USS Henderson (AP-1)
The first USS Henderson was a transport in the United States Navy during World War I and World War II. In 1943, she was commissioned as USS Bountiful. Named for Marine Colonel Archibald Henderson, she was launched by Philadelphia Navy Yard on 17 June 1916. Henderson arrived New York on 12 June 1917 and sailed two days with Rear Admiral Albert Gleaves' Cruiser and Transport Force, which carried units of the American Expeditionary Force to France. In her holds she had space for 24 mules. Reaching Saint-Nazaire on 27 June she disembarked troops and returned to Philadelphia on 17 July 1917. Subsequently, Henderson made eight more voyages to France with troops and supplies for the allies in the bitter European fighting, she established two large base hospitals in France during 1917. In constant danger from submarines, the transport was steaming near Army transport Antilles on 17 October 1917 when the latter was torpedoed. Henderson escaped attack by wrapping herself in an envelope of smoke, but torpedoes were not her only danger.
She sailed for her seventh voyage on 30 June 1918 to France. A serious fire broke out in a cargo hold on 2 July 1918. Working throughout the night, with Henderson listing as much as 15 degrees, rolling at times, making landing abreast possible on only one side, the destroyers Mayrant and Paul Jones transferred her 1,600 troop passengers and baggage to the transport Von Steuben without loss of life, completing the transfer by 6:00 am on 3 July. Von Steuben continued on to France carrying 3,500 troops and their equipment. Determined firefighting crews soon brought the flames under control and Henderson returned to the U. S. with destroyers escorting. On 27 February, one day after departing Saint-Nazaire, troopship Finland 's steering gear jammed, forcing her into the path of Henderson; that ship was able to maneuver such a glancing blow. Finland suffered only superficial damage; the transport was carrying a number of wounded soldiers back, to the United States. She sailed again from Philadelphia Tuesday 13 August 1918 and arrived at Brest, France Monday 25 August 1918.
The Henderson may have rammed a U-boat that had just sunk tanker Frank W. Kellogg off the New Jersey coast on August 13, 1918. Lookouts sighted a submarine, attempting to drive for a torpedo attack and Captain William R. Sayles ordered the rudder hard right attempting to run the enemy down; when the ship was next docked, it was found that her starboard bilge keel had been bent and broken. As there is no other explanation, it is believed that this damage was caused by striking the conning tower of the submarine as she was in the act of submerging. After the Armistice U-139 was inspected at Brest where it was noted that not only are the periscopes broken but the thin metal weather screen on the forward side of the conning tower was badly bent as the result of the collision. A German crew member, still on board, stated “the U-139 had encountered an American transport off the Atlantic coast, which had attempted to ram her, had succeeded in breaking off both periscopes, so that for the remainder of the cruise the submarine was unable to attack while submerged."
U-139 was commanded by Lothar von Arnauld de la Periere the most successful submariner in the Kaiserliche Marine. Following the armistice, Henderson made eight more transatlantic voyages bringing home members of the A. E. F, she carried more than 10,000 veterans before returning to Philadelphia on December 27, 1919. She took up duty as troop rotation ship for Marine units in the Caribbean, carrying Marines, their dependents, supplies to bases in Cuba and other islands, she participated in Marine training maneuvers in Florida before returning to Philadelphia on July 6, 1920. After an extended period of repairs, the transport resumed her duties in the Caribbean; this was interrupted from June 21 unitil July 21 as Henderson carried military and civilian leaders to observe the historic bombing tests off the Virginia Capes. During the next few years, she performed ceremonial duties, embarking a congressional party to observe fleet maneuvers in the Caribbean in the spring of 1923, carrying President Warren G. Harding on an inspection tour of Alaska in July.
The President called at Metlakatla, Wrangell, Skagway, Valdez and Sitka in Alaska, as well as Vancouver, Canada. He reviewed the fleet in Washington state's Elliott Bay from the deck of Henderson, before disembarking at Seattle on July 27, only six days before his death. During Fleet Problem III in early 1924, Henderson participated in a mock amphibious invasion of the Panama Canal Zone; this major training operation by the fleet helped practice assault techniques and led to improved landing craft as well. The ship aided in the protection of American interests in the volatile Caribbean states and in the Far East. Henderson arrived Shanghai on 2 May 1927 with Marines for the garrison there, remained in China for six months protecting American nationals in the war-torn country. Here members of her crew originated the "Domain of the Golden Dragon," having cruised back and forth across the International Date Line; the troop transport was engaged in carrying replacements for the fleet and the Marines in China for the next fourteen years.
Henderson had both troops and women and children on board. On Decemb
USS Bainbridge (DD-246)
The third USS Bainbridge was a Clemson-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War II. She was named for Commodore William Bainbridge, who served in the War of 1812 and the First and Second Barbary Wars. Bainbridge was launched 12 June 1920 by New York Shipbuilding Corporation, New Jersey. Bainbridge operated along the eastern seaboard and in the Caribbean with the fleet carrying out tactical exercises and maneuvers until October 1922, when she departed for Constantinople to join the Naval Detachment in Turkish waters. On 16 December 1922 she rescued 500 survivors of the burning French military transport Vinh-Long about 10 miles off Constantinople. For extraordinary heroism during the rescue Lieutenant Commander Walter A. Edwards received the Medal of Honor; the next year, at Newport, Rhode Island, she served temporarily as flagship of Commander, Scouting Fleet and joined Squadron 14 Scouting Fleet, in the Atlantic. Between 1923 and 1928 Bainbridge participated in annual fleet concentrations and joint maneuvers, fleet and type competitions.
In 1927 she was assigned temporary duty with the Special Service Squadron for patrol duty off Nicaragua during internal disturbances there. During several summers Bainbridge participated in the training program of the Scouting Fleet, making summer cruises with reservists. On 23 December 1930 she was placed out of commission in reserve at Philadelphia. On 9 March 1932 Bainbridge was placed in reduced commission and attached to Rotating Reserve Division 19, taking part in Naval Reserve training cruises, she was placed in full commission 5 September 1933 and assigned to Destroyer Division 8, Scouting Force. For a short period she served with the Special Service Squadron in the Florida Keys and Guantanamo Bay and was assigned to the Pacific, arriving at San Diego, California 5 November 1934. While serving on the west coast Bainbridge made cruises to British Columbia and Hawaii, she was placed out of commission in reserve at San Diego 20 November 1937. Recommissioned 26 September 1939 Bainbridge was as signed to Division 62 and operated on the Neutrality Patrol in the Panama Canal Zone until the summer of 1940 when she reported to Key West, for patrol duty.
During the early part of 1941 she cruised along the northeast coast and between May and November 1941 made three convoy escort voyages to Newfoundland and Iceland. Between December 1941 and July 1945 Bainbridge operated as a convoy escort in the waters off the east and Gulf coasts and in the Caribbean with the exception of five trans-Atlantic escort crossings to North Africa. Commencing her inactivation 1 July 1945, Bainbridge was decommissioned 21 July 1945 at Philadelphia and sold 30 November 1945. Bainbridge received one battle star for her service as a convoy escort; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. French transport Vinh-Long "Destroyer Photo Index DD-246 USS BAINBRIDGE". Navsource.org. Retrieved 9 September 2017
USS Detroit (CL-8)
USS Detroit was an Omaha-class light cruiser classified as a scout cruiser, of the United States Navy. She was the fourth Navy ship named for the city of Michigan, she spent her first eight years as part of the Scouting Fleet either in the Atlantic or Mediterranean. Her first duty was to assist in the USAAS's first aerial circumnavigation of the world in 1924 and transported the United States Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg, in 1927, from Ireland to France for the negotiations that led to the signing of the Kellogg-Briand Pact. In 1931 she joined the Battle Force, where her home port was San Diego until moving to Pearl Harbor in 1941. Detroit was moored next to her sister Raleigh when the Japanese attacked on the morning of 7 December 1941. Detroit ordered 4 March 1917 with the contract being awarded to Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation's Fore River Shipyard in Quincy, Massachusetts on 21 August 1917, she was laid down on 10 November 1920 and launched 29 June 1922. Her sponsor was daughter of James J. Couzens, the Mayor of Detroit, Michigan.
Detroit was commissioned on 31 July 1923, with Jr. in command. Detroit was 550 feet long at the waterline with an overall length of 555 feet 6 inches, her beam was 55 feet 4 inches and a mean draft of 13 feet 6 inches, her standard displacement was 9,508 long tons at full load. Her crew, during peace time, consisted of 429 enlisted men. Detroit was powered by four Curtis steam turbines geared steam turbines, each driving one screw, using steam generated by 12 Yarrow boilers; the engines were designed to reach a top speed of 35 knots. She was designed to provide a range of 10,000 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots, but was only capable of 8,460 nautical miles at a speed of 10 knots Detroit's main armament went through many changes while she was being designed, she was to mount ten 6 in /53 caliber guns. After America's entry into World War I the US Navy worked alongside the Royal Navy and it was decided to mount four 6-in/53 caliber guns in two twin gun turrets fore and aft and keep the eight guns in the tiered casemates so that she would have an eight gun broadside and, due to limited arcs of fire from the casemate guns, four to six guns firing fore or aft.
Her secondary armament consisted of two 3 in /50 caliber anti-aircraft guns in single mounts. Detroit was built with the capacity to carry 224 mines, but these were removed early in her career to make way for more crew accommodations, she carried two triple and two twin, above-water, torpedo tube mounts for 21 in torpedoes. The triple mounts were fitted on either side of the upper deck, aft of the aircraft catapults, the twin mounts were one deck lower on either side, covered by hatches in the side of the hull; the ship lacked a full-length waterline armor belt. The sides of her boiler and engine rooms and steering gear were protected by 3 inches of armor; the transverse bulkheads at the end of her machinery rooms were 1.5 inches thick forward and three inches thick aft. The deck over the machinery spaces and steering gear had a thickness of 1.5 inches. The gun turrets were not armored and only provided protection against muzzle blast and the conning tower had 1.5 inches of armor. Detroit carried two floatplanes aboard.
These were Vought VE-9s until the early 1930s when the ship may have operated OJ-2 until 1935 and Curtiss SOC Seagulls until 1940 when Vought OS2U Kingfishers were used on ships without hangars. During her career Detroit went through several armament changes, some of these changes were save weight, but others were to increase her AA armament; the lower torpedo tube mounts proved to be wet and were removed, the openings plated over, before the start of World War II. Another change made before the war was to increase the 3-inch guns to eight, all mounted in the ship's waist. After 1940, the lower aft 6-inch guns were removed and the casemates plated over for the same reason as the lower torpedo mounts and in 1944, the upper fore 6-in guns were removed; the ship's anti-aircraft armament were augmented by five twin 40 mm Bofors guns along with 12 20 mm Oerlikon cannons by the end of the war. After a shakedown cruise to the Mediterranean, Detroit joined the Scouting Fleet for exercises and maneuvers along the east coast and in the Mediterranean.
From September–October 1924, she was on lifeguard station for the USAAS's round-the-world flight served as flagship for Commander, Light Cruiser Divisions until 23 November. After overhaul at Boston, she sailed on 2 February 1925 for the west coast and fleet maneuvers along the coast and in Hawaiian waters, she returned to Boston on 10 July with the Scouting Fleet. As flagship for Commander, Light Cruiser Division 3, from July 1925 to March 1926 and July to December 1926, Detroit continued to participate in maneuvers and fleet problems along the east coast and in the Caribbean. From March–April 1927, she patrolled off the coast of Nicaragua to protect American interests during political disturbances there. Detroit sailed from Boston on 16 June as flagship for US Naval Forces in Europe, she made goodwill visits to various ports in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, received official visits from the Kings of Norway and Spain, the President of the Irish Free State. She transported Secre
Columbia is the personification of the United States. It was a historical name used to describe the Americas and the New World, it has given rise to the names of many persons, objects and companies. Images of the Statue of Liberty displaced personified Columbia as the female symbol of the United States by around 1920, although Lady Liberty was seen as an aspect of Columbia; the District of Columbia is named after the personification, as is the traditional patriotic hymn "Hail Columbia", the official vice presidential anthem of the United States Vice President. Columbia is a New Latin toponym in use since the 1730s for the Thirteen Colonies, it originated from the name of Italian explorer Christopher Columbus and from the ending -ia, common in Latin names of countries. Massachusetts Chief Justice Samuel Sewall used the name Columbina for the New World in 1697; the name Columbia for America first appeared in 1738 in the weekly publication of the debates of the British Parliament in Edward Cave's The Gentleman's Magazine.
Publication of Parliamentary debates was technically illegal, so the debates were issued under the thin disguise of Reports of the Debates of the Senate of Lilliput and fictitious names were used for most individuals and placenames found in the record. Most of these were transparent anagrams or similar distortions of the real names and some few were taken directly from Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels while a few others were classical or neoclassical in style; such were Ierne for Ireland, Iberia for Spain, Noveborac for New York and Columbia for America—at the time used in the sense of "European colonies in the New World". By the time of the Revolution, the name Columbia had lost the comic overtone of its Lilliputian origins and had become established as an alternative, or poetic name for America. While the name America is scanned with four syllables, according to 18th-century rules of English versification Columbia was scanned with three, more metrically convenient. For instance, the name appears in a collection of complimentary poems written by Harvard graduates in 1761 on the occasion of the marriage and coronation of King George III.
Behold, Britannia! in thy favour'd Isle. View thy Prince, For ancestors renowned, for virtues more. A ship built in Massachusetts in 1773 received the name Columbia Rediviva and it became famous as an exploring ship and lent its name to new Columbias. No serious consideration was given to using the name Columbia as an official name for the independent United States, but with independence the name became popular and was given to many counties and towns as well as other institutions. In 1784, the former King's College in New York City had its name changed to Columbia College, which became the nucleus of the present-day Ivy League Columbia University. In 1786, South Carolina gave the name Columbia to its new capital city. Columbia is the name of at least nineteen other towns in the United States. In 1791, three commissioners appointed by President George Washington named the area destined for the seat of the United States government the Territory of Columbia, it was subsequently organized as the District of Columbia.
In 1792, the Columbia Rediviva sailing ship gave its name to the Columbia River in the American Northwest In 1798, Joseph Hopkinson wrote lyrics for Philip Phile's 1789 inaugural "President's March" under the new title of "Hail, Columbia". Once used as de facto national anthem of the United States, it is now used as the entrance march of the Vice President of the United States. In 1821 citizens of Boone County, Missouri chose the name for their new city of Columbia, Missouri In 1865 Jules Verne's novel From the Earth to the Moon, the spacecraft to the moon was fired from a giant Columbiad cannon. In part, the more frequent usage of the name Columbia reflected a rising American neoclassicism, exemplified in the tendency to use Roman terms and symbols; the selection of the eagle as the national bird, the heraldric use of the eagle, the use of the term Senate to describe the upper house of Congress and the naming of Capitol Hill and the Capitol building were all conscious evocations of Roman precedents.
The adjective Columbian has been used to mean "of or from the United States of America", for instance in the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago, Illinois. It has been proposed as an alternative word for American. Columbian should not be confused with the adjective pre-Columbian, referring to a time period before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492; as a quasi-mythical figure, Columbia first appears in the poetry of African-American Phillis Wheatley starting in 1776 during the revolutionary war. In the 19th century, Columbia was visualized as a goddess-like female national personification of the United States and of liberty itself, comparable to the British Britannia, the Italian Italia Turrita and the French Marianne seen in political cartoons of the 19th and early 20th century; this personification was sometimes called Miss Columbia. Such iconography personified America in the form of an Indian queen or Native American princess; the image of the personified Columbia was never fixed, but she was most presented as a woman between youth and middl
USS Asheville (PG-21)
USS Asheville, the lead ship in her class of two United States Navy gunboats, was the first ship of the United States Navy named for the city of Asheville, North Carolina. The ship was built at the Charleston Naval Shipyard of North Charleston, South Carolina, from her keel laying in June 1918, her launching in July 1918, her commissioning in July 1920. Asheville began her career in the early 1920s on power-projection missions in Central America. After her 1922 conversion to oil power from coal, Asheville sailed through the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean to join the Asiatic Fleet in the Philippines, she spent the rest of the 1920s showing the flag in China. Between 1929 and 1931, Asheville protected American lives and property in Nicaragua, she returned to the Asiatic Fleet and protected American interests as the Second Sino-Japanese War began. With increasing tensions with Japan, Asheville was withdrawn to the Philippines in the summer of 1941, where she performed local patrol duty. After the American entry into World War II and the Japanese attacks on the Philippines and most of the surface ships in the Philippines, moved to Java to defend the Malay Barrier against the Japanese advance.
When the Allied defense crumbled in early March, the remaining American ships were ordered to retreat to Australia. Sailing alone, Asheville was spotted and sunk south of Java by a Japanese surface force of a heavy cruiser and two destroyers on 3 March 1942; the keel for Asheville was laid down on 9 June 1918, at the Charleston Naval Shipyard, North Charleston, South Carolina. She was launched on 4 July 1918. One week on 13 July, Commander Jesse B. Gay relieved Buckmaster. On 17 July, the ship was given the alphanumerical designation PG-21. Asheville was 241 ft 2 in long overall, with a beam of 41 ft 3 in wide and a draft of 11 ft 4 in, she up to 1,760 long tons at full combat load. Powered by a one-shaft Parsons steam turbine rated at 800 shp and three Thornycroft Bureau Modified Steam boilers, generating a top speed of 12 kn. Asheville was armed with three 4 in /50 caliber guns, two 3-pounder 47 mm guns, two 1-pounder (37 mm guns and four.30 Lewis MGs. Asheville was built to hold a crew of 159, but in 1942, she was modified to hold a crew of 166.
In 1922, Asheville was converted to use oil instead of coal for her boilers. Assigned to Cruiser Division 1, Cruiser Squadron 1, US Atlantic Fleet, for temporary duty at the beginning of her career, Asheville departed her builder's yard for Galveston, Texas, on 7 October 1920. Developing an engine casualty en route, the new gunboat put into Key West for repairs before proceeding on to her destination, she was based at Galveston for the next six months, operating in the Gulf of Mexico and making port visits at Tampa and Key West, several times during the course of that period. She visited Havana, from 4 to 7 January 1921. At one point during her stay at Galveston, an oil tanker exploded. Asheville rendered prompt assistance in evacuating injured men, providing medical aid, in preventing the blaze from spreading to nearby ships and docks. Following overhaul, Asheville departed Galveston on 12 May 1921, for Charleston, where she arrived on 19 May, stayed for over a month, she was dry docked during her stay at Norfolk Naval Yard from 25 June to 2 July, conducted various trials off Provincetown, before she visited that port on Independence Day, 1921.
She visited New York City, 10 to 25 July, before she proceeded back down the eastern seaboard to pay return calls at Norfolk and Charleston, undergoing repairs and alterations at the latter. Asheville, now assigned to the Special Service Squadron departed Charleston on 17 August 1921, for Havana, arriving there on 20 August. Although slated to relieve Sacramento on the east coast of Mexico, Asheville was ordered to proceed "without delay" to Nicaragua, as the Commander, Special Service Squadron had received word on 26 August, of a revolution in that country; the gunboat sailed thence for Bluefields, where she arrived on 29 August 1921. Asheville "showed the flag" at Bluefields, she departed the following day, paid a return visit to Bluefields, 11 to 13 September 1921, to Port Limón, 14 to 22 September, before she returned to Cristobal on 23 September and commenced her first transit of the Panama Canal, reaching Balboa the same day. Asheville spent the next few months operating off the Pacific coast of Central America, her ports of call including Puntarenas, Costa Rica.
In early January 1922, Asheville carried the governor, Jay Johnson Morrow, physicians to the port of La Palma, Panama, to alleviate the suffering in the wake of floods that had devastated the region of Darién. Arriving on the morning of 7 January 1922, Asheville carried out relief work at La Palma until departing the following day to return to Balboa. Transiting the Panama Canal again on 10 January 1922, Asheville paused at Guantanamo Bay, 17 to 18 January, before she pressed
USS Galveston (CL-19)
USS Galveston was a Denver-class protected cruiser in the United States Navy during World War I. She was the first Navy ship named for the city of Texas. Galveston was laid down 19 January 1901 by William R. Trigg Company, Virginia. Galveston departed Norfolk on 10 April 1905 for Galveston, where on 19 April she was presented a silver service by citizens of her namesake city. Returning to the East Coast 3 May, she departed New York 18 June for Cherbourg, where she arrived 30 June and took part in the ceremonies commemorating the return of the remains of John Paul Jones to the U. S. Naval Academy, reaching Annapolis on 22 July, she next joined Dolphin and Mayflower as one of the host ships for the Russo-Japanese Peace Conference serving at Oyster Bay, New York. From 13 August to 11 September 1905 the cruiser had special duty with Minister Plenipotentiary Hollander's State Department cruise from Norfolk to the West Indies ports of Santo Domingo and Port-au-Prince, followed by preparations for foreign service at Norfolk and New York.
Galveston departed Tompkinsville, New York, on 28 December 1905 for service in the Mediterranean with the European Squadron until 28 March 1906 when she set course from Port Said to join the fleet at Cavite in the Philippines for service on the Asiatic Station. She was a part of the fleet reception for Secretary of War William H. Taft at Manila on 13 October 1906 and served in his honor escort to Vladivostok, the next month. Galveston spent the following years in cruises among ports of the Philippines and Japan, she arrived in San Francisco, from the Philippines on 17 February 1910. She left the Puget Sound Navy Yard on 19 September 1913, touching San Francisco and Guam on her way to Cavite, where she joined the Asiatic Fleet on 2 November. Galveston's tour on the Asiatic Station was taken up with convoy service for supply ships and troop transports shuttling Marines and other garrison forces and stores between the Philippines and ports of Japan and China for the protection of American lives and interests with brief intervals of Yangtze River Patrol for the same purpose.
She made one convoy trip from the Philippines to British North Borneo and two trips to Guam in the Marianas. She arrived in San Diego from the Asiatic Station on 10 January 1918 and passed through the Panama Canal on the 23 January convoying the British liner acting as a troopship Athenic from Cristobal, in the Canal Zone, to Norfolk, on to New York, arriving on 11 February 1918. Galveston was assigned to Squadron 2 of the Atlantic Fleet Cruiser Force for convoy escort duties concurrent with the training of Armed Guard crews. After one convoy run through heavy weather from Tompkinsville to Halifax, Nova Scotia, she was employed in repeated convoy escort voyages between New York and Norfolk until 22 September 1918 when she departed Tompkinsville with a 19-ship convoy bound for Ponta Delgada, Azores. On the morning of 30 September a convoy straggler was attacked by German submarine U-152. Alerted by the flashing explosion to starboard, Galveston headed for the scene of attack and opened fire on the U-boat.
Cargo ship Ticonderoga was shelled and sunk in the 2-hour battle with a loss of 213 lives and the submarine escaped but the remaining ships of the convoy were brought safely into Ponta Delgada 4 October 1918. Galveston returned to Norfolk on 20 October 1918 to resume her coastal convoy escort work until the Armistice, she arrived in Plymouth, England, 26 March 1919. She was concerned with the movement of prize crews and repatriation of crews of German ships until 22 June 1919 when she got underway to serve as station and flagship at Constantinople, Turkey, she arrived on station 14 July 1919 and broke the flag of Rear Admiral Mark L. Bristol, she was relieved as station ship at Constantinople on 15 July 1920 by cruiser Chattanooga. With the initial assignment of hull classification symbols and numbers to U. S. Navy ships in 1920, Galveston was classified as PG-31, she returned home by way of Suez Canal and Mediterranean ports reached Boston 17 September 1920, became a unit of the Special Service Squadron watching over American interests in waters ranging to the Panama Canal and down the West Coast of the Central American States to Corinto, Nicaragua.
On 8 August 1921 she was reclassified CL-19. She intermittently patrolled in the Gulf of Mexico with periodic calls at ports of Florida, Texas and Louisiana; the end of this service was climaxed by a visit to her namesake city in Texas, where she arrived from Panama 26 August 1923 to represent the Navy at the American Legion convention. She steamed to the Charleston Navy Yard and decommissioned 30 November 1923. Galveston was recommissioned 5 February 1924 for duty with the Special Service Squadron, she based most of her operations out of Cristóbal and Balboa, Panama, in a series of patrols that took her off the coast of Honduras and Nicaragua. On 27 August 1926 she arrived at Bluefields, Nicaragu
USS Cleveland (C-19)
USS Cleveland was a United States Navy Denver-class protected cruiser. She was launched 28 September 1901 by Bath Iron Works, Maine, sponsored by "Miss R. Hanna", commissioned 2 November 1903, with Commander William Henry Hudson Southerland in command; the Cleveland cruised with the European Squadron, in West Indies and Cuban waters, along the east coast between Hampton Roads and Boston, on a midshipmen training cruise until 17 May 1907. She sailed from New York via Gibraltar, Port Said, Aden and Singapore to Cavite, arriving 1 August 1907. After three years on the Asiatic station, the Cleveland returned to Mare Island Navy Yard 1 August 1910. Decommissioned 3 August 1910, she was placed in second reserve 8 April 1912, returned to full commission 31 August 1912; the Cleveland alternated patrols in waters off Mexico and Central America with reserve periods at Mare Island Navy Yard between 1912 and 1917, protecting American lives and interests from the turmoil of revolution. On 31 March 1917, she arrived at Hampton Roads, from 9 April to 22 June, patrolled from Cape Hatteras to Charleston.
Assigned to escort convoys to a mid-ocean meeting point, the Cleveland made seven voyages between June 1917 and December 1918. Returning to patrols off Central and South America, the Cleveland was assigned to the Pacific Fleet once more from 16 February 1920, returning to Caribbean waters from time to time, she was reclassified CL-21 on 8 August 1921. During her continued service in the Caribbean and along the South American coasts, the Cleveland made courtesy calls, supported diplomatic activities, gave disaster relief, represented American interests in troubled areas, she was decommissioned at Boston 1 November 1929, sold for scrapping 7 March 1930 in accordance with the Washington Naval Treaty limiting naval armament. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. Photo gallery of USS CLEVELAND at NavSource Naval History