Pholiota is a genus of small to medium-sized, fleshy mushrooms in the family Strophariaceae. They are saprobes that live on wood; the genus has a widespread distribution in temperate regions, contains about 150 species. Pholiota is derived from the Greek word pholis, meaning "scale"; the genus Pholiota includes mushrooms, with scaly, glutinous to dry cap surfaces, that grow on wood or at the bases of trees or on decaying tree roots, spores that are brown, light brown, or yellowish brown in deposit. These spores are smooth with a germ pore; the species have pleurocystidia that include a type called chrysocystidia. There have been several varying concepts of the genus, ranging from a pre-molecular era broad concept that nowadays would include the genera Phaeolepiota, Flammula, some Stropharia species, some Hypholoma species, Hemistropharia, some Kuehneromyces and some Phaeomarasmius, etc; the genus is restricted to a smaller but still large group of species that grow on wood, causing a white rot, but other taxa occur on burnt ground following forest fires or camp fires, on peaty or forest soil, but none are known to be mycorrhizal.
Many species form an annulus or annular ring on their stipes. None of the species have purplish brown spore prints. None form acanthocytes on their mycelia
Lentinus tigrinus is a mushroom in the Polyporaceae family. Zmitrovic IV & Kovalenko AE. "Lentinoid and polyporoid fungi, two generic conglomerates containing important medicinal mushrooms in molecular perspective". 18. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. Pp. 23–38
An agaric is a type of mushroom fungus fruiting body characterized by the presence of a pileus, differentiated from the stipe, with lamellae on the underside of the pileus. "Agaric" can refer to a basidiomycete species characterized by an agaric-type fruiting body. Archaically agaric meant'tree-fungus'. Most species of agarics are within orders of and describe the members of the order Agaricales in the subphylum Agaricomycotina; the exceptions, where agarics have evolved independently, feature in the orders Russulales, Boletales and several other groups of the overarching phylum Basidiomycetes. Old systems of classification place all agarics in the Agaricales and some sources use "agarics" as the colloquial collective noun for the Agaricales. Contemporary sources now tend to use the term euagarics to refer to all agaric members of the Agaricales. "Agaric" is sometimes used as a common name for members of the genus Agaricus, as well as for members of other genera. "Gilled Mushrooms" at AmericanMushrooms.com "Evolution & Morphology in the Homobasidiomycetes" by Gary Lincoff & Michael Wood, MykoWeb.com
Agaricus deserticola known as the gasteroid agaricus, is a species of fungus in the family Agaricaceae. Found only in southwestern and western North America, A. deserticola is adapted for growth in dry or semi-arid habitats. The fruit bodies are secotioid, meaning the spores are not forcibly discharged, the cap does not expand. Unlike other Agaricus species, A. deserticola does not develop true gills, but rather a convoluted and networked system of spore-producing tissue called a gleba. When the partial veil breaks or pulls away from the stem or the cap splits radially, the blackish-brown gleba is exposed, which allows the spores to be dispersed; the fruit bodies can reach heights of 18 cm tall with caps. The tough woody stems are 1 -- 2 cm thickening towards the base. Fruit bodies scattered on the ground in fields, grasslands, or arid ecosystems. Other mushrooms with which A. deserticola might be confused include the desert fungus species Podaxis pistillaris and Montagnea arenaria. The edibility of Agaricus deserticola mushrooms is not known definitively.
Named Longula texensis, the fungus was transferred to the genus Agaricus in 2004 after molecular analysis showed it to be related to species in that genus. In 2010, its specific epithet was changed to deserticola after it was discovered that the name Agaricus texensis was illegitimate, having been published for a different species; the species was first described scientifically as Secotium texense by Miles Joseph Berkeley and Moses Ashley Curtis in 1873, based on specimens sent to them from western Texas. George Edward Massee transferred it to the genus Gyrophragmium in 1891, because of its resemblance to the species Gyrophragmium delilei, because he felt that the structure of the volva as well as the internal morphology of the gleba excluded it from Secotium. In 1916, William Murrill listed the species in Gymnopus, but did not explain the reason for the generic transfer. In a 1943 publication, Sanford Zeller compared a number of similar secotioid genera: Galeropsis and Montagnea, he concluded that the species did not fit in the limits set for the genus Gyrophragmium and so created the new genus Longia with Longia texensis as the type species.
The generic name was to honor William Henry Long, an American mycologist noted for his work in describing Gasteromycetes. Zeller mentioned two additional synonyms: Secotium decipiens, Podaxon strobilaceous. Two years in 1945, Zeller pointed out that the use of the name Longia was untenable, as it had been used for a genus of rusts described by Hans Sydow in 1921, so he proposed the name Longula and introduced the new combination Longula texensis in addition to L. texensis var. major. The species was known by this name for about 60 years, until a 2004 phylogenetic study revealed the taxon's close evolutionary relationship with Agaricus, a possibility insinuated by Curtis Gates Lloyd a century before; this resulted in a new name in that genus, but it soon came to light that the name Agaricus texensis had been used enough, by Berkeley and Curtis themselves in 1853, for a taxon now treated as a synonym of Flammulina velutipes. Since this made the new Agaricus texensis an unusable homonym, Gabriel Moreno and colleagues published the new name Agaricus deserticola in 2010.
The mushroom is known as the gasteroid Agaricus. The classification of Agaricus deserticola has been under debate since the taxon was first described, it was thought by some mycologists to be a member of the Gasteromycetes, a grouping of fungi in the basidiomycota that do not discharge their spores. The Gasteromycetes are now known to be an artificial assemblage of morphologically similar fungi without any unifying evolutionary relationship; when the species was known as a Gyrophragmium, Fischer thought it to be close to Montagnites, a genus he considered a member of the family Agaricaceae. Conrad suggested a relationship with Secotium. Curtis Gates Lloyd said of Gyrophragmium: " has no place in the Gasteromycetes, its relations are more close to the Agarics. It is the connecting link between the two passing on one hand through Secotium to the true Gasteromycetes." Elizabeth Eaton Morse believed that Gyrophragmium and the secotioid genus Endoptychum formed a transition between the Gasteromycetes and the Hymenomycetes.
The species is now thought to have evolved from an Agaricus ancestor, adapted for survival in dry habitats. These adaptations include: a cap; this form of growth is called secotioid development, is typical of other desert-dwelling fungi like Battarrea phalloides, Podaxis pistillaris, Montagnea arenaria. Molecular analysis based on the sequences of the partial large subunit of ribosomal DNA and of the internal transcribed spacers shows that A. deserticola is related to but distinct from A. aridicola. A separate analysis showed A. deserticola to be related to A. arvensis and A. abruptibulbus. The fruit body of Agaricus deserticola can grow up to 5 to 18 cm in height. Fresh specimens are white, but will age to a pale tan; the cap is 4 to 7.5 cm in diameter conic becoming convex to broadly convex as it matures. The cap is composed of three distinct tissue layers: an outer volva
Agaricus is a genus of mushrooms containing both edible and poisonous species, with over 300 members worldwide. The genus includes the common mushroom and the field mushroom, the dominant cultivated mushrooms of the West. Members of Agaricus are characterized by having a fleshy cap or pileus, from the underside of which grow a number of radiating plates or gills on which are produced the naked spores, they are distinguished from other members of their family, Agaricaceae, by their chocolate-brown spores. Members of Agaricus have a stem or stipe, which elevates it above the object on which the mushroom grows, or substrate, a partial veil, which protects the developing gills and forms a ring or annulus on the stalk. For many years, members of the genus Agaricus were given the generic name Psalliota, this can still be seen in older books on mushrooms. All proposals to conserve Agaricus against Psalliota or vice versa have so far been considered superfluous. Several origins of Agaricus have been proposed.
It originates from ancient Sarmatia Europaea, where people Agari, promontory Agarum and a river Agarus were known. Note Greek ἀγαρικ όν, "a sort of tree fungus" Dok reports Linnaeus' name is devalidated because Agaricus was not linked to Tournefort's name. Linnaeus places both Agaricus Dill. and Amanita Dill. in synonymy, but a replacement for Amanita Dill. which would require A. quercinus, not A. campestris be the type. This question is compounded because Fries himself used Agaricus in Linnaeus' sense, A. campestris was excluded from Agaricus by Karsten and was in Lepiota at the time Donk wrote this, commenting that a type conservation might become necessary. The alternate name for the genus, derived from the Greek psalion/ψάλιον, "ring", was first published by Fries as trib. Psalliota; the type is Agaricus campestris. Paul Kummer was the first to elevate the tribe to a genus. Psalliota was the tribe containing the type of Agaricus, so when separated, it should have caused the rest of the genus to be renamed, but this is not what happened.
The use of phylogenetic analysis to determine evolutionary relationships amongst Agaricus species has increased the understanding of this taxonomically difficult genus, although much work remains to be done to delineate infrageneric relationships. Prior to these analyses, the genus Agaricus, as circumscribed by Rolf Singer, was divided into 42 species grouped into five sections based on reactions of mushroom tissue to air or various chemical reagents, as well as subtle differences in mushroom morphology. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated this classification scheme needed revision; this genus is divided into several sections: Section Agaricus Section Arvense Maubl. Contains 19 species in six subgroups similar to the horse mushroom, A. arvensis, it has versatile heterothallic life cycles. Section XanthodermateiOutlined by Singer in 1948, this section includes species with various characteristics similar to the type species A. xanthodermus. The section forms a single clade based on analysis of ITS1+2.
Section Chitonioides Section Sanguinoletti Section Spissicaules Kerrigan Section DuploannulataeBased on DNA analysis of ITS1, ITS2, 5.8S sequences, this section may be divided into six distinct clades, five of which correspond to well-known species from the temperate Northern Hemisphere: A. bisporus, A. subfloccosus, A. bitorquis, A. vaporarius and A. cupressicola. The sixth clade comprises the species complex A. devoniensis. The genus contains the most consumed and best-known mushroom today, A. bisporus, with A. campestris being well known. The most notable inedible species is A. xanthodermus. All three are found worldwide. One species reported from Africa, A. aurantioviolaceus, is deadly poisonous. List of Agaricus species MycoKey - The Genus Agaricus Mushroom Expert - The Genus Agaricus Varieties of California, USA on MYKOWEB.com Agaricus page at Index Fungorum On-line nomenclature of Agaricus from Royal Botanic Garden, Madrid. CSIC" Multilingual taxonomic information". University of Melbourne
Hymenogaster is a genus of fungi in the Hymenogastraceae family. The genus has a widespread distribution in temperate regions, contains about 100 species; the taxonomy of the European species was revised in 2011, twelve species were recognized, for which an identification key was presented. The following is an incomplete list of species; these European species were accepted by Stielow et al. in 2011