Secretary General of NATO

The secretary general of NATO is an international diplomat who serves as the chief civil servant of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The officeholder is responsible for coordinating the workings of the alliance, leading NATO's international staff, chairing the meetings of the North Atlantic Council and most major committees of the alliance, with the notable exception of the NATO Military Committee, as well as acting as NATO's spokesperson; the secretary general does. Together with the chairman of the NATO Military Committee and the supreme Allied commander, the secretary general is one of the foremost officials of NATO; the current secretary general of NATO is former Norwegian prime minister Jens Stoltenberg, who took office on 1 October 2014. Stoltenberg's mission as secretary general was extended for another four-year term, meaning that he will lead NATO until September 30, 2022. Article 9 of the North Atlantic Treaty requires NATO members to "establish a Council, on which each of them shall be represented."

Accordingly, the North Atlantic Council was formed. The Council consisted of NATO members' foreign ministers and met annually. In May 1950, the desire for closer coordination on a day-to-day basis led to the appointment of Council deputies, permanently based in London and overseeing the workings of the organization. Deputies were given full decision-making authority within the North Atlantic Council, but their work was supplemented by occasional meetings of the NATO foreign ministers; the chairman of the deputies was given responsibility "for directing the organization and its work," including all of its civilian agencies. The Council deputies met for the first time on July 25, 1950, selected Charles Spofford, the United States deputy, as their chairman. Several important organisational changes followed the establishment of Council deputies, most notably the establishment of a unified military command under a single supreme Allied commander; this unification and the growing challenges facing NATO led to rapid growth in the institutions of the organisation and in 1951, NATO was reorganized to streamline and centralize its bureaucracy.

As part of the organization, the Council deputies were delegated with the authority to represent their governments in all matters, including those related to defense and finance, not just foreign affairs increasing their power and importance. As the authority of the deputies increased, the size of the organization grew, NATO established the Temporary Council Committee, chaired by W. Averell Harriman; this group established an official secretariat in Paris to command NATO's bureaucracy. The committee recommended that "the agencies of NATO needed to be strengthened and co-ordinate", emphasized the need for someone other than the Chairman of the North Atlantic Council to become the senior leader of the alliance. In February 1952, North Atlantic Council accordingly established the position of secretary general to manage all civilian agencies of the organization, control its civilian staff, serve the North Atlantic Council. After the Lisbon Conference, the NATO states began looking for a person who could fill the role of secretary general.

The position was first offered to Oliver Franks, the British ambassador to the United States, but he declined. On March 12, 1952, the North Atlantic Council selected Hastings Ismay, a general from World War II, Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations in the British cabinet as secretary general. Unlike secretaries general who served as Chairman of the North Atlantic Council, Ismay was made the vice chairman of the council, with Spofford continuing to serve as chairman. Ismay was selected because of his high rank in the war, his role "at the side of Churchill... in the highest Allied Councils." As both a soldier and a diplomat, he was considered uniquely qualified for the position, enjoyed the full support of all the NATO states. Several months after Spofford retired from the NATO, the structure of the North Atlantic Council was changed slightly. One member of the council was selected annually as the president of the North Atlantic Council, the secretary general became the Deputy President of the Council, as well as the chair of its meetings.

Ismay served as secretary general until retiring in May, 1957. After Ismay, Paul-Henri Spaak, an international diplomat and former prime minister of Belgium was selected as the second secretary general. Unlike Ismay, Spaak had no military experience, so his appointment represented a "deemphasis of the military side of the Atlantic Alliance." When confirming Spaak's appointment in December 1956 during a session of the NATO foreign ministers, the North Atlantic Council expanded the role of the secretary general in the organization. As a result of the Suez Crisis, which had strained intra-alliance relations, the council issued a resolution to allow the secretary general "to offer his good officers informally at any time to member governments involved in a dispute and with their consent to initiate or facilitate procedures of inquiry, conciliation, or arbitration." The NATO countries selected the first secretary general on April 4, 1952. Since that time, twelve different diplomats have served as secretary general.

Eight countries have been represented, with three secretaries general hailing from the United Kingdom, three from the Netherlands, two from Belgium, one from Italy, one from Germany, one from Spain, one from Denmark, one from Norway. The position has been occupied temporarily on three occasions by an acting secretary general between appointments; as of 2018, th


Mandach is a municipality in the district of Brugg in canton of Aargau in Switzerland. In 1072 the Lords of Wessenberg donated a chapel in near the modern village. However, Mandach is first mentioned in 1218 as Mandacho; the major landowners were Säckingen Abbey which possessed considerable property in Mandach and two Habsburg vassals who owned castles in the village. After the Lords of Wessenberg, the village passed into the hands of the lords of Büttikon and Heudorf. In 1468, after the siege of Waldshut, the Confederates took Mandach and added it to the Schenkenberg district. In 1518 a fire destroyed the village and in 1593 and 1668 it was ravaged by the plague. During the Protestant Reformation the village converted to the new doctrine. Throughout the Middle Ages the major economic activity in the village was agriculture and viticulture. In 1740 cotton weaving entered the village through the Hediger family. Due to its location and lack of transportation infrastructure, the village remained untouched by industrialization in the 19th Century, which led to a strong population decline.

In 2000, the agricultural section still provides three-fifths of the jobs in the village. Mandach has an area, as of 2009, of 5.55 square kilometers. Of this area, 3.75 square kilometers or 67.6% is used for agricultural purposes, while 1.47 square kilometers or 26.5% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 0.35 square kilometers or 6.3% is settled. Of the built up area and buildings made up 2.9% and transportation infrastructure made up 3.1%. 25.4% of the total land area is forested and 1.1% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 32.3% is used for growing crops and 29.9% is pastures, while 5.4% is used for orchards or vine crops. The municipality is located in the Brugg district between Besseberg, it consists of the haufendorf village of Mandach. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Per fess Argent a Semi Negro beaded of the first and Gules. Mandach has a population of 341 As of June 2009, 3.2% of the population are foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of -1.9%.

Most of the population speaks German, with Serbo-Croatian being second most common and Italian being third. The age distribution, as of 2008, in Mandach is. Of the adult population, 34 people or 11.0% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 41 people or 13.2% are between 30 and 39, 42 people or 13.5% are between 40 and 49, 48 people or 15.5% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 34 people or 11.0% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 13 people or 4.2% are between 70 and 79, there are 11 people or 3.5% who are between 80 and 89,and there is 1 person, between 90 and older. As of 2000 the average number of residents per living room was 0.62, about equal to the cantonal average of 0.57 per room. In this case, a room is defined as space of a housing unit of at least 4 m2 as normal bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms and habitable cellars and attics. About 61.5 % of the total households were in other words did not pay rent. As of 2000, there were 11 homes with 1 or 2 persons in the household, 41 homes with 3 or 4 persons in the household, 57 homes with 5 or more persons in the household.

The average number of people per household was 2.80 individuals. In 2008 there were 43 single family homes out of a total of apartments. There were a total of 3 empty apartments for a 2.4% vacancy rate. As of 2007, the construction rate of new housing units was 0 new units per 1000 residents. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP; the next three most popular parties were the FDP, the CVP and the SP. The entire Swiss population is well educated. In Mandach about 79.6% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Of the school age population, there are 34 students attending primary school in the municipality; the historical population is given in the following table: The village of Mandach is designated as part of the Inventory of Swiss Heritage Sites. As of 2007, Mandach had an unemployment rate of 0.89%. As of 2005, there were 43 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 21 businesses involved in this sector.

2 people are employed in the secondary sector and there is 1 business in this sector. 34 people are employed with 9 businesses in this sector. As of 2000 there was a total of 170 workers. Of these, 120 or about 70.6% of the residents worked outside Mandach while 15 people commuted into the municipality for work. There were a total of 65 jobs in the municipality. Of the working population, 7.5% used public transportation to get to work, 48.9% used a private car. From the 2000 census, 52 or 16.6% were Roman Catholic, while 245 or 78.3% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church


The Utah Science Technology and Research Initiative is a technology-based economic development agency funded by the state of Utah. The organization works to develop ideas and research into marketable products and successful companies through its competitive grant and entrepreneur support programs. USTAR facilitates the diversification of the state’s tech economy, increases private follow-on investment, supports the creation of technology-based start-up firms, higher paying jobs and additional business activity leading to a statewide expansion of Utah’s tax base. Since 2016, USTAR-supported companies have received $123 million in follow-on funding, created 424 full- and part-time jobs and generated $27 million in product sales, including an increase of 351 percent in sales from the first to second year of USTAR’s new programs; when it was established in 2006 when the Utah State Legislature passed Senate Bill 75, USTAR was focused on investments at the University of Utah and Utah State University to recruit researchers, build interdisciplinary research and development facilities, to form science and commercialization teams across the state.

The initiative included a principal research program designed to create world-class research teams in strategic innovation development areas. Through the principal researcher program, USTAR recruited more than 40 world-class faculty to higher education institutions located throughout Utah to invent and develop commercially viable technologies. Researchers from MIT, Harvard University, UCLA, Case Western, University of Arizona, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, other top research institutions came to Utah under the program. USTAR's research teams were internally focused in four areas: energy, life sciences, micro/nano systems, big data industries. Research teams included the following groups: Senate Bill 75 called for the construction of research facilities at both the University of Utah and Utah State University the James L. Sorenson Molecular Biotechnology Building and the BioInnovations Center; the buildings provided research teams with advanced facilities aimed at innovation and commercialization of their respective focus areas.

Funding for the projects came in March 2006 when State legislators created a $160 million USTAR building fund. The universities were provided a $40 million match, bringing the entire building budget to $200 million; the USTAR legislation required both of the research universities to donate land and make significant contributions towards the cost of the building prior to construction. Utah State University's Synthetic Biomanufacturing Facility was completed in October 2010; the Construction Manager General Contractor for the building at USU was Gramoll Construction and the Architectural & Engineering firm was AJC Architects. Payette Associates designed most of the lab space, including a Bio Safety Level 3+ lab, a vivarium, a clinical nutrition center, life science labs; the building is located in the USU Innovation Campus in Utah. University of Utah's Sorenson Molecular Biotechnology Building was dedicated April 19, 2012; the 208,000 square-foot facility includes labs for nanofabrication, small animal imaging, optical imaging, biotechnology, as well as a vivarium and data center.

The building is located between lower and upper campus and act as a central unifier between the work in the College of Engineering and the Health and Medical School. USTAR and the U of U obtained LEED certification for the building. After an audit by the Utah Legislature in 2014, SRI International was hired to conduct an independent, third-party study on the efficacy of USTAR. In 2015, SRI International wrote a prospectus outlining the five-year, projected direct impact of USTAR’s programs; this prospectus served as the foundation of Senate Bill 166, which changed USTAR’s statute to better align with statewide economic development needs. Most notably, through SB166, USTAR was mandated to create new competitive grant programs to researchers and entrepreneurs statewide. During the 2018 legislative session, Senate Bill 239 made additionally modifications to the USTAR statute and scope of work. Under these modifications, the principal researcher program was ended, transferring these programs to their respective universities.

Additionally, it included the ownership transfer for USTAR buildings located on campuses to their respective universities. This was completed prior to October 1, 2018. USTAR’s incubation enterprise supports commercialization and economic development activities statewide through incubation and entrepreneurship services that are designed to develop innovative ideas into commercially viable technology; these services and incubation centers include: Located at the Salt Lake Community College’s Miller Campus in Sandy, the SBIR Center assists qualified Utah businesses in finding and applying for federal Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer funds coordinated by the Small Business Administration. The center provides training and workshops as well as assistance with writing and editing proposals, registering with federal agencies, application submission, more; the center’s key impact metric is its success rate. The win rate for companies that receive assistance from the SBIR is 25 percent, compared to the 15 percent success rate nationally for National Science Foundation SBIR Phase I grants and the 15.6% success rate for National Institutes of Health SBIR Phase I grants.

In CY 2017, companies that received assistance from the SBIR Center reported $39.3 million in follow-on investment, $1.1 million in sales of commercialized products, 50 new hires with salaries that exceeded the county average. The USTAR SBIR Center won the prestigious Tibbets