The Peace of Thorn of 1466 was a peace treaty signed in the Hanseatic city of Thorn on 19 October 1466 between the Polish king Casimir IV Jagiellon on one side, the Teutonic Knights on the other. The treaty concluded the Thirteen Years' War which had begun in February 1454 with the revolt of the Prussian Confederation, led by the cities of Danzig, Elbing and Thorn, the Prussian gentry against the rule of the Teutonic Knights in the Monastic State. Both sides agreed to seek confirmation from Pope Paul II and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III, but the Polish side stressed that this confirmation would not be needed for validation of the treaty. In the treaty, the Teutonic Order ceded the territories of Pomerelia with Danzig, Kulmerland with Kulm and Thorn, the mouth of the Vistula with Elbing and Marienburg, the Bishopric of Warmia with Allenstein; the Order acknowledged the rights of the Polish Crown for Prussia's western half, subsequently known as Polish or Royal Prussia. Eastern Prussia called the Duchy of Prussia, remained with the Teutonic Order until 1525, as a Polish fief.
The treaty stated that Royal Prussia became the exclusive property of the Polish king and Polish kingdom. Some disagreements arose concerning certain prerogatives that Royal Prussia and the cities held, like Danzig's privileges; the region possessed certain privileges such as the minting of its own coins, its own Diet meetings, its own military, its own administrative usage of the German language. A conflict over the right to name and approve Bishops in Warmia, resulted in the War of the Priests. Royal Prussia became integrated into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, but retained some distinctive features until the partitions of Poland in the late 18th century. In 1525, the Order was ousted from East Prussian territory by its own Grand Master when Albert, Duke of Prussia adopted Lutheranism and assumed the title of duke as hereditary ruler under the overlordship of Poland in the Prussian Homage; the area became known as the Duchy of Prussia. Peace of Thorn List of treaties Photocopy of the treaty Latin text: In nomine domini amen.
Ad perpetuam rei memoriam. Cum inter humane voluntatis desideria, que in aliquid citra Deum finem atque rerum omnium opificem
Days of Our Lives is an American daytime soap opera broadcast on NBC. It is one of the longest-running scripted television programs in the world, airing nearly every weekday since November 8, 1965. A co-production of Corday Productions and Sony Pictures Television, the series was created by husband-and-wife team Ted Corday and Betty Corday. During Days of Our Lives' early years, Irna Phillips served as a story editor for the program and many of the show's earliest storylines were written by William J. Bell; the series focuses on its core families, the Hortons and the Bradys. Several other families have been added to the cast, many of them still appear on the show. Frances Reid, the matriarch of the series' Horton family, remained with the show from its inception to her death on February 3, 2010, although her last formal appearance occurred in December 2007. Suzanne Rogers is the longest-serving member of the program's current cast and the longest-serving current cast member of an ongoing American soap opera, having appeared on the show since August 1973.
Susan Seaforth Hayes – the second longest-serving actor on the program – is the only cast member to appear on Days of Our Lives in all six decades it has been on the air, having made her first appearance in December 1968 as a recast of original character Julie Olson. Due to the series' success, Days was expanded from 30 minutes to 60 minutes on April 21, 1975. Days of Our Lives is the most distributed soap opera in the United States, has been syndicated to many countries around the world in the years since its debut. Days of Our Lives aired its 10,000th episode on February 21, 2005, its 12,000th episode aired on January 11, 2013; the soap was given the title of most daring drama in the seventies due to covering topics other soaps would not dare to cover. The show's executive producer is Ken Corday, co-executive producers are Greg Meng and Albert Alarr. In November 2019, the show entered a planned four-month production hiatus. Since the cancellation of Passions in 2007, Days of Our Lives has been the only soap opera running on NBC.
The show has been parodied by the sketch comedy series SCTV and the sitcom Friends, with some cast members making crossover appearances on the show, including Kristian Alfonso, Roark Critchlow, Matthew Ashford, Kyle Lowder and Alison Sweeney. The show has had high-profile fans such as actress Julia Roberts and Supreme Court justice Thurgood Marshall; the Cordays and Bell combined the "hospital soap" idea with the tradition of centering a series on a family, by making the show about a family of doctors, including one who worked in a mental hospital. Storylines in the show follow the lives of middle- and upper-class professionals in Salem, a middle-America town, with the usual threads of love, marriage and family life, plus the medical story lines and character studies of individuals with psychological problems. Former executive producer Al Rabin took pride in the characters' passion, saying that the characters were not shy about "sharing what's in their gut."Critics praised the show for its non-reliance on nostalgia and its portrayal of "real American contemporary families."
By the 1970s, critics deemed Days of Our Lives to be the most daring daytime drama, leading the way in using themes other shows of the period would not dare touch, such as artificial insemination and interracial romance. The January 12, 1976, cover of Time magazine featured Days of Our Lives' Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes, the only daytime actors to appear on its cover; the Hayeses themselves were a couple whose on-screen and real-life romance was covered by both the soap opera magazines and the mainstream press. In the 1990s, the show branched out into supernatural story lines, which critics panned, as it was seen as a departure from more realistic storylines for which the show had become known. However, these storylines did have the desired effect, making Days of Our Lives the most-watched daytime soap among young and middle-aged women becoming one of NBC's five most profitable shows in any time slot. In 2006, when asked about his character, Jack Deveraux, "coming back from the dead"—for the third time—actor Matthew Ashford responded, "It is hard to play that because at a certain point it becomes too unreal...actors look at that and think,'What is this — the Cartoon Network'?"
In addition to receiving critical acclaim in print journalism, the series has won a number of awards, including a Daytime Emmy for Best Drama in 1978 and 2013 and a Writers Guild of America, East Award for Best Drama in 2000 and 2013. Days of Our lives actors have won awards: Macdonald Carey won Best Actor in 1974 and 1975. Susan Flannery and Eileen Davidson won Best Actress in 2014, respectively. Suzanne Rogers, Leann Hunley, Tamara Braun won Best Supporting
Aquelarre is a medieval demoniacal fantasy role-playing game created by Ricard Ibáñez and released by Barcelona publisher Joc Internacional in 1990. It was the first role-playing game conceived and created in Spain. Although Joc Internacional had produced Spanish translations of popular North American and British role-playing products, Aquelarre was the first role-playing game to be designed and published in Spain. Aquelarre is set in the Iberian Peninsula during 14th centuries of the Middle Ages. Players take on the roles of normal humans who walk a fine line between living ordinary and legal lives of drudgery, or using forbidden magic to lift themselves out of squalor. Half of the book is dedicated to demons and magic; the setting includes several feuding kingdoms. Players not only have to deal with resultant wars, but the hunger and disease, endemic to the rigid feudal system. Aquelarre uses a variant of Chaosium's Basic Role-Playing system developed for RuneQuest; each player chooses a class for the character.
Each class provides access to a number of skills. Abilities are determined randomly, skill levels are extropolated from the relevant abilities. In order to succeed at a task, the player must roll percentile dice equal to or lower than the character's relevant skill level One round of combat takes 12 seconds of game time, during which time each character can perform two actions, choosing from Move and Defend. Armor has two ratings: how much damage a weapon has to do to pierce it in one strike, how much damage the armor can take overall before it is ruined. Although magic is useful and can help the characters to resolve tasks which have been set before them, most other people see magic as evil and demonic; this tension between the characters' use of magic and the held perceptiuon of magic forms the centrepiece of this game. The magic system is complex, unlike many other role-playing games, successful spell completion is difficult to accomplish. Characters must learn to practice the arcane arts in private, lest they come to the attention of the secretive Fraternitas Vera Lucis.
The penalty for being discovered using magic is immediate death. 1990–1998: Joc International published the first edition rulebook as well as a referee's screen, a bestiary, adventures, a supplement about Catalonia, a supplement that extended play into Madrid during the 16th-century Renaissance. 1999–2002: La Caja de Pandora published a second edition, as well as new supplements about play in Navarra and Galicia. 2002–2004: Editorial Projects Crom published new supplements focussed on specific professions, as well as the kingdom of Granada. They published a number of new adventures, re-issued published supplements. 2011: Nosolorol Ediciones published the third edition of Aquelarre. Aquelarre Lilith Demon Rerum Danza Macabra Rinascita Dragons Rincon'Villa y Corte" Aquelarre Myths and Legends Vol.0 + Screens Myths and Legends Vol. I Ad Intra Mare I Myths and Legends Vol. II Ad Intra Mare II Myths and Legends Vol. III Ultreya Aker Codex: Breogan's Home Aker Codex: Gentleman's Land Akercodex, the legends of the goat Aquelarre, the temptation The Court of the Holy Inquisition Codex Inquisistorius.
The Court of the Holy Inquisition La Fraternitas de la Vera Lucis The Macabre Dance and other stories... + Screens Al Andalus <ref> IBÁÑEZ ORTÍ Ricard, Al-Andalus, Medina Garnatha Jentilen Lurra Ars Medica Grimorio The misty north: Jentilen Lurra The foggy north: Fogar de Breogan Sefarad <ref> Apolarre Apocrypha Ars Carmina, the secret book of minstrels Ars Magna, the secret book of the alchemists Descripio Cordubae Aquelarre, la tentation Danse macabre Aquelarre Asturies Medievalia Saeptum Arbitri Aquelarre: Breviarium Ars Malefica Legendarium Inferni Daemonolatreia Bestiarium Hispaniae Decameron Return to Rincon Ex Mundo tenebrarum Lester Smith was asked by an American publisher to evaluate whether Aquelarre was suitable for an American audience. Smith replied that it was not, in the October 1992 edition of Dragon, he explained his reasons why. First, Smith felt the American public was not ready for a game where the Spanish title translates as a ceremony for calling up major demons. Secondly, he felt "another stumbling block for American publishers, in regards to the art, is occasional full frontal nudity, both female and male."
Thirdly, he felt the American public was not ready for a game where half of the book was dedicated to explicitly worded magical spells such as "Sexual Attraction" and demon summoning. Smith did concede that the book itself had "a nice appearance", the "text is laid out in easy-to-read fashion." He found the "tone of the text is a personable one", called the book overall "a nice package." He found the game system "smoothly executed", with "a lot of solid background material" and four sample adventures. Overall, Smith wanted to like Aquellare, but found the product too raw and realistic for his American tastes; the officia
Samina Raja was a Pakistani Urdu poet, editor, translator and broadcaster. She lived in Islamabad and worked in the National Language Authority as a subject specialist. Raja was born in Pakistan, she gained a master's degree in Urdu Literature from Punjab University in Lahore. She started writing poetry in 1973 and published twelve books of poetry, two Kulliyat and one selection of her romantic poetry so far, she wrote some books in Urdu prose and edited and translated some valuable works of prose from English to Urdu. Raja joined the National Book Foundation as a consultant and as editor of the monthly Kitab in 1998. In 1998 she joined the monthly Aassar as an editor, she conducted All Pakistan Mushairas since 1995 on Pakistan Television. She presented the literary program Urdu Adab Mein Aurat Ka Kirdar on PTV. Raja as a Subject Specialist in the National Language Authority and was planning to bring out a new literary magazine Khwabgar's Ahmad Faraz number. Raja died of cancer in Islamabad on 31 October 2012.
She was survived by three sons. She published twelve collections of poetry. Huweda Shehr e saba Aur Wisal Khwabnaey Bagh e Shab Bazdeed Haft Aasman Parikhana Adan Ke Rastey Par Dil e Laila Ishqabad Hijr Nama She has published two Kulliyat and one selection of her poetry, Kita e Khwab Kitab e Jan Woh Sham Zara Si Gehri Thi Sharq Shanasi translated by Edward Said Bartanvi Hind Ka Mustaqbil translated by Beverley Nichols Raja has been the editor of four literary magazines Mustaqbil Kitab Aasar Khwabgar
Pruszcz Gdański railway station is a railway station serving the town of Pruszcz Gdański, in the Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland. The station opened in 1852 and is located on the Warsaw–Gdańsk railway, Pruszcz Gdański–Gdańsk Port Północny railway and Pruszcz Gdański–Łeba railway; the train services are operated by Przewozy Regionalne. The station used to be known as Praust; the station was modernised between 2012 and 2014 which included rebuilding the platforms, renewing the tracks and the signalling system. The station is served by the following services: Regional services Gdynia - Sopot - Gdansk - Tczew - Malbork - Elblag - Ilawa - Olsztyn Regional services Gdynia - Sopot - Gdansk - Tczew - Laskowice - Bydgoszcz Media related to Pruszcz Gdański train station at Wikimedia Commons This article is based upon a translation of the Polish language version as of October 2016
Wendy Bowman is a British actress, singer and television announcer best known for appearances in 1960s TV shows such as Emergency Ward 10, Sergeant Cork and Compact. Bowman was born in Sunderland in 1945 and followed in the footsteps of her dancing school teacher mother, Mattie Bowman, to make a career on the stage. After attending Grange Crescent School in Sunderland, she studied at Guildhall School of Music and Drama in London in 1960, her professional debut was at Sunderland Empire Theatre in 1961, when she played the part of the princess in the pantomime Humpty Dumpty at the age of 16. A caricature of her in the show is held in the archives of the Albert Museum in London. Bowman understudied West End musical star Paula Hendrix in The Boys from Syracuse at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane in 1963, replaced her for one performance. In 1966 she played Eliza Doolittle in the H. M. Tennant touring production of My Fair Lady, opposite Tony Britton as Henry Higgins, winning "creditable" reviews. Bowman starred in theatrical shows with several comedians such as Terry Scott and Jimmy Logan during the 1960s, as well as matinee idol John Hanson.
Bowman returned to the Sunderland Empire in 1968 with the Ivor Novello touring show The Dancing Years and in 1969 she starred as Cinderella in the Christmas pantomime at Newcastle Theatre Royal. She was to reprise the role of Cinderella at the Alhambra Theatre, Bradford, in 1971. In 1972 she returned, once again, to the Sunderland Empire, where she starred for the first time as'principal boy' in the pantomime Dick Whittington. In 1977 she was an understudy in the musical Something's Afoot and, in 1981, she appeared as Frau Zeller and as a member of the ensemble in the West End revival of The Sound of Music. Although Bowman spent much of her career on the stage, she found fame in TV shows such as Emergency Ward 10, Sergeant Cork and Compact too, her voice was used for non-singing stars in the film of the musical Oliver!, she made cast recordings of both The Sound of Music and The Boys from Syracuse and appeared as a television announcer in the 1960s. Bowman married Peter Davis in the 1960s and had a son, Justin, in 1970.
In 1972 she was living in London