Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
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Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya within the kingdom Fungi. More Basidiomycota includes these groups: mushrooms, stinkhorns, bracket fungi, other polypores, jelly fungi, chanterelles, earth stars, bunts, mirror yeasts, the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus. Basidiomycota are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae and reproduce sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that bear external meiospores; these specialized spores are called basidiospores. However, some Basidiomycota reproduce asexually in exclusively. Basidiomycota that reproduce asexually can be recognized as members of this division by gross similarity to others, by the formation of a distinctive anatomical feature, cell wall components, definitively by phylogenetic molecular analysis of DNA sequence data; the most recent classification adopted by a coalition of 67 mycologists recognizes three subphyla and two other class level taxa outside of these, among the Basidiomycota.
As now classified, the subphyla join and cut across various obsolete taxonomic groups commonly used to describe Basidiomycota. According to a 2008 estimate, Basidiomycota comprise three subphyla 16 classes, 52 orders, 177 families, 1,589 genera, 31,515 species. Traditionally, the Basidiomycota were divided into two classes, now obsolete: Homobasidiomycetes, including true mushrooms Heterobasidiomycetes, including the jelly and smut fungiPreviously the entire Basidiomycota were called Basidiomycetes, an invalid class level name coined in 1959 as a counterpart to the Ascomycetes, when neither of these taxa were recognized as divisions; the terms basidiomycetes and ascomycetes are used loosely to refer to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. They are abbreviated to "basidios" and "ascos" as mycological slang; the Agaricomycotina include what had been called the Hymenomycetes, the Gasteromycetes, as well as most of the jelly fungi. The three classes in the Agaricomycotina are the Agaricomycetes, the Dacrymycetes, the Tremellomycetes.
The class Wallemiomycetes is not yet placed in a subdivision, but recent genomic evidence suggests that it is a sister group of Agaricomycotina. The Pucciniomycotina include the rust fungi, the insect parasitic/symbiotic genus Septobasidium, a former group of smut fungi, a mixture of odd, infrequently seen, or recognized fungi parasitic on plants; the eight classes in the Pucciniomycotina are Agaricostilbomycetes, Atractiellomycetes, Classiculomycetes, Cryptomycocolacomycetes, Cystobasidiomycetes, Microbotryomycetes and Pucciniomycetes. The Ustilaginomycotina are most of the Exobasidiales; the classes of the Ustilaginomycotina are the Exobasidiomycetes, the Entorrhizomycetes, the Ustilaginomycetes. Unlike animals and plants which have recognizable male and female counterparts, Basidiomycota tend to have mutually indistinguishable, compatible haploids which are mycelia being composed of filamentous hyphae. Haploid Basidiomycota mycelia fuse via plasmogamy and the compatible nuclei migrate into each other's mycelia and pair up with the resident nuclei.
Karyogamy is delayed, called a dikaryon. The hyphae are said to be dikaryotic. Conversely, the haploid mycelia are called monokaryons; the dikaryotic mycelium is more vigorous than the individual monokaryotic mycelia, proceeds to take over the substrate in which they are growing. The dikaryons can be decades, or centuries; the monokaryons are neither female. They have either a tetrapolar mating system; this results in the fact that following meiosis, the resulting haploid basidiospores and resultant monokaryons, have nuclei that are compatible with 50% or 25% of their sister basidiospores because the mating genes must differ for them to be compatible. However, there are sometimes more than two possible alleles for a given locus, in such species, depending on the specifics, over 90% of monokaryons could be compatible with each other; the maintenance of the dikaryotic status in dikaryons in many Basidiomycota is facilitated by the formation of clamp connections that physically appear to help coordinate and re-establish pairs of compatible nuclei following synchronous mitotic nuclear divisions.
Variations are multiple. In a typical Basidiomycota lifecycle the long lasting dikaryons periodically produce basidia, the specialized club-shaped end cells, in which a pair of compatible nuclei fuse to form a diploid cell. Meiosis follows shortly with the production of 4 haploid nuclei that migrate into 4 external apical basidiospores. Variations occur, however; the basidiospores are ballistic, hence they are sometimes called ballistospores. In most species, the basidiospores disperse and each
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies; this name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time. A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used a name, one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name. Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is named more than once, independently.
They may arise when existing taxa are changed, as when two taxa are joined to become one, a species is moved to a different genus, a variety is moved to a different species, etc. Synonyms come about when the codes of nomenclature change, so that older names are no longer acceptable. To the general user of scientific names, in fields such as agriculture, ecology, general science, etc. A synonym is a name, used as the correct scientific name but, displaced by another scientific name, now regarded as correct, thus Oxford Dictionaries Online defines the term as "a taxonomic name which has the same application as another one, superseded and is no longer valid." In handbooks and general texts, it is useful to have synonyms mentioned as such after the current scientific name, so as to avoid confusion. For example, if the much advertised name change should go through and the scientific name of the fruit fly were changed to Sophophora melanogaster, it would be helpful if any mention of this name was accompanied by "".
Synonyms used in this way may not always meet the strict definitions of the term "synonym" in the formal rules of nomenclature which govern scientific names. Changes of scientific name have two causes: they may be taxonomic or nomenclatural. A name change may be caused by changes in the circumscription, position or rank of a taxon, representing a change in taxonomic, scientific insight. A name change may be due to purely nomenclatural reasons, that is, based on the rules of nomenclature. Speaking in general, name changes for nomenclatural reasons have become less frequent over time as the rules of nomenclature allow for names to be conserved, so as to promote stability of scientific names. In zoological nomenclature, codified in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names of the same taxonomic rank that pertain to that same taxon. For example, a particular species could, over time, have had two or more species-rank names published for it, while the same is applicable at higher ranks such as genera, orders, etc.
In each case, the earliest published name is called the senior synonym, while the name is the junior synonym. In the case where two names for the same taxon have been published the valid name is selected accorded to the principle of the first reviser such that, for example, of the names Strix scandiaca and Strix noctua, both published by Linnaeus in the same work at the same date for the taxon now determined to be the snowy owl, the epithet scandiaca has been selected as the valid name, with noctua becoming the junior synonym. One basic principle of zoological nomenclature is that the earliest published name, the senior synonym, by default takes precedence in naming rights and therefore, unless other restrictions interfere, must be used for the taxon. However, junior synonyms are still important to document, because if the earliest name cannot be used the next available junior synonym must be used for the taxon. For other purposes, if a researcher is interested in consulting or compiling all known information regarding a taxon, some of this may well have been published under names now regarded as outdated and so it is again useful to know a list of historic synonyms which may have been used for a given current taxon name.
Objective synonyms refer to taxa with same rank. This may be species-group taxa of the same rank with the same type specimen, genus-group taxa of the same rank with the same type species or if their type species are themselves objective synonyms, of family-group taxa with the same type genus, etc. In the case of subjective synonyms, there is no such shared type, so the synonymy is open to taxonomic judgement, meaning that th
In zoological nomenclature, a type species is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e. the species that contains the biological type specimen. A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus. In botanical nomenclature, these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature, but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen, the type of a species name; the species name that has that type can be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types. In bacteriology, a type species is assigned for each genus; every named genus or subgenus in zoology, whether or not recognized as valid, is theoretically associated with a type species. In practice, there is a backlog of untypified names defined in older publications when it was not required to specify a type.
A type species is both a concept and a practical system, used in the classification and nomenclature of animals. The "type species" represents the reference species and thus "definition" for a particular genus name. Whenever a taxon containing multiple species must be divided into more than one genus, the type species automatically assigns the name of the original taxon to one of the resulting new taxa, the one that includes the type species; the term "type species" is regulated in zoological nomenclature by article 42.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, which defines a type species as the name-bearing type of the name of a genus or subgenus. In the Glossary, type species is defined as The nominal species, the name-bearing type of a nominal genus or subgenus; the type species permanently attaches a formal name to a genus by providing just one species within that genus to which the genus name is permanently linked. The species name in turn is fixed, to a type specimen. For example, the type species for the land snail genus Monacha is Helix cartusiana, the name under which the species was first described, known as Monacha cartusiana when placed in the genus Monacha.
That genus is placed within the family Hygromiidae. The type genus for that family is the genus Hygromia; the concept of the type species in zoology was introduced by Pierre André Latreille. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature states that the original name of the type species should always be cited, it gives an example in Article 67.1. Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775 was designated as the type species of the genus Homarus, thus giving it the name Homarus marinus. However, the type species of Homarus should always be cited using its original name, i.e. Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775. Although the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants does not contain the same explicit statement, examples make it clear that the original name is used, so that the "type species" of a genus name need not have a name within that genus, thus in Article 10, Ex. 3, the type of the genus name Elodes is quoted as the type of the species name Hypericum aegypticum, not as the type of the species name Elodes aegyptica.
Glossary of scientific naming Genetypes – genetic sequence data from type specimens. Holotype Paratype Principle of Typification Type Type genus
Eduard Fischer (mycologist)
Eduard Fischer was a Swiss botanist and mycologist. Fischer was the son of botanist Ludwig Fischer, a professor and director of the state botanic garden. Fischer studied at the University of Bern and graduated in 1883 with mushroom researcher Heinrich Anton de Bary in Strasbourg, with whom he studied Gasteromycetes. During further studies in Berlin during 1884–1885, he worked with Simon Schwendener, August Wilhelm Eichler and Paul Friedrich August Ascherson. In 1885 Fischer was appointed as a lecturer at the University of Bern. From 1897 to 1933 he was professor of botany and general biology at the university, succeeded his father as director of the Botanic Garden and Botanical Institute in Berne. In 1899, Fischer married Johanna Gruner, he died in Berne on 18 November 1939, aged 78. He was the father of the pianist Kurt von Fischer. Fischer produced major monographs for central Europe of various ascomycete and basidiomycete groups, including rusts. Fischer encouraged, his graduate students included the Lithuanian-born American physician Lydia Rabinowitsch, the mycologist Ernst Albert Gäumann.
Fischer became a member of the Linnean Society of London in 1932. 1931: Honorary doctorate of the University of Geneva 1939: Honorary doctorate from the Medical Faculty of the University of Basel Aseroe arachnoidea E. Fisch. Calostomataceae E. Fisch. Mattirolomyces E. Fisch. Melanogastraceae E. Fisch. Onygena arietina E. Fisch. Peronosporales E. Fisch. Petchiomyces E. Fisch. & Mattir. Phallales E. Fisch. Pisolithus kisslingii E. Fisch. Pisolithus marmoratus E. Fisch. Pseudohydnotrya E. Fisch. Puccinia actaeae-agropyri E. Fisch. Puccinia mayorii E. Fisch. 1904 Saprolegniales E. Fisch. Staheliomyces cinctus E. Fisch. Terfeziaceae E. Fisch. 1897 Tuber malacodermum E. Fisch. Tremellogaster E. Fisch. Trichocomaceae E. Fisch. Fischerula Berlese, A. N.. B.. Sylloge Fungorum 7: 1–498. Berlese, A. N.. B.. Sylloge Fungorum 7: 499. Fischer, E.. "Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der Fruchtkörper einiger Phalloideen. Annales du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg 6: 1–51. Fischer, E.. "Zur Kenntniss der Pilzgattung Cyttaria". Botanische Zeitung 46: 813–831. Fischer, E..
"Zur Kenntniss der Pilzgattung Cyttaria". Botanische Zeitung 48: 842–846. Fischer, E.. "Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Schweizerischen Rostpilze". Bulletin de l’Herbier Boissier 5: 393–394. Fischer, E.. "Studien zur Biologie von Gymnosporangium juniperinum". Zeitschrift für Botanik 1: 683–714. Fischer, E.. "Zur Kenntnis von Graphiola und Farysia". Annales Mycologici 18: 188–197. Eduard Fischer "Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Gattung Graphiola" in Annales Mycologici 20:3 pp. 228 – 237 Fischer, E.. A. Biologie der pflanzenbewohnenden Pilze Fischer, E. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien: Unterklasse Eubasidii. Reihe Gastromyceteae
Miles Joseph Berkeley
Miles Joseph Berkeley was an English cryptogamist and clergyman, one of the founders of the science of plant pathology. The standard author abbreviation Berk. is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. Berkeley was born at Biggin Hall, Benefield and educated at Rugby School and Christ's College, Cambridge. Taking holy orders, he became incumbent of Apethorpe in 1837, vicar of Sibbertoft, near Market Harborough, in 1868, he acquired an enthusiastic love of cryptogamic botany in his early years, soon was recognized as the leading British authority on fungi and plant pathology. Christ's College made him an honorary fellow in 1883, he was well known as a systematist in mycology with some 6000 species of fungi being credited to him, but his Introduction to Cryptogamic Botany, published in 1857, his papers on Vegetable Pathology in the Gardener's Chronicle in 1854 and onwards, show that he had a broad grasp of the whole domain of physiology and morphology as understood in those days.
Berkeley began his work as a field naturalist and collector, his earliest objects of study having been the mollusca and other branches of zoology, as testified by his papers in the Zoological Journal and the Magazine of Natural History, between 1828 and 1836. As a microscopist he was an assiduous and accurate worker, as shown by his numerous drawings of the smaller algae and fungi, his admirable dissections of mosses and Hepaticae, his investigations on the potato murrain, caused by Phytophthora infestans, on the grape mildew, to which he gave the name Oidium Tuckeri, on the pathogenic fungi of wheat rust, hop mildew, various diseases of cabbage, coffee, onions and other plants, were important in results bearing on the life-history of these pests, at a time when little was known of such matters, must always be considered in any historical account of the remarkable advances in the biology of these organisms made between 1850 and 1880. When it is remembered that this work was done without any of the modern appliances or training of a properly equipped laboratory, the real significance of Berkeley's pioneering work becomes apparent.
It has been said that "... when the history of Plant Pathology is elaborated, Berkeley's name will undoubtedly stand out more prominently than that of any other individual. In fact, it is not saying too much to pronounce Berkeley as the originator and founder of Plant Pathology." As the founder of British mycology, his significant work is contained in the account of native British fungi in Sir William Jackson Hooker's British Flora, in his Introduction to Cryptogamic Botany, in his Outlines of British Fungology. His herbarium at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, is one of the world's most extensive, containing over 9000 specimens as well as numerous notes and sketches. Berkeley corresponded with Anna Maria Hussey assisting her with identifying specimens while she supplied specimens she had collected to add to his herbarium. In 1857, Miles Joseph Berkeley was elected as member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. In June, 1879 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and was awarded their Royal Medal in 1863.
He died at his vicarage, near Market Harborough, on 30 July 1889. Berkeley was the father of the scientific illustrator Ruth Ellen Berkeley and named Agaricus ruthae for her. List of mycologists This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Boulger, George Simonds. "Berkeley, Miles Joseph". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Berkeley, Miles Joseph". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. Taylor, George. "Berkeley, Miles Joseph". Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Pp. 18–19. ISBN 0-684-10114-9. Griffith, John William; the Micrographic Dictionary. Volume II -- Plates. London: John Van Voorst. Retrieved 2009-04-07. Works by Miles Joseph Berkeley at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Miles Joseph Berkeley at Internet Archive
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae and protozoa. Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from the amoebula. Spores are haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte. Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte, which goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to form a zygote; this cycle is known as alternation of generations. The spores of seed plants, are produced internally and the megaspores, formed within the ovules and the microspores are involved in the formation of more complex structures that form the dispersal units, the seeds and pollen grains.
The term spore derives from the ancient Greek word σπορά spora, meaning "seed, sowing", related to σπόρος sporos, "sowing," and σπείρειν speirein, "to sow." In common parlance, the difference between a "spore" and a "gamete" is that a spore will germinate and develop into a sporeling, while a gamete needs to combine with another gamete to form a zygote before developing further. The main difference between spores and seeds as dispersal units is that spores are unicellular, while seeds contain within them a multicellular gametophyte that produces a developing embryo, the multicellular sporophyte of the next generation. Spores germinate to give rise to haploid gametophytes, while seeds germinate to give rise to diploid sporophytes. Vascular plant spores are always haploid. Vascular plants heterosporous. Plants that are homosporous produce spores of the same type. Heterosporous plants, such as seed plants, spikemosses and ferns of the order Salviniales produce spores of two different sizes: the larger spore in effect functioning as a "female" spore and the smaller functioning as a "male".
Such plants give rise to the two kind of spores from within separate sporangia, either a megasporangium that produces megaspores or a microsporangium that produces microspores. In flowering plants, these sporangia occur within anthers, respectively. Fungi produce spores, as a result of sexual, or asexual, reproduction. Spores are haploid and grow into mature haploid individuals through mitotic division of cells. Dikaryotic cells result from the fusion of two haploid gamete cells. Among sporogenic dikaryotic cells, karyogamy occurs to produce a diploid cell. Diploid cells undergo meiosis to produce haploid spores. Spores can be classified in several ways: In fungi and fungus-like organisms, spores are classified by the structure in which meiosis and spore production occurs. Since fungi are classified according to their spore-producing structures, these spores are characteristic of a particular taxon of the fungi. Sporangiospores: spores produced by a sporangium in many fungi such as zygomycetes.
Zygospores: spores produced by a zygosporangium, characteristic of zygomycetes. Ascospores: spores produced by an ascus, characteristic of ascomycetes. Basidiospores: spores produced by a basidium, characteristic of basidiomycetes. Aeciospores: spores produced by an aecium in some fungi such as rusts or smuts. Urediniospores: spores produced by a uredinium in some fungi such as rusts or smuts. Teliospores: spores produced by a telium in some fungi such as rusts or smuts. Oospores: spores produced by an oogonium, characteristic of oomycetes. Carpospores: spores produced by a carposporophyte, characteristic of red algae. Tetraspores: spores produced by a tetrasporophyte, characteristic of red algae. Chlamydospores: thick-walled resting spores of fungi produced to survive unfavorable conditions. Parasitic fungal spores may be classified into internal spores, which germinate within the host, external spores called environmental spores, released by the host to infest other hosts. Meiospores: spores produced by meiosis.
Examples are the precursor cells of gametophytes of seed plants found in flowers or cones, the zoospores produced from meiosis in the sporophytes of algae such as Ulva. Microspores: meiospores that give rise to a male gametophyte. Megaspores: meiospores that give rise to a female gametophyte. Mitospores: spores produced by mitosis. Fungi in which only mitospores are found are called "mitosporic fungi" or "anamorphic fungi", are classified under the taxon Deuteromycota. Spores can be differentiated by. Zoospores: mobile spores that move by means of one or more flagella, can be found in some algae and fungi. Aplanospores: immobile spores that may potentially grow flagella. Autospores: immobile spores that cannot develop flagella. Ballistospores: spores that are forcibly discharged or ejected from the fungal fruiting body as the result of an internal force, such as buildup of pressure. Most basidiospores are ballistospores, another notable e