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Second generation of video game consoles

In the history of video games, the second-generation era refers to computer and video games, video game consoles, handheld video game consoles available from 1976 to 1992. Notable platforms of the second generation include the Fairchild Channel F, Atari 2600, Odyssey², ColecoVision; the generation began in November 1976 with the release of the Fairchild Channel F. This was followed by the Atari 2600 in 1977, Magnavox Odyssey² in 1978, Intellivision in 1980 and the Emerson Arcadia 2001, ColecoVision, Atari 5200, Vectrex, all in 1982. By the end of the era, there were over 15 different consoles, it coincided with, was fueled by, the golden age of arcade video games. This peak era of popularity and innovation for the medium resulted in many games for second generation home consoles being ports of arcade games. Space Invaders, the first arcade game to be ported, was released in 1980 for the Atari 2600. Coleco packaged Nintendo's Donkey Kong with the ColecoVision when it was released on August 1982.

Built-in games, like those from the first generation, saw limited use during this era. Though the first generation Magnavox Odyssey had put games on cartridge-like circuit cards, the games had limited functionality and required TV screen overlays and other accessories to be functional. More advanced cartridges, which contained the entire game experience, were developed by Jerry Lawson for the Fairchild Channel F, most video game systems soon adopted similar technology; the first system of the generation and some others, such as the RCA Studio II, still came with built-in games while having the capability of utilizing cartridges. The popularity of game cartridges grew after the release of the Atari 2600. From the late 1970s to the mid-1990s, most home video game systems used cartridges until the technology was replaced by optical discs; the Fairchild Channel F was the first console to use a microprocessor, the driving technology that allowed the consoles to use cartridges. Other technology such as screen resolution, color graphics, AI simulation was improved during this era.

The generation saw the first hand-held game cartridge system, the Microvision, released by toy company Milton Bradley in 1979. In 1979, gaming giant Activision was created by former Atari programmers and was the first third-party developer of video games. By 1982, the shelf capacity of toy stores was overflowing with an overabundance of consoles, over-hyped game releases, low-quality games from new third-party developers. An over-saturation of consoles and games, coupled with poor knowledge of the market, saw the video game industry crash in 1983 and marked the start of the next generation. Beginning in December 1982 and stretching through all of 1984, the crash of 1983 caused major disruption to the North American market; some developers collapsed and no new games were released in 1984. The market did not recover until the third generation; the second generation ended on January 1, 1992, with the discontinuation of the Atari 2600. The Fairchild Channel F known early in its life as the Fairchild Video Entertainment System, was released by Fairchild Semiconductor in November 1976 and was the first console of the second generation.

It was the world's first CPU-based video game console, introducing the cartridge-based game code storage format. The console featured a pause button; this allowed them to a break without the need to reset or turn off the console so they did not lose their current game progress. Fairchild released twenty-six different cartridges for the system, with up to four games being on each cartridge; the console came with two pre-installed games and Tennis. In 1977, Atari released its CPU-based console called the Video Computer System called the Atari 2600. Nine games were released for the holiday season. Atari held exclusive rights to most of the popular arcade game conversions of the day, they used this key segment to support their older hardware in the market. This game advantage and the difference in price between the machines meant that each year, Atari sold more units than Intellivision, lengthening its lead despite inferior graphics; the Atari 2600 went onto to sell over 30 million units over its lifetime more than any other console of the second generation.

In 1982, Atari released the Atari 5200 in an attempt to compete with the Intellivision. While superior to the 2600, poor sales and lack of new games meant Atari only supported it for two years before it was discontinued. Early Atari 2600 cartridges contained 2 kilobytes of read-only storage; this limit grew from 1978 to 1983: up to 16 kilobytes for Atari 5200 cartridges. Bank switching, a technique that allowed two different parts of the program to use the same memory addresses, was required for the larger cartridges to work; the Atari 2600 cartridges got as large as 32 kilobytes through this technique. The Atari 2600 had only 128 bytes of RAM available in the console. A few late game cartridges contained a combined RAM/ROM chip, thus adding another 256 bytes of RAM inside the cartridge itself; the Atari standard joystick was a digital controller with a single fire button released in 1977. The Bally Astrocade was available only through mail order, it was referred to as the Bally Home Library Computer.

Delays in the production meant that none of the units shipped until 1978. By this time, the machine had been renamed the Bally Professional Arcade. In this form, it sold at computer stores and had little retail exposure, unlike the Atari VCS; the rights to the console were sold to Astrovision in 1981. They re-released.

Papal armorial

Papal coats of arms are the personal coat of arms of popes of the Catholic Church. These have been a tradition since the Late Middle Ages, has displayed his own that of his family, thus not unique to himself alone, but in some cases composed by him with symbols referring to his past or his aspirations; this personal coat of arms coexists with that of the Holy See. Although Pope Boniface VIII, Pope Eugene IV, Pope Adrian VI and a few others used no crest above their escutcheon, from Pope John XXII onward the papal tiara began to appear and, from the time of Nicholas V's successor, Pope Callistus III, the tiara combined with the keys of Peter. Before the early modern period, a man who did not have a family coat of arms would assume one upon becoming a bishop, as men did when knighted or on achieving some other prominence; some who had an episcopal coat of arms altered it on being elected to the papal throne. The last pope, elected without being a bishop was Pope Gregory XVI in 1831 and the last, not a priest when elected was Pope Leo X in 1513.

In the 16th and 17th century, heraldists made up fictitious coats of arms for earlier popes of the 11th and 12th centuries. This became more restrained by the end of the 17th century. Papal coats of arms are traditionally shown with an image of the papal tiara and the keys of Peter as an external ornament of the escutcheon; the tiara is set above the escutcheon, while the keys are in saltire, passing behind it. In modern times, the dexter and sinister keys are shown in gold and silver, respectively; the first depiction of a tiara, still with a single coronet, in connection with papal arms, is on the tomb of Boniface VIII in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran. Benedict XVI in 2005 deviated from tradition in replacing the tiara with the pallium; the two keys have been given the interpretation of representing the power to bind and to loose on earth and in heaven, in reference to Matthew 16:18-19: "You are Peter, upon this rock I will build my church, the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.

I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven."The gold key signifies that the power reaches to heaven and the silver key that it extends to all the faithful on earth, the interlacing indicating the linking between the two aspects of the power, the arrangement with the handles of the keys at the base symbolizes that the power is in the hands of the pope. The oldest known representation of the crossed keys beneath the papal tiara in the Coats of arms of the Holy See dates from the time of Pope Martin V, his successor Pope Eugene IV included it in the design of a silver coin. Martin V included the keys in his personal arms; the placing of the keys above the shield becomes the fashion in the early 16th century, so shown on the tomb of Pius III. Adrian VI placed the keys in saltire behind the shield. Heraldry developed out of military insignia from the time of the First Crusade; the first papal coats of arms appeared when heraldry began to be codified in the 12th to 13th centuries.

At first, the popes used the secular coat of arms of their family. Thus, Pope Innocent IV, born Sinibaldo Fieschi used the Fieschi coat of arms, as did Adrian V, the nephew of Innocent IV. According to Michel Pastoureau, Pope Innocent IV is the first who displayed personal arms, but the first of whom a contemporary coat of arms survives is Pope Boniface VIII. Modern sources show attributed arms of the popes of the second half of the 12th century. Thus, Innocent III and Gregory IX may have used the coat of arms of the Counts of Segni; the following papal coat of arms should be considered lacking contemporary attribution. For the popes of noble families, the coats of arms of the family is substituted, for commoners, the traditional coat of arms as shown in early modern heraldic sources. Note that some of the images of the coats of arms shown below anachronistically include the external adornments of the papal tiara and the keys of Peter; these ornaments were not in use before the 1450s. Most popes of the 16th to 18th centuries came from Italian noble families, but there were some exceptions, such as Sixtus V, of low birth.

The last person elected as pope, not an ordained priest or monk was Leo X in 1513. Thus, throughout the Early Modern period, the elected pope had a coat of arms: if he did not have a family coat of arms to begin with, he would have adopted one upon being made bishop. Upon his election as pope, he would continue using his pre-existing coat of arms, in some cases with heraldic augmentations; this tradition was co

Wuzhen Theatre Festival

The Wuzhen Theatre Festival is an annual theatre festival held in Wuzhen, China. It is jointly sponsored by Stan Lai, Chen Xianghong, Meng Jinghui and Huang Lei, hosted by Culture Wuhan Co. Ltd; the festival includes units of Specially Invited Plays, Youth Theatre Artists Competition, Outdoor Carnival, Wuzhen Dialogues. Wuzhen, located in Tongxiang, Jiaxing City, Zhejiang Province, is the hinterland of the Hangjiahu Plain and belongs to the Taihu Lake Basin. On May 9th, 2013, Wuzhen held the first theatre festival; the festival is held at the Youth Theatre People's Theatre Arena. It is composed of artists from all over the world who love street performances and perform street performance art forms, it includes several major sections, such as drama workshop, drama forum, exhibition. It is the dialogue channel between the audiences of Wuzhen Theatre Festival. Select world theatre plays are invited to Wuzhen to give performances at different theatres; the first Wuzhen Theatre Festival was divided into three units: "Youth Theater Artists Competition", "Specially Invited Plays" and "Outdoor Carnival".

The festival was sponsored by Huang Lei, Meng Jinghui and Chen Xianghong. The Youth Theatre Artists Competition unit publicly solicited candidate plays from the drama enthusiasts and performed during the festival; the jury selected the top three of the Youth Competitions. It awarded Chen Danlu the "Best individual performance award," and awarded Baba Mom the "Best drama award." The "Shortlisted repertoire" included "One Person’s Red Woolen Blanket," "Reflection," "Reflection Lake," "Untitled," "Virtuous He Luxi," "Time Machine," "One or the Other," "Darkness," "Wrong Words," "Toy Patient," "Baba Mom," and "Utopia Town." The ancient town carnival event included more than 120 art performance groups around the world, who took the stage at Wuzhen Xizha and performed more than 500 plays. The Second Wuzhen Theatre Festival's theme was “Metamorphoses”, it was sponsored by Stan Lai, Huang Lei, Meng Jinghui, Chen Xianghong. The second Wuzhen Theatre Festival was consisted of the units of “Outdoor Carnival”,“Specially Invited Plays”and“Youth Theatre Artists Competition”.

The "Shortlisted repertoire" included Determined Tin Soldier, Grandpa's Adventures, On the Self-growth of a Half-orc, The Kidnapping, The Silence of Urban Dream Walkers, West, If Leave, Vienna • Spring Sacrifices, Mountain House, Circular Door, Original Initial. The Third Wuzhen Theatre Festival's theme was "Transmittal", was divided into four units:“ Wuzhen Dialogues”,“Youth Theatre Artists Competition”,“Specially Invited Plays”and“Outdoor Carnival”,sponsored by Stan Lai, Huang Lei, Meng Jinghui,Chen Xianghong,hosted by Culture Wuzhen Co. Ltd; the 3rd Wuzhen Theatre Festival's closing drama was "Amazing Valley"The Youth Theatre Artists competition resulted in "Static", "Ever Never" winning the Best Drama Award, Li Bo, the actor and screenwriter of "Tracing the Line" winning the Best Individual Performance Award, "Remembrance Day" winning the Special Concern Award. The Shortlisted Repertoire included Memorial Day, The Cenotaph, Amnesia, Who Is Mad, Tracing the Line, Ever Never, Prometheus in the Tavern, Come Together, Static.

While the Whuzhen Dialogues were a series of lectures. The Fourth Wuzhen Theatre Festival's theme was “Gaze Beyond”, it consisted of four units: “ Wuzhen Dialogues”, “Youth Theater Artists Competition”, “ Specially Invited Plays” and “Outdoor Carnival”, a total of 22 works and 79 performances; the Fifth Wuzhen Theatre Festival took "Luminosity" as the theme, meaning "Self-discipline and social commitment, the yin and yang shining in all directions", it was held from October 19 to 29, 2017, 24 invited theatre from 12 countries and regions around the world, a total of 100 plays were performed in Wuzhen. The shortlisted repertoire included: "Running Away From Home", "One And a Quarter", "Crowd", "Breaking the Sky", "Certain Hypothesis of Sustainable Development", "Temporary Stay in the Woods at a Snowy Night", "The Lost Turtle", "Moon”, "Full", "Killing Rabbit", "Er Yu", "New Platform", "Fade Away", "Normal Development", "Xuniang’s Dream", "Moon Tide", "Muchui" "Summer Evening" The Sixth Wuzhen Theatre Festival's theme was “Magnanimity”.

It was held from October 18th to 28th, 2018. 27 +6 Specially Invited Plays from 17 regions in the world performed in Wuzhen. There are four main units: Specially Invited Plays, Young Theatre Artists Competition, Outdoor Carnival, Wuzhen Dialogues; the shortlisted repertoire included: "A bad arhat kills a fisherman","Mournful birds cry","Independent people whizzby","Sleeping beauty wakes from a dream","Desperado","Little ants fly","Natural Death interpreted","Fragile diet-coke","Far away lies a beach","Unbridled","Fault-tolerant computing","Thank you dear ms. Xie wanting","Go away","Life on a banch keeps rolling","Dark nights do not slepp","Mystic river","The crazy parrot dances","Nearby,ripples plop"; the specially invited plays were: 19.14 directed by Alexander Molochnikov. Location: Wuzhen, Tongxiang City, Jiaxing City, Zhejiang Province Sponsor: Huang Lei, Meng Jinghui, Stan Lai, Chen Xianghong Founder


Ashi /ˈə'ʃi:/ is the Avestan language word for the Zoroastrian concept of "that, attained." As the hypostasis of "reward," "recompense," or "capricious luck," Ashi is a divinity in the Zoroastrian hierarchy of yazatas. Avestan'ashi' is a feminine abstract noun, deriving from the root ar-, "to allot," with a substantivizing -ta suffix, hence aši/arti "that, granted." In the Avesta, the term implies spiritual recompense. Although conceptually older than Zoroastrianism, Ashi has no attested equivalent in Vedic Sanskrit; the late Middle Persian equivalent as attested in the Zoroastrian texts of the 9th-12th century is ard-, subject to confusion with another ard for aša- "truth". In the younger Avesta, divinified Ashi is referred to Ashi Vanuhi or Ashi Vanghuhi, the Middle Persian equivalent of, Ahrishwang. Ashi is attested as a dvandvah compound as Ashi Vanghuhi-Parendi. Avestan ashi is attested in the Gathas, the oldest texts of the Zoroastrianism and believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra himself.

In these hymns, where the term occurs 17 times, ashi is still an abstract concept and is not yet the divinity that she would become in the younger Avesta. With the adjective "good", ashi occurs thrice. In the Gathas, ashi is identified with asha "truth", so for instance in Yasna 51.10 where the poet calls "truth to, to come with good reward." The idea being expressed here is a soteriological one, with "truth" being connected to the afterlife and ashi being the appropriate recompense for the soul after death. This is apparent in Yasna 43.5 where Ahura Mazda appoints "reward for deed and word: bad for the bad, good reward for the good." Subject to proper conduct in life, ashi is tied to Zoroaster's concept of free will, evident for instance in Yasna 50.9 where a mortal has the power to influence his own reward. Both asha and ashi have associations with Vohu Manah. Sraosha has ashi as an epithet, he is ashivant, "possessing ashi" and obedience to Ahura Mazda brings good reward, "good thinking". In the younger Avesta, Ashi is unambiguously a divinity so in the hymn dedicated to her.

This hymn contains older material, many of the verses of Yasht 17 are found in Yasht 5, the hymn nominally invoking "the Waters", but addressed to Aredvi Sura Anahita. Both Aredvi Sura and Ashi are divinities of fertility, but other verses that have martial characteristics appear out of place in a hymn to "the Waters"; as the divinity of fortune, Ashi is characterized as one. She is closely connected to Mithra, whom she serves as charioteer. In the hymn to Sraosha, the divinity of obedience receives ashiio as a stock epithet. Three verses of the Ard Yasht are devoted to enumerating the various kings and heroes who paid devotion to Ashi and were rewarded for it. Verse 53 of the same hymn enumerates those who do not receive her favors, this includes - besides demons - all youths that have not yet reached puberty; this is followed by two verses that recall a tale of Ashi hiding beneath a rock when pursued, only to be uncovered by prepubescent boys and girls. The last three verses of the hymn describe Ashi complaining to Ahura Mazda for the shame she feels for the "prostitute's" actions.

In the day-name dedications of the Zoroastrian calendar, Ashi presides over the 25th day of the month. On Kushan coins, Ashi appears as Ardoxšo with a cornucopia in hand

Rick Dancer

Rick Dancer is an American journalist and politician in the state of Oregon. Born in the city of Hillsboro, he was a longtime anchor for KEZI television in Eugene. Among his other activities as anchor, he covered the Thurston High School shooting, he left broadcasting to run as a Republican for Oregon Secretary of State, losing in the general election to Democrat Kate Brown in 2008. Rick Dancer was born on June 1959, to Roy and Betty Dancer in Hillsboro, Oregon, he grew up there with three sisters and lived in Hillsboro for his first 24 years, graduating from Hillsboro High School in 1977. In high school he worked for the local Copeland Lumber store before attending college at Pacific University in neighboring Forest Grove. Dancer graduated with a bachelor of arts degree in communications from Pacific in 1983. In Hillsboro, he married Kathy at the United Methodist Church that same year, they had two sons and Jake. After college Dancer moved to the southern Oregon Coast in 1985 and was a reporter in Coquille and Coos Bay at KCBY.

Dancer moved to Eugene, Oregon, in 1987 and worked as a television reporter for KVAL-TV. After a few years he moved to KEZI in 1989, the ABC affiliate in Eugene and continued as a reporter until becoming an anchor a year later. In 1998, he was one of the first reporters to arrive at Thurston High School in Springfield after the shooting spree by Kip Kinkel. While covering the story he started to cry while on camera, which angered him, but led to additional interviews with students as they felt he cared about the students. In February 2008, he announced; the day after leaving television, he official started his campaign for Oregon Secretary of State as a Republican. He won the primary unopposed and faced Democratic state senator Kate Brown in the fall election, his campaign focused on advocating for converting the Secretary of State position into a non-partisan position, supported Ballot Measure 65 that would have created an open primary system. He ran on the premise of being an outsider having never been in office before, while Brown touted her experience in public office.

Dancer raised around $365,000 in his campaign through late October, compared to around $750,000 for Brown. The biggest of his contributions came from timber companies. Dancer pulled within six percentage points in polling in late October. Brown won the November general election defeating Dancer and Pacific Green Party candidate Seth Woolley. Dancer garnered 785,740 votes compared to 873,968 for Brown. Dancer was mentioned as a possible candidate to run for the Republican nomination for Governor of Oregon in 2010. Dancer is part of a group of filmmakers who began production in 2010 on a documentary film about former U. S. Senator Mark O. Hatfield. Who is Rick Dancer? – Willamette Week Christian journalists fear public may behold a bias – The Register-Guard This Just In: I'm Running for Office – FOX News Some question TV anchor's candidacy announcement on air – KATU Nevada millionaire a major donor to Dancer campaign – KATU

Dear Son Maruthu

Dear Son Maruthu is a 1995 Tamil drama film directed by M. Solai Rajendran; the film features Rahman and Soundarya in the lead roles, with Siva, Roopa Sree, Nassar, Srividya and Delhi Ganesh playing supporting roles. The film, produced by M. Jagannathan, had musical score by Deva and was released on 21 December 1995; the film starts with Maruthu getting out of jail. Maruthu was mistakenly sent to jail by the lawyer Raani for a crime. Raani, who feels guilty of sending an innocent man to jail, asks for forgiveness, but Maruthu refuses her pardon and asks her to love him. Maruthu and Raani fall in love with each other. Maruthu has a little brother named Ravi, the two brothers run a dance class. Maruthu is a kindhearted person. Maruthu befriends Viswanathan, a popular neurosurgeon. Viswanathan lives with his wife Parvathi and brother Vijay, a strict police officer. Viswanathan lost his only son Ashok during the village festival many years back. Parvathi has the habit to bring a stranger at home. Kaveri has a one-sided love with Ravi.

After knowing it, Maruthu tells it to his brother. One day, Ravi tries to rape Kaveri at his home, but Maruthu saves her in time and hurts his brother in the head. Ravi dies from a serious head injury. Viswanathan advises Maruthu to run away. Viswanathan comes to know that Ravi is none other than his lost son Ashok. One day, Parvathi brings Maruthu at his home. What transpires next forms the rest of the story; the film score and the soundtrack were composed by film composer Deva. The soundtrack, released in 1995, features 6 tracks with lyrics written by Vairamuthu and Piraisoodan