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Secondary modern school

A secondary modern school is a type of secondary school that existed throughout England and Northern Ireland from 1944 until the 1970s under the Tripartite System. Schools of this type continue in Northern Ireland, where they are referred to as secondary schools, in areas of England, such as Buckinghamshire and Wirral. Secondary modern schools were designed for the majority of pupils between 11 and 15. From 1965 onwards, secondary moderns were replaced in most of the UK by the comprehensive school system; the tripartite system of streaming children of presumed different intellectual ability into different schools has its origin in the interwar period. Three levels of secondary school emerged in England and Wales: academic grammar schools for pupils deemed to go on to study at university. Educational practice in the 1940s developed this system so that children were tested and streamed into the renamed grammar and secondary modern schools at the age of eleven. In practice, few technical schools were created, most technical and central schools, such as Frank Montgomery School in Kent, became secondary modern schools.

As a result, the tripartite system was in effect a bipartite system in which children who passed the eleven-plus examination were sent to grammar schools and those who failed the test went to secondary modern schools. At a secondary modern school, pupils would receive training in a wide range of simple, practical skills; the purpose of this education was to focus on training in basic subjects, such as arithmetic, mechanical skills such as woodworking, domestic skills, such as cookery. In an age before the advent of the National Curriculum, the specific subjects taught were chosen by the individual schools, but the curriculum at the Frank Montgomery School in Kent was stated as including "practical education, such as cookery, gardening, woodwork and practical geography"; the first secondary moderns were created by converting about three thousand senior elementary schools, as well as central schools, which had offered a continuation of primary education to the age of 14, into separate institutions.

Many more were built between the end of World War II and 1965, in an effort to provide universal secondary education. Until the raising of statutory school leaving age in 1972, pupils could leave school at 15, at the end of the fourth form; this left a demotivated rump of 14–15-year-olds who did not want to be there, had no intention of taking a school-leaving exam at 16. The 11-plus was employed to stream children into grammar schools, technical schools and secondary modern schools. Claims that the 11-plus was biased in favour of middle-class children remain controversial. However, strong evidence exists that the outcome of streaming was that, grammar schools were attended by middle-class children while secondary modern schools were attended by working-class children; the most academically able of students in secondary modern schools found that their potential progression to university and advanced post-secondary studies was constrained by limitations within their schools, the wider educational system and access to higher external examinations.

The'baby boomer' generation was affected during the period 1957 to 1970 because grammar-school places had not been sufficiently increased to accommodate the large bulge in student numbers which entered secondary schools during this period. As a result, cut-off standards on the Eleven Plus Examination for entry into grammar schools rose and many students who would, in earlier years, have been streamed into grammar schools were instead sent to secondary modern schools. Although parity of esteem between this and the other sections of the Tripartite System had been planned, in practice the secondary modern came to be seen as the school for failures; those who had "failed" their eleven plus were sent there to learn rudimentary skills before advancing to factory or menial jobs. Secondary moderns prepared students for the CSE examination, rather than the more prestigious O Level, although training for the latter was established in years, fewer than one in ten students took advantage of it. Secondary moderns did not offer schooling for the A Level, in 1963, for instance, only 318 former secondary-modern pupils sat A levels.

None went on to university. Grammar schools were funded at a higher per-student level than secondary modern schools. Secondary moderns were deprived of both resources and good teachers; the Newsom Report of 1963 reported on education for these children, found that in some schools in slum areas of London 15-year-old pupils were sitting on furniture intended for primary schools. Staff turnover was continuity in teaching minimal. Not all secondary moderns were as bad, but they did suffer from neglect by authorities; the interaction of the outcome of 11-plus streaming and better funding of grammar schools produced the result that middle-class children experienced better resourced schools offering superior future educational and vocational options while working-class children experienced comparatively inferior schools offering more limited prospects for educational and vocational progress. This reinforced class divisions in subsequent vocational ac

Twic East County

Twic East County was a county located in Jonglei State, South Sudan. Its headquarters were located at Panyagor. In May 2016, Twic East County was divided into Twic North County, Twic Center County, Twic South County. Twic East County was composed of five payams: Ajuong, Lith and Pakeer. According to the Fifth Population and Housing Census of Sudan, conducted in April 2008, Twic East County had a combined population of 8,5349 people, composed of 4,4039 male and 4,1310 female residents; the area encompassed by the former county of Twic East was part of the Bor-Duk District. The Bor-Duk district was redesignated "Bor County," divided into two in August 2001, divided into three counties in 2003: Duk County, Twic East County, Bor County. Twic East County was home to the Twic community and named after a founding ancestor named Atwic Arial. According to the Twic origin myth, their ancestors came from Patindur, which lay to the west of Paliau, where Atwic and his brother, lived, they had a falling out, Atwic left his brother in Patindur.

After Atwic's departure, Patindur suffered an eight-year drought, which only ended when Yiep asked his brother to return. When Atwic returned so did the rains, earning him the chiefship. Dr. John Garang a founder of the SPLA and the first Vice President of the Republic of Sudan and the first President of South Sudan was born in Wangulei, in Kongor, in Twic East County. Dr. John Garang de Mabior Dr. Majak de Agoot Atem Hon. Majok Mading Gen. David Barach Manyok Dr. Elijah Maluk LuethHon. Atem Garang D. Dekuek, former Deputy Speaker of Sudan National Assembly 2005-2011

Antonín Tučapský

Antonín Tučapský was a Czech composer. From 1975 until his death he lived in Great Britain. Tučapský was born in 1928 in Opatovice, former Czechoslovakia. In 1947 he graduated from the Teachers’ Training College in Valašské Meziříčí, he studied in Brno before beginning his career as composer and conductor. From 1950 to 1951 he studied Choral Conducting at the Janáček Academy of Music and Performing Arts, Brno. In 1951 he graduated from Brno, in Music Education and Musicology, he studied composition with Jan Kunc, a pupil of Leoš Janáček. In 1951 he took up a teaching post at the Higher Music School in Kroměříž. In the same year he became a member of the well-known Moravian Teachers’ Male Voice Choir and from 1964 to 1972 he was a choirmaster of that choir. In 1955 Tučapský moved to Nový Jičín, where he accepted a teaching post at the Teachers’ Training College and conducted the local mixed choir. In 1959 he became a lecturer at the Pedagogical Faculty there. From 1961 he conducted the Children’s Choir of Ostrava Radio.

In 1964 he became Musical Director of the Moravian Teachers’ Choir. With this famous body of male-voices he gave many concerts in Czechoslovakia and throughout Europe and recorded for Český rozhlas and the Supraphon recording company. In 1969 he gained his PhD for his book "Janacek’s Male Choruses and Their Interpretation Tradition". In 1975 he moved to England and became a Professor of Composition at Trinity College of Music in London, where he remained until his retirement in 1996. In 1985 he was awarded an Honorary Fellowship of Trinity College of Music. There he had more time to develop his compositions choral or chorally based, having first performances in this country. Conversant with the various compositional theories and trends of the twentieth century, Tučapský remained a tonal composer. During his career he received various prizes for his compositions and cultural activity. Masaryk University, his alma mater, bestowed on him Doctor Honoris Causa in 1996. From 1975 Tučapský devoted much of his time to composition rather than choral conducting.

His compositions have been published in England, but in the Czech Republic, France, Canada the USA. Antonín Tučapský died on September 9, 2014 at the age of 86. Cantata Mary Magdalena Te DeumOratorio Stabat Mater Missa Serena Five Lenten Motets Opera The UndertakerConcertanteConcerto for viola and orchestra Chamber musicDuo Concertante for viola and guitar Sonata for viola and piano Official website Short biography

Cyclamen cilicium

Cyclamen cilicium is a species of flowering perennial plant growing from a tuber, native to coniferous woodland at 700–2,000 m elevation in the Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey. The species name cilicium is the adjective of Cilicia, an ancient name of a region of southeast Turkey; the plant grows in 10 cm tall and broad. The leaves are heart-shaped or oval and green patterned with silver; the flowers bloom in autumn and have 5 sepals and 5 upswept petals, white to rose-pink with magenta markings on the nose. They are fragrant. C. cilicium is hardy down to − 5 °C, so is best grown in a coastal location. Like many hardy cyclamens, it requires a hot, dry summer. If this cannot be provided, a controlled environment under glass may be preferable; this plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Cyclamen cilicium forma album has pure-white petals. Cyclamen intaminatum was known as Cyclamen cilicium var. intaminatum. Cyclamen Society Gallery of the World's Bulbs — International Bulb Society "Cyclamen cilicium".

Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. IPNI Listing Kew Plant List

Hermann Giskes

Abwehr Lieutenant Colonel Hermann Joseph Giskes was a wartime intelligence operative stationed in the occupied Netherlands, head of Abwehr Section IIIF. He is best known as one of the leading lights behind the Englandspiel operation. Giskes' activities were responsible for supplying a great deal of disinformation to British intelligence services for much of World War II, for the arrest of more than 50 Allied agents. Giskes first succeeded in gaining the partial cooperation of captured British agent Hubertus Lauwers, who sent encrypted messages back to British SOE at Giskes' direction, under duress. Dozens of agents parachuted in succession, were captured by the Germans, along with tons of equipment; when it became apparent that the penetration had been uncovered, Giskes on 1 April 1944 sent the following message in clear to London: To Messrs Blunt and Succs Ltd. London. In the last time you are trying to make business in Netherlands without our assistance stop we think this rather unfair in view of our long and successful co-operation as your sole agents stop but never mind whenever you will come to pay a visit to the Continent you may be assured that you will be received with the same care and result as all those who you sent us before stop so long.

At the end of the war, Giskes was interrogated by Robert Maxwell at Camp 20, before release. He worked for US intelligence services in Europe. Leo Marks - the SOE cryptographer who became suspicious of Abwehr penetration of the Dutch circuit BibliographyMarks, Leo. Between Silk and Cyanide. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-255944-7. Burton, Chris. "The Eureka-Rebecca compromises". The Free Library. Hastings, Max; the Secret War: Spies and Guerrillas 1939-1945. London: William Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-750374-2. Giskes, H. J.. London Calling North Pole. Bantam

St. Mary's Catholic Church (Huntington, Indiana)

St. Mary's Catholic Church is a large and notable church in the city of Huntington and was completed on October 11, 1896. There are about 1500 parish members; the Church stands 130 feet tall from the main tower. The Church is part of the Catholic Diocese of Fort Wayne-South Bend. John Roche, a land owner in Huntington, owning around 10,000 acres, had always wanted an English-speaking church an Irish one; the only church was Paul's Catholic Church, where German was spoken. He died before he could accomplish his dream but his sister Bridget took the money that she had received for selling her brother's 10,000-acre estate to build St. Mary's Catholic Church; the project would cost 75,000 dollars. The cornerstone of the church was laid John Roche's 79th birthday; when completed the Church had a good review with stained glass windows from the Royal Bavarian Art Institute of Munich. Through the years the church has gone through much and in the 1950s it had an interior remodeling, it was in the late 1940s that the church removed its three large and ornate altars as well as the elaborately carved wooden frames fitted around the current Stations of the Cross for replacements with a more modern appearance.

Father Stephen Colchin is the current priest at St. Mary's. St. Mary's has partnered up with St. Peter and Paul's to help educate young children. St. Mary has a Middle School on its grounds while Paul's has the elementary school; the schools are still up and running. There was once a high school but was closed due to financial problems, the high school was the 1935 State Basketball Champions also. St. Mary's Catholic Church History St. Mary's Catholic Church Official Website