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Secret Invasion

"Secret Invasion" is a comic book crossover storyline that ran through a self-titled eight issue limited series and several tie-in books published by Marvel Comics from April through December 2008. The story involves a subversive, long-term invasion of Earth by the Skrulls, a group of alien shapeshifters who have secretly replaced many superheroes in the Marvel Universe with impostors over a period of years, prior to the overt invasion. Marvel's promotional tagline for the event was "Who do you trust?" Writer Brian Michael Bendis stated in interviews that the motivation for the invasion is the destruction of the Skrull Empire in the 2007 "Annihilation" storyline. Bendis said the Skrulls believe Earth "is religiously and rightfully theirs," and that there are hints as to the plot placed in the limited series Secret War and the title New Avengers from the first issue; the limited series concluded the plot and was, according to Bendis, "a hell of an end."In November 2007, several ongoing titles and mini-series were branded as tie-ins to the main Secret Invasion storyline, with the tagline: Secret Invasion: The Infiltration.

In addition to the core story, the Avengers titles provided additional plot material and acted as a link between titles. Other Marvel titles featured variant covers with the characters depicted as Skrulls. Bendis stated that the series would not deal with the origins of the invasion, but is conceived from the following perspective: "If there's a character on the team who's a Skrull, we will rewind from when they got on that team, or from before they got on that team, so when they are infiltrated, how they became who they became and the effects of their actions from their'point of view' is shown." The Marvel website featured two online-exclusive e-comics for the event, titled Secret Invasion Prologue and Secret Invasion: Home Invasion, supported by comic pages by writer Ivan Brandon and artist Nick Postic. After the Kree–Skrull War the Earth superheroes Iron Man, Mister Fantastic, Black Bolt, Professor Charles Xavier and Doctor Strange join together as a group called the Illuminati to secretly confront the Skrulls.

They attack the Skrull Empire, warn that any future invasion attempts of Earth would mean further reprisals. However, they are all intensely studied before escaping. An eventual successor to the Skrull throne, Princess Veranke, claims that a prophecy foretold the annihilation of the Skrull homeworld; the current Emperor, exiles her to a prison world for inciting religious extremism. After the destruction of the Skrull Throneworld by the cosmic entity Galactus, Veranke becomes Empress by lineage, guides an invasion of Earth, armed with the knowledge of superhumans gained from having studied the Illuminati; the Skrulls capture several superhumans and infiltrate Earth's defenses, with Veranke herself posing as heroine Spider-Woman. Veranke is inconvenienced when there is a breakout of supervillains at the Raft prison, which forces her to join the New Avengers team. After the Civil War, the leader of the ninja group the Hand, is revealed to be a Skrull named Pagon after dying in battle with the New Avengers.

Veranke takes the corpse to Tony Stark to sow distrust among the superhero community. She joins the Mighty Avengers. Posing as agents of spy organization S. H. I. E. L. D; the Skrulls attempt to mine the metal vibranium in the Savage Land and battle the New Avengers before being killed. The Illuminati battle an impostor posing as Black Bolt and two new Super-Skrulls, possessing all-new powers; the Skrull invasion destabilizes the superhuman community as: Simultaneous strikes disable the S. H. I. E. L. D. Helicarrier and orbiting base The Peak. A breakout is instigated at the supervillain holding facility the Raft; the Baxter Building is transported to the Negative Zone. Thunderbolt Mountain is attacked. Additionally, the Avengers are attacked by Skrulls posing as heroes in the Savage Land, Reed Richards is wounded by the Skrull Criti Noll seconds after determining a way to identify the shape shifters. After several battles between Earth's heroes and the Skrulls in Manhattan and the Savage Land, Mr. Fantastic manages to develop a device that can detect the aliens.

Criminal kingpin the Hood aids the heroes, deciding "no more Earth is bad for business." Veranke regroups with her forces in New York City in a final battle against the combined Avengers, now aided by Nick Fury and his new Commandos, Daredevil, Ka-Zar, super teams such as the Young Avengers and the Thunderbolts. Veranke is wounded by the Avenger Hawkeye. Criti Noll activates a booby trap placed on the heroine Wasp, although the blast is contained by Thor at the cost of her life. Veranke is shot and killed by Norman Osborn; the last remnants of the Skrull armada are destroyed, with Iron Man locating the missing heroes. S. H. I. E. L. D. is dissolved by executive order of the President of the United States while a last Skrull flees with the child of hero Jessica Jones and Luke Cage. This Skrull is killed by Bullseye shortly after returning the child. Norman Osborn is placed in charge of S. H. I. E. L. D's replacement, H. A. M. M. E. R. and forms a secret group consisting of himself, Emma Frost, Doctor Doom, The Hood and Loki which commences the "Dark Reign" storyline.

Issue #1 was not well received despite critics noting it

Laggala Electoral District

Laggala electoral district was an electoral district of Sri Lanka between March 1960 and February 1989. The district was named after the town of Laggala in Central Province; the 1978 Constitution of Sri Lanka introduced the proportional representation electoral system for electing members of Parliament. The existing 160 single-member electoral districts were replaced with 22 multi-member electoral districts. Laggala electoral district was replaced by the Matale multi-member electoral district at the 1989 general elections. Key Independent Sri Lanka Freedom Party United National Party Results of the 4th parliamentary election held on 19 March 1960: Results of the 5th parliamentary election held on 20 July 1960: Results of the 6th parliamentary election held on 22 March 1965: Results of the 7th parliamentary election held on 27 May 1970: Results of the 7th parliamentary election held on 21 July 1977: Template:Members of Parliament from Laggala

USS Margaret (SP-527)

USS Margaret was a yacht acquired by the U. S. Navy during World War I and in commission as a patrol vessel from 1917 to 1918, she was assigned to patrol duty in the North Atlantic Ocean. She had numerous mechanical problems and her commanding officer -- Lieutenant Commander Frank Jack Fletcher, a future admiral and aircraft carrier task force commander of World War II fame – did not consider her an effective fighting ship. Fletcher would ask the Navy to condemn her as unfit for naval service-something the Navy promptly did. Margaret, was built in 1899 by John Roach & Sons at Chester, Pennsylvania, as the private steam yacht Eugenia, she was renamed Marjorie and Margaret. She was not intended for seagoing service, having a quite narrow beam for her length and making her prone to incurring damage in a seaway, was designed to allow her wealthy owner to entertain people aboard in an opulent setting in a safe harbor, her final private owner, Isaac Emerson, the chief executive officer of Bromo-Seltzer, ensured that she had a fine wine galley and an exquisite dining area.

In August 1917, the U. S. Navy purchased Margaret from Emerson for overseas service as a patrol vessel in World War I, paying $104,000 USD for her, $10,000 more than her assessed value of $94,000; the yacht's fragility had resulted in premature aging and warping of her hull, she was found to be top-heavy. Nonetheless, she underwent conversion to a patrol vessel, her impressive wooden civilian masts were replaced by stubbier ones that were more suited to naval service, her dining area was converted into a berthing compartment, her boom was removed. A chart house, pilot house, bridge with wings were added, as were two 3-inch guns and depth charge racks. After conversion, Margaret's top-heaviness had increased, her stern sagged under the weight of the added naval equipment, she rode so deep in the water that her portholes were above the waterline when she was in port, she suffered from numerous leaks. When her first commanding officer, Lieutenant Commander Fletcher, reported aboard, he ordered Margaret to undergo post-conversion sea trials.

These revealed Margaret's top-heaviness, showed that she could make no more than 6 knots under ideal conditions and no more than 4 knots in a calm sea - too slow to outrun the blast effects of her own depth charges. She rolled and was prone to engine breakdowns. Fletcher assessed that she needed 35 additional tons of ballast, but could find room for no more than five tons. With no experienced officers aboard except Fletcher, USS Margaret was commissioned on 16 October 1917. During the ceremony, an inexperienced seaman hoisted the United States flag upside down. On 4 November 1917, Margaret departed the United States on a voyage to the Azores via Bermuda as part of a squadron composed of the patrol vessels USS May, USS Wenonah, USS Helenita, USS Utowana, USS Rambler, Margaret and the supply ship USS Hannibal. On the voyage, each of the patrols vessels towed a submarine chaser; the flotilla suffered many mishaps during the voyage. Not far from port, Fletcher ordered a test-firing of Margaret's guns.

A storm struck on the first night at sea, rendering all but two of the men on board Margaret too seasick to carry out their duties, exaggerating the ship's leaks, causing the condenser and steering gear to fail. After three days, Margaret was adrift. Although Margaret managed to get underway again, she ran out of coal halfway to Bermuda and thus lost all power, lights and communications, forcing Fletcher to order a bucket brigade to dump water overboard to keep the ship from capsizing, she rolled losing her engine room cowl overboard and causing her anchor to give way and run all the way out on 105 fathoms of chain, her tow line to SC-317 parted. The donkey engine broke, the crew had to haul in both the anchor chain and the tow line manually; the flotilla arrived at Hamilton, Bermuda, on 9 November 1917. When Margaret's dory was sent for caulking material ashore, it had to towed in. Margaret's low priority for logistical support meant that her crew had a hard time getting anything there that they needed for repairs.

Margaret departed Bermuda on 18 November 1917, bound for the Azores in company with May, Wenonah and the patrol vessels USS Artemis, USS Cythera, USS Lydonia, the six submarine chasers, towed on the previous voyage. Fletcher had arranged for two piles of soft coal to be dumped on Margaret's deck for the voyage to avoid again running out of coal, as well as lumber for repairs, the crew filled lifeboats and bathtubs with potable water. All this served to make Margaret more top-heavy. During the voyage, May spotted an enemy steamer. SC-317 signalled for help.


SEPEWE was a Polish arms industry syndicate. Established as a joint venture of the Polish government and 19 private companies of the arms industry, it became one of the largest arms dealerships of the 1920s and 1930s. Between 1926 and 1939 SEPEWE exported Polish and foreign-made military equipment to over 30 states, obtaining between 320 and 350 million złotys; the company specialised in both surplus military equipment of World War I vintage and modern weapons produced by Polish factories. Equipment sold ranged from small arms to modern PZL.37 medium bombers. The full name of the syndicate was "Eksport Przemysłu Obronnego SEPEWE sp. Z o.o." - "Export of Arms Industry SEPEWE, Co. Ltd.". The SEPEWE name itself was an abbreviation meaning "Arms Industry Export Syndicate", but the full name was used. Although after World War I and the Polish-Bolshevist War Poland inherited a sizeable arms industry, the Polish Army had large stocks of military equipment; as domestic orders for new weaponry dwindled, Polish arms industry tried to find new clients abroad in Romania and Turkey.

The Polish Army tried to sell surplus war materiel to those states, both as a means of obtaining funds for further modernisation of the armed forces, as a means of strengthening Poland's political influence in Central Europe. The private companies tried to compete on their own while the government's efforts were directed by head of Army Administration Office, Gen. Mieczysław Norwid-Neugebauer; the private companies tried to join forces by forming a Section of Military Industry lobbying group as part of the Metal Industry Exporters Union, but European markets of early 1920s were filled with surplus rifles and artillery pieces and the sales drive brought little effects. The situation changed after the May Coup d'État of 1926. In late May Norwid-Neugebauer met with the industry's representatives to establish possible ways for the Army and the arms producers to cooperate; the new government of Kazimierz Bartel promised to lower the export tariffs, Polish State Railways tariffs for arms transports, take over the promotion of Polish arms industry and provide the companies with cheap, state-sponsored credits.

On 5 November 1926 the Ministry of Military Affairs signed an agreement with 19 privately held arms industry companies to establish the SEPEWE company. Although the company's shareholders were privately held companies, the Sanacja focused on nationalisation of strategically important branches of the economy and in 1928 most shares of the SEPEWE were in government hands, either directly or indirectly. In 1934 the company received a de facto monopoly for arms exports and in 1937 it was converted to a joint stock company, with most shares in direct government control. At one point or another SEPEWE had representatives in 70 states, with half buying Polish arms; the income of the company made Poland one of the largest arms exporters of the era, though many arms deliveries were paid for with raw materials and other supplies rather than money. The largest clients were: Spanish Republic - 180 million złoty Greece - 20 million Romania - 18,5 million Bulgaria - 16 million Turkey - 8 million Yugoslavia - ca. 7.9 million China - 7 million United Kingdom - 5 million Kingdom of Hejaz - ca. 3.62 million Netherlands - 2.5 million Estonia - ca. 2.1 million Brazil - ca. 1.62 million France - ca. 1.5 million Palestine - 1.5 million Hungary - ca. 1.5 million Although Poland was one of the first signatories of the arms embargo on Spain, the Spanish Republic was one of the largest clients of SEPEWE during the Spanish Civil War.

Spain bought, among other types of weaponry: over 1700 Ckm wz. 30 machine guns 3000 pieces of M1895 Mosin–Nagant rifles 25,100 pieces of Polish-made Karabin wz. 98 Mauser and Karabin wz. 98a rifles 2000 pieces of Karabinek wz. 29 carbine 2000 to 2600 pieces of ex-German Gewehr 98 rifles from the Erfurt Arsenal 37,400 pieces of ex-French Berthier rifles of various types 10,000 pieces of ex-French Lebel rifles 26,000 pieces of ex-British Lee–Enfield rifles 27,000 pieces of ex-Austro-Hungarian Mannlicher M1895 rifles The Polish Army sold to Spain an unspecified number of other rare types of rifles and carbines, among them Fusil Gras mle 1874, Kropatschek rifles and Vetterli rifles. In addition to service weapons, the SEPEWE syndicate sold to Spain at least 7 Krupp 7.5 cm Model 1906 mountain guns and at least four 75mm Schneider guns of various types. The SEPEWE supplied arms to the other side of the war, the Francoist Spain. While Spanish Republic wanted to buy the PZL P.11e fighter in 1935, Polish government feared that the design might leak to the Soviet Union and the deal was denied.

In 1937 over sixty Polish planes were sold to the Nationalists through Portugal. Among them were 20 pieces of PWS-10, 20 Breguet XIX, 20 PWS-16, 4 RWD-13 and 1 RWD-8. Marek Piotr Deszczyński. Na krawędzi ryzyka: eksport polskiego sprzętu wojskowego w okresie międzywojennym. Warsaw: Neriton. P. 455. ISBN 8388973983. Leszek Erenfeicht. CKM wz. 1930. Wielki Leksykon Uzbrojenia. Wrzesień 1939. 2. Warsaw: Edipresse Polska. P. 63. ISBN 978-83-7769-550-0. "Fusiles y mosquetones de la infantería republicana". Memoria republicana. Sociedad Benéfi

John Cooke Bourne

John Cooke Bourne was a British artist and photographer, best known for his lithographs showing the construction of the London and Birmingham Railway and the Great Western Railway. His set of prints were each published as separate book, became classic representations of the construction of the early railways. Prints were hand coloured for a vivid picture of events. John Cooke Bourne was born in London, were his father worked as hat-maker in Covent Garden, he was related to the engraver George Cooke, his godfather, became befriended with his son Edward William Cooke, whose uncle, William Bernard Cooke, was a line engraver of note. After general education, Bourne became a pupil of the landscape engraver John Pye, who had specialised in illustrations for popular annuals and pocket-books. Bourne was further influenced by the work of John Sell Cotman; when early 1830s near his home the construction started for the London and Birmingham Railway, the first main-line railway to enter London, this became Bourne's major source of inspiration.

In 1836 Bourne started making drawings of the construction sides as subjects of professional study. These drawings were published in 1838/39 in a book in four volumes, with an accompanying text by John Britton. Late 1840 he lithographed some drawings for Robert Hay's publication, entitled Illustration of Cairo. Bourne continued to draw railway scenes, in the 1840s became associate with Charles Cheffins In 1846 He commissioned Bourne to produce a series of drawings about the Great Western Railway, which connected London with the south-west and west of England and most of Wales; this led to the 1846 publication of History of the Great Western Railway. Bourne draw the illustrations for Bennet Woodcroft's A sketch of the origin and progress of steam navigation from authentic documents. With were lithographed by Cheffins. At the end of the 1840s Bourne started working for Charles Blacker Vignoles, employed to construct the Nicholas Chain Bridge in Kiev over the Dnieper River, he travelled to Russia, drew and photographed its construction until its completion in 1853.

In that year he made some pictures for the new 4th edition of Bennet Woodcroft's A Sketch of the Origin and Progress of Steam Navigation. Bourne kept working in Russia as artist in residence for another decade. In the year 1852 he travelled together with Roger Fenton to Moscow and St. Petersburg, which resulted in his painting of the Moscow Kremlin, he stayed in Russia in total for a period of twelve years as illustrator and photographer, before returning to England. Bourne exhibited his work in the Royal Photographic Society in 1854, the Royal Academy of Arts in 1863 and the Royal Society of British Artists in 1865. Back in England in 1866 he married Catherine Cripps, settled in Teddington, he died in a town in West London. Bourne's major works were his drawings of the construction of the London and Birmingham Railway, of the operations of the Great Western Railway, which were printed in 1838/39 and 1846. After these works he worked in Russia for over a decade. Bourne's 1838 publications A Series of Lithographic Drawings on the London and Birmingham Railway, showed the construction of the railway from London to Birmingham in the year 1837–38.

For this work Bourne had translated his original watercolours into lithographs. It was accompanied by a text, entitled Topographical and descriptive Accounts of the Origin and general Execution of that great national Work, written by John Britton. Britton was known in his days from the publication "The architectural antiquities of Great Britain", which had appeared in multiple volumes since 1807. Britton wrote about Bourne's work: It represent, not only some of the most striking scenery upon the line, but the peculiar manual and mechanical operations connected with the execution of the principal works. Amongst them the process of tunnelling, the formation of embankments and cuttings, the gear and machinery used in sinking shafts, the subterraneous works of the stationary engine-house at Camden Town, are at once remarkable and interesting. About the origin of this work Britton in his 1849 autobiography would recalled, that "some beautiful drawings of this Railway were made in the year 1838, by Mr. John C.

Bourne, as studies from nature. They were submitted to Mr. Britton; the great cuttings and tunnels, on the London and Birmingham Railway, were, at the time referred to, matters of great novelty and absorbing interest to the inhabitants of the metropolis. Although Mr. Bourne had not made any drawings on stone, he was eminently successful in his first efforts; the prints were published at one guinea each. On the completion of the work, a general Historical and Descriptive Account of the Railway, occupying twenty-six closely-printed pages, was written by Mr. Britton." One of the first reviews of this work in The Architectural Magazine by John Claudius Loudon, described that "the present work will comprise a series of thirty-three, or more, finished sketches, as executed by the artist on the respective spots, transferred by himself to stone, with scrupulo

The Ten Commandments: The Movie

The Ten Commandments is a Brazilian movie, released by RecordTV in 2016 in an association with Paris Filmes. The film is an adaptation of the eponymous television series presented by Rede Record in 2015, with new footage and different developments of which were shown in its last chapter on television; the adaptation was written by Vivian de Oliveira and directed by Alexandre Avancini, with the same cast as the soap opera. The film tells the story of Moses leading the Jewish people out of Egypt into the promised land; the plot has the loose adaptation of four books of the Bible that have this trajectory: Exodus, Leviticus and Deuteronomy. Welcomed by Pharaoh's daughter as a baby, Moses grows as the prince of Egypt, but turns against his adoptive family in favor of the suffering people of Israel, whom he should lead to liberty; the soap opera The Ten Commandments is considered biblical teledramaturgy. In 2010, RecordTV launched the first product on television with this theme, with the debut of the 10-episode miniseries, The Story of Esther.

In 2011, the 18-episode minisseries Delilah debuted. In 2012, it was the time of King David, with 30 episodes. In 2013, Joseph from Egypt debuted, with 38 episodes. In 2014, the series Miracles of Jesus debuted with 18 episodes in the first season, in 2015 the second season premiered with 17 episodes; the film is an adaptation of the homonymous soap opera produced by Record and broadcast from March 23 to November 23, 2015. This is the first biblical novel produced in the world. Broke topped the most-watched Primetime shows. After the last episodes of the first season in 2015, the network announced the film on November 19, 2015. On January 1, 2016, Cinemark movie network started the pre-sale of tickets for the film. On January 7, more than 401,000 tickets had been sold; the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God released the film and asked the faithful to buy tickets and donate to others. In Recife one person bought 22,700 tickets for R$220,000, according to the website UOL. Universo Online website reported that, despite this strategy, journalists found empty rooms at the premiere of the film in São Paulo.

In a first note on its official website, UCKG vehemently denied the information, stating that "the church has never forced anyone to perform any act" and criticized the news. In another note, UCKG denied an information about vacancies in sessions, stating that "they were not pre-sale but marketed in piecemeal fashion."About 10.8 million tickets have been sold since the debut of the film, making The Ten Commandments the second largest audience in Brazil's cinema history. However, Folha de S. Paulo points out that the list made by Ancine mentions "public", not "sold tickets". While several sessions of the film had empty seats with all tickets sold. After two weeks, the film grossed R$42 million; the film received negative reviews from critics, who reproached its narrative, acting and adaptation of 176 chapters into two hours. Renato Marafon, from Cinepop website gave the film one star and a half out of 5, with an emphasis on "disjointed scenes and lack of focus on the main characters" and stressed the "modern slangs" used in a production about Ancient Egypt.

Renato Hermsdorff, from AdoroCinema website gave the film a rating of one star and a half out of 5, writing that "characters come and go at a crazy pace, preventing the viewer from understanding what is happening," and described the technical point of view the film as "exaggerated and poor from the scenery to the costumes, everything reminds a great parade of carnival." Folha de S. Paulo in its online version written by Inácio Araújo, criticized the narrative, script and editing of the film, but praised the action scenes, "in particular the special effects" but criticized the use of slow motion in them. Giovanni Rizzo, from Observatório do Cinema, gave the film 1 star out of 5, saying that "the sound mixing is poorly crafted and sometimes the audio bursts and it's impossible to understand what a character says." Roberto Sadovski, writing a review on his blog in UOL, has criticized the film, as the lack of context in important scenes as the relationship between Moses and Pharaoh, the "visual poverty and inadequate cast and scenarios."

The UCKG was criticised for promoting the film at their services, asking those attending for money to buy tickets for those who could not afford them. The Ten Commandments: The Movie on IMDb