Second Serbian Uprising

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Second Serbian Uprising
Part of Serbian Revolution
Paja Jovanovic-Takovski ustanak.jpg
The Uprising at Takovo (1889), by Paja Jovanović
Date23 April 1815 – 26 July 1817
(2 years, 3 months and 2 days)
Location
Result Strategic Serbian victory; Establishment of the autonomous Principality of Serbia
Territorial
changes
Ottoman Empire loses control of the Sanjak of Smederevo
Belligerents
Serbia Serbian rebels  Ottoman Empire
Commanders and leaders
Serbia Miloš Obrenović
Serbia Jovan Obrenović
Serbia Milić Drinčić  
Serbia Jovan Dobrača
Serbia Petar Nikolajević Moler
Serbia Stojan Čupić  
Serbia Sima Nenadović  
Serbia Sima Katić
Serbia Toma Vučić
Serbia Tanasko Rajić  
Ottoman Empire Maraşlı Ali Paşa
Ottoman Empire Sulejman-paša Skopljak
Ottoman Empire Hurşid Paşa
Ottoman Empire
Ibrahim-paşa
Ottoman Empire
Osman-beg †
Ottoman Empire
Seuchesmu
Strength
15,000 17,000 later reinforcement around 30,000 soldiers
Casualties and losses
Around 2000 killed Over 9000 killed, around 1000 Turks and over 1000 Arnauts captured later released

The Second Serbian Uprising (Serbian: Други српски устанак / Drugi srpski ustanak, Turkish: İkinci Sırp Ayaklanması) was the second phase of the Serbian Revolution against the Ottoman Empire, which erupted shortly after the re-annexation of the country to the Ottoman Empire in 1813. The occupation was enforced following the defeat of the First Serbian Uprising (1804–1813), during which Serbia existed as a de facto independent state for over a decade; the second revolution ultimately resulted in Serbian semi-independence from the Ottoman Empire. The Principality of Serbia was established, governed by its own parliament, constitution and royal dynasty. De jure independence, however, was attained in 1878, following the decisions of the Congress of Berlin.[1]

Background[edit]

The First Serbian Uprising liberated the country for a significant time (1804–1813) from Ottoman Empire; for the first time in three centuries, Serbs governed themselves without the supremacy of the Ottoman Empire or Habsburg Austria. After the failure of the First Serbian Uprising 1813, most commanders escaped to the Habsburg Monarchy, including Karađorđe Petrović, leader of the First Serbian Uprising.

Only a few commanders Miloš Obrenović, Stanoje Glavaš etc. remained in Serbia trying by one specific diplomatic way to protect and share the destiny of the local people.

The Uprising at Takovo, by Vinzenz Katzler, 1882

Miloš Obrenović surrendered to the Ottoman Turks and received the title of "obor-knez" ("senior leader"). Stanoje Glavaš also surrendered to the Turks and was made a supervisor of a road, but the Turks killed him after they became suspicious of him. Hadži Prodan Gligorijević knew the Turks would arrest him and so declared an uprising in 1814, but Obrenović felt the time was not right for an uprising and did not provide assistance.

Hadži Prodan's Uprising soon failed and he fled to Austria. After the failure of this revolt, the Turks inflicted more persecution against the Serbs, such as high taxation, forced labor, and rape. In March 1815, Serbs had several meetings and decided upon a new revolt.

Uprising[edit]

The Uprising at Takovo , by Đura Jakšić, 1876–78

The national council proclaimed open revolt against the Ottoman Empire in Takovo on 23 April 1815. Miloš Obrenović was chosen as the leader and famously spoke, "Here I am, and here you shall all have war with Turks!" Serbian: "Evo mene a eto vam rata s Turcima". When the Ottomans discovered the new revolt they sentenced all of its leaders to death; the Serbs fought in battles at Rudnik, Ljubić, Palež, Valjevo, Čačak, Karanovac, Požarevac, Kragujevac, Jagodina, and Dublje and drove the Ottomans out of the Pashalik of Belgrade.

Milos' letter to Orthodox priest Matea Nenadovic:

"We write to you from Zabrezje (village in Palez - Obrenovac) we took Valjevo, Rudnik, Kragujevac, Jagodinu, Palez and many places not even close to 50 Serbian soldiers died and that over 2000 Turkish soldiers were killed".

Battle at Ljubic 8 May 1815 – 6 Jun 1815:

Serbs: Around 1500 killed, Tanasko Rajic killed and Lazar Mutap.

Turks: 6700 killed, Caja Pasa killed.

Results: Serbian victory.

Battle at Palez 1815:

Serbs: No losses, couple wounded.

Turks: 150 killed, 100 drown in river Kolubara, 30 soldiers captured and two cannons.

Results: Serbian victory.

Battle at Pozarevac 1 July 1815 – 7 July 1815

Serbian: Low losses.

Turks: Heavy losses one cannon captured, Turkish commander Delibasa killed.

Results: Serbian victory.

Battle at Dublje 26 July 1815:

Serbian: 50 killed including two Serbian commanders Sima Nenadovic and Milic Drincic.

Turks: 1.199 killed, 23 captured, Osman-Beg killed, Ibrahim-Pasa captured.

Results: Serbian victory

Rudnik: Heavy Turkish losses, on road 27 Turkish soldiers killed even their commander. Serbian commander Arsenija Loma wounded in head.

Druzetic: 200 Turkish casualties, Serbs no casualties.

Kragujevac: 500 Turkish soldiers killed, 300 wounded, Serbian losses unknown, city of Kragujevac captured by Serbs.

Jagodina: Heavy Turkish casualties, city of Jagodina captured by Serbs.

Karanovac: Heavy fighting, diplomatically-solved. Turks retreated from city, Serbs captured town.

Batočina: 400 Turkish soldiers captured.

Užice: Heavy Turkish casualties, serbs had low casualties Užice captured.

Valjevo Low clashes serbs no losses Turks small casualties Valjevo captured.

Events after battle at Dublje 26 July 1815.

After the battle at Dublje 26 July 1815 Huršid-paša sended 1.200 Turks soldiers to retake territory serbs waited Turks and counter it near river Drina serbs had low losses while Turks had 800 casualties only 400 came back to Bosnia, Huršid-paša sended again 1.000 soldiers serbs came again in calshes near Drina and Turks were defeated by serbs only view came back to Bosnia,Huršid-paša accepted what Ibrahim told to him to negotiation with Miloš (serb leader) to see that war with serbs will solve nothing, second Serbian uprise clashes ended and Miloš successful negotiated with Huršid and Marašli-paša's over peace and that serbs get own rights and state.

In mid-1815, the first negotiations began between Miloš Obrenović and Marashli Ali Pasha, the Ottoman governor. Miloš Obrenović got a form of partial autonomy for Serbs, and, in 1816, the Turkish Porte signed several documents for the normalization of relations between Serbs and Turks; the result was the acknowledgment of the Principality of Serbia by the Ottoman Empire. Miloš Obrenović received the title of Prince of Serbia. Although the principality paid a yearly tax to the Porte and had a garrison of Turkish troops in Belgrade until 1867, it was, in most other matters, an independent state. Under the grandson of Miloš's brother, Milan, Serbia gained formal independence in 1878 under the Treaty of Berlin.

In 1817, Miloš Obrenović succeeded in forcing Marashli Ali Pasha to negotiate an unwritten agreement, an act which effectively ended the Second Serbian uprising; the same year, Karađorđe, the leader of the First Uprising, returned to Serbia and was assassinated.

Aftermath[edit]

Serbia's semi-independence was reaffirmed by a Ferman from the Porte in 1830, and in 1835 the first constitution in the Balkans was written in the Principality of Serbia, it introduced the Serbian Parliament on the regular basis and established the Obrenović dynasty as the legal heir to the throne of Serbia. It also described Serbia as an independent parliamentary Principality, which outraged the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg monarchy.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • Ćirković, Sima (2004). The Serbs. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Pavlowitch, Stevan K. (2002). Serbia: The History behind the Name. London: Hurst & Company.
  • Radosavljević, Nedeljko V. (2010). "The Serbian Revolution and the Creation of the Modern State: The Beginning of Geopolitical Changes in the Balkan Peninsula in the 19th Century". Empires and Peninsulas: Southeastern Europe between Karlowitz and the Peace of Adrianople, 1699–1829. Berlin: LIT Verlag. pp. 171–178.
  • Rajić, Suzana (2010). "Serbia - the Revival of the Nation-state, 1804-1829: From Turkish Provinces to Autonomous Principality". Empires and Peninsulas: Southeastern Europe between Karlowitz and the Peace of Adrianople, 1699–1829. Berlin: LIT Verlag. pp. 143–148.
  • Protić, K. S. "Ратни догађаји из другог српског устанка 1815. год". Archived from the original on 2015-04-22. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)
  • Batalaka, Lazar (1899). "Историја српског устанка II" (in Serbian). Belgrade: Kingdom of Serbia. Archived from the original on 2015-04-22. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help); Cite web requires |website= (help)

External links[edit]