miracle. Against the lack of an entry site for Christ's body to enter the bread, Luther notes that the Christ entered into the Virgin Mary through the power of the Word, without any noticeable physical entry. Luther noticed an inherent danger in his appeal to Christ's ubiquity to assert his real presence. If Christ is in all things perhaps he can be found in all things, similar to pantheism. Luther prevents pantheism from joining the discussion table by limiting the search for Christ to what God's Word alone has authorized.

Any searching for Christ apart from the Word is idolatry. This second of the three sermons is less controversial than the first. In it, Luther rejects the papal use of the sacraments as good works that humans could perform to merit salvation or as a means of raising money. Although he rejects the symbolical interpretation of the Lord's Supper, he advocates that the sacrament be conducted along with general preaching and proclamation in the lives of ordinary Christians. In this way, Christians would be blessed so that "their number may increase". Part of this proclamation consisted in resistance to the demands of the Pope. By rejecting the Pope's command's regarding the sacrament, they bore witness to the Gospel, showing that the believer, in Christ, was "free from death and hell…a son of God, a lord of heaven and earth"; the Lord's Supper is a possession of ordinary Christians that gives the great comfort to those individually given the assurance of salvation. Through the sacrament Christians may "strengthen faith and make consciences secure".

But this building up in the faith was not an end in itself. Instead, it in turn led to the proclamation of the Gospel by all the Christians edified through it. Faith and love, states Luther, are the two principles of Christian doctrine. Justification through faith is taught by the Word. In God's Word