The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict, waged between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle; some sources in the modern People's Republic of China date the beginning of the war to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. It is known as the War of Resistance in China. China fought Japan with aid from the United States. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the war merged with other conflicts of World War II as a major sector known as the China Burma India Theater; some scholars consider the start of the full-scale Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 to have been the beginning of World War II. The Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century, it accounted for the majority of civilian and military casualties in the Pacific War, with between 10 and 25 million Chinese civilians and over 4 million Chinese and Japanese military personnel dying from war-related violence and other causes.
The war has been called "the Asian holocaust." The war was the result of a decades-long Japanese imperialist policy to expand its influence politically and militarily in order to secure access to raw material reserves and labor. The period after World War I brought about increasing stress on the Japanese polity. Leftists sought universal suffrage and greater rights for workers. Increasing textile production from Chinese mills was adversely affecting Japanese production; the Great Depression brought about a large slowdown in exports. All of this contributed to militant nationalism, culminating in the rise to power of a militarist fascist faction; this faction was led at its height by the Hideki Tojo cabinet of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association under edict from Emperor Hirohito. In 1931, the Mukden Incident helped spark the Japanese invasion of Manchuria; the Chinese were defeated and Japan created a new puppet state, Manchukuo. This view has been adopted by the PRC government. From 1931 to 1937, China and Japan continued to skirmish in small, localized engagements, so-called "incidents".
Following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, the Japanese scored major victories, capturing Beijing and the Chinese capital of Nanjing in 1937, which resulted in the Rape of Nanjing. After failing to stop the Japanese in the Battle of Wuhan, the Chinese central government was relocated to Chongqing in the Chinese interior. By 1939, after Chinese victories in Changsha and Guangxi, with Japan's lines of communications stretched deep into the Chinese interior, the war reached a stalemate; the Japanese were unable to defeat the Chinese communist forces in Shaanxi, which waged a campaign of sabotage and guerrilla warfare against the invaders. While Japan ruled the large cities, they lacked sufficient manpower to control China's vast countryside. In November 1939, Chinese nationalist forces launched a large scale winter offensive, while in August 1940, Chinese communist forces launched a counter offensive in Central China. On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor; the following day the United States declared war on Japan.
The United States began to aid China by airlifting material over the Himalayas after the Allied defeat in Burma that closed the Burma Road. In 1944, Japan launched Operation Ichi-Go, that conquered Henan and Changsha. However, this failed to bring about the surrender of Chinese forces. In 1945, the Chinese Expeditionary Force resumed its advance in Burma and completed the Ledo Road linking India to China. At the same time, China launched large counteroffensives in South China and retook West Hunan and Guangxi. On August 15, 1945, following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Soviet Union invasion of Japanese-held Manchuria, Japan capitulated to Allied forces. Japan continued to occupy part of China's territory until it formally surrendered on September 2, 1945; the remaining Japanese occupation forces formally surrendered on September 9, 1945. At the outcome of the Cairo Conference of November 22–26, 1943, the Allies of World War II had decided to restrain and punish the aggression of Japan by restoring all the territories that Japan annexed from China, including Manchuria and the Pescadores, to China, to expel Japan from the Korean Peninsula.
China was recognized as one of the Big Four of the Allies during the war and became one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East, convened between 1946 and 1948, tried and punished the Japanese leaders for waging war, war crimes, crimes against humanity. In China, the war is most known as the "War of Resistance against Japan", shortened to the "Resistance against Japan" or the "War of Resistance", it was called the "Eight Years' War of Resistance", but in 2017 the Chinese Ministry of Education issued a directive stating that textbooks were to refer to the war as the "Fourteen Years' War of Resistance", reflecting a focus on the broader conflict with Japan going back to 1931. It is referred to as part of the "Global Anti-Fascist War", how World War II is perceived by the Communist Party of China and the PRC government. In Japan, the name "Japan–China War" (Japanese: 日中戦爭, romaniz
The following is a list of progressive metal artists and groups. This list contains some bands that at least at some point during their career played progressive metal. Rooted in the early 1980s, the genre fused mellow progressive rock with a heavy metal aesthetic. Characteristics may include complex song structures, unusual time signatures, lengthy songs and using concept albums. On, many extreme metal bands began to experiment and developed an array of progressive metal fusions with other genres, including death metal, black metal, thrash metal and avant-garde metal. Progressive metal Progressive rock Jazz fusion List of heavy metal bands Wagner, Jeff. Mean Deviation: Four Decades of Progressive Heavy Metal. Bazillion Points. ISBN 978-0-9796163-3-4. Bukszpan, Daniel; the Encyclopedia of Heavy Metal. Barnes & Noble Publishing Inc. ISBN 0-7607-4218-9. Christe, Ian. Sound of the Beast: The Complete Headbanging History of Heavy Metal. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-380-81127-8 ^ The Harvard Crimson "Bassist Chris Wolstenholme pens and sings a pair of tracks late in the game, while they are fine pieces of progressive metal, his admittedly pleasing smooth voice lacks Bellamy's intense vibrato"
The Archbishop of Uppsala has been the primate in Sweden in an unbroken succession since 1164, first during the Catholic era, from the 1530s and onward under the Lutheran church. There have been bishops in Uppsala from the time of Swedish King Ingold the Elder in the 11th century, they were governed by the archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen until Uppsala was made an archbishopric in 1164. The archbishop in Lund was declared primate of Sweden, meaning it was his right to select and ordain the Uppsala archbishop by handing him the pallium. To gain independence, Folke Johansson Ängel in 1274 went to Rome and was ordained directly by the pope; this practice was increasing, so that no Uppsala archbishop was in Lund after Olov Björnsson, in 1318. In 1457, the archbishop Jöns Bengtsson was allowed by the pope to declare himself primate of Sweden. Uppsala was located a couple of miles to the north of the present city, in what is today known as Gamla Uppsala. In 1273, the archbishopric, together with the relics of King Eric the Saint, was moved to the market town of Östra Aros, which from on is named Uppsala.
In 1531, Laurentius Petri was chosen by King Gustav I of Sweden to be archbishop, taking that privilege from the pope and in effect making Sweden Protestant. The archbishop was declared primus inter pares i.e. first among equals. The archbishop is Primate of Sweden. In 2000, the Archbishop of Uppsala was aided in the diocese by a bishop of Uppsala, most Ragnar Persenius until his retirement in 2019; the labours of the archbishops extended in all directions. Some were zealous pastors such as Jarler and others. There were scholars, such as Johannes Magnus, who wrote the "Historia de omnibus Gothorum sueonumque regibus" and the "Historia metropolitanæ ecclesiæ Upsaliensis", his brother Olaus Magnus, who wrote the "Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus" and, the last Catholic Archbishop of Upsala; the archbishops and secular clergy found active co-workers among the regular clergy. Among the orders represented in Sweden were the Benedictines, Dominicans, Franciscans and Carthusians. A Swedish Protestant investigator, Carl Silfverstolpe, wrote: "The monks were the sole bond of union in the Middle Ages between the civilization of the north and that of southern Europe, it can be claimed that the active relations between our monasteries and those in southern lands were the arteries through which the higher civilization reached our country."See Birger Gregersson, Nils Ragvaldsson, Jöns Bengtsson, Jakob Ulfsson, Gustav Trolle, Johannes Magnus, Laurentius Petri, Abraham Angermannus, Olaus Martini, Petrus Kenicius, Laurentius Paulinus Gothus, Johannes Canuti Lenaeus, Erik Benzelius the Elder, Haquin Spegel, Mattias Steuchius, Uno von Troil, Jakob Axelsson Lindblom, Johan Olof Wallin, Karl Fredrik af Wingård, Henrik Reuterdahl Anton Niklas Sundberg and Nathan Söderblom.
The first written mention of a bishop at Uppsala is from Adam of Bremen's Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum that records in passing Adalvard the Younger appointed as the bishop for Sictunam et Ubsalam in the 1060s. Swedish sources never mention him either in Uppsala; the medieval Annales Suecici Medii Aevi and the 13th century legend of Saint Botvid mention some Henry as the Bishop of Uppsala in 1129, participating in the consecration of the saint's newly built church. He is the same Bishop Henry who died at the Battle of Fotevik in 1134, fighting along with the Danes after being banished from Sweden. Known from the Chronicon Roskildense written soon after his death and from Saxo Grammaticus' Gesta Danorum from the early 13th century, he had fled to Denmark from Sigtuna, he is omitted from, or at least redated in, the first list of bishops made in the 15th century. In this list, the first bishop at Uppsala was Sverinius, succeeded by Nicolaus, Sveno and Kopmannus. With the exception of Henricus, the list only mentions their names.
1164–1185 Stefan 1185–1187 Johannes. Johannes was ordained by the Archbishop of Lund, Absalon by November 1185. In 1187, a ship from the pagan Estonia entered Mälaren, a lake close to Uppsala, on a plundering expedition, it sailed to Sigtuna, a prosperous city at that time, plundered it. On its way back, barricades were set up at the only exit