Butler County, Iowa
Butler County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,867, its county seat is Allison. The county was named for General William O. Butler. Butler County was formed on January 1851 from open land, it was named after Kentucky native William Orlando Butler, a general and hero of the Mexican–American War, who ran as Vice President of the United States in 1848. Until 1854, the county was governed by other counties. Only at this time did it have enough inhabitants to establish its own local government; the first court proceedings were conducted in a small log cabin of a settler. In 1858, the first courthouse was completed in Clarksville. After it was sold shortly thereafter to the local school district, it was used as a schoolhouse from 1863 until 1903. Clarksville was the first county seat, from 1854 to 1860; because locals became disenchanted with Butler Center, Allison was made the county seat on January 10, 1881. When the tracks of the Dubuque and Dakota Railroad were laid through Allison, the seat was moved there on January 10, 1881.
Allison was named after the Dubuque native Republican politician and senator William B. Allison. Butler County is the only county in Iowa that does not have any stop lights, a hospital, or a movie theatre. There are no national fast food chains in Butler county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 582 square miles, of which 580 square miles is land and 1.6 square miles is water. Iowa Highway 3 Iowa Highway 14 Iowa Highway 57 Iowa Highway 188 The 2010 census recorded a population of 14,867 in the county, with a population density of 25.63/sq mi. There were 6,682 housing units, of which 6,120 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 15,305 people, 6,175 households, 4,470 families residing in the county. The population density was 26 people per square mile. There were 6,578 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.95% White, 0.08% Black or African American, 0.05% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 0.53% from two or more races.
0.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,175 households out of which 30.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.80% were married couples living together, 6.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.60% were non-families. 25.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.90. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.40% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 24.90% from 25 to 44, 24.20% from 45 to 64, 20.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 96.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,883, the median income for a family was $42,209. Males had a median income of $30,356 versus $20,864 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,036.
About 6.50% of families and 8.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.80% of those under age 18 and 9.40% of those age 65 or over. Austinville Kesley Sinclair Butler County is divided into sixteen townships: The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Butler County.† county seat National Register of Historic Places listings in Butler County, Iowa Butler County Tribune-Journal
Patty Jean Poole Judge is an American politician who served as the 45th Lieutenant Governor of Iowa from 2007 to 2011 and the 13th Secretary of Agriculture of Iowa from 1999 to 2007. She unsuccessfully ran for reelection as Lieutenant Governor in 2010 after being elected to the office in 2006 with Chet Culver as Governor. On March 4, 2016, she announced her candidacy for the Democratic nomination for the United States Senate and won the primary on June 7, she lost the general election to Republican incumbent Chuck Grassley. Secretary Judge was born in Iowa, she graduated from Albia High School. She received a Registered Nursing degree from Iowa Methodist School of Nursing which merged in the 1960s to be part of St. Luke's Regional Medical Center, she attended the University of Iowa. As a registered nurse Patty has worked in public health, she developed the first in-service education program and first utilization review program for the Monroe County Hospital. With her interest in economic development she was prompted to earn a real estate broker's license and set up a small business specializing in the selling and appraising of farms.
During the farm crisis of the 1980s she was a mediator for the Iowa Farmer Creditor Mediation Service. Judge is a lifelong resident of southern Iowa, she was raised in Iowa. She and her husband John have owned a cow-calf farm in Monroe County for thirty-five years, her husband served in the Iowa Senate. They have five grandchildren, she has been dedicated to community service, serving on the Albia Chamber of Commerce Board of Directors, as a 4-H leader, a member of PEO, an honorary FFA Chapter Farmer and a member of the Iowa State Fair Board. In 2011 Judge's son Joe, a High School U. S. History & Government teacher in Albia, announced his intent to be the second generation of the family to serve in Iowa government by running for the Iowa House of Representatives in the 80th district in 2012. Joe lost to Larry Sheets in the general election. Secretary Judge was elected to the Iowa State Senate from Iowa's 46th District in 1992 and re-elected in 1996. During her time in the Senate she served in the roles of Assistant Majority Leader and Assistant Minority Leader.
She was the Ranking Member of the Agriculture Committee. Other committees she served on were the Senate Natural Resources and Means, Small Business and Economic Development, Human Services. Judge was first elected to the office of Iowa Secretary of Agriculture in 1998 and re-elected in 2002, she holds the honor of being the first woman to serve as Iowa Secretary of Agriculture. Patty brought to the office a strong background in production agriculture, personnel management and the management of state government. On February 15, 2006, Judge stepped down as a candidate for Governor of Iowa, announced her endorsement of Iowa Secretary of State Chet Culver for the office, became his running mate as lieutenant governor. On November 7, 2006, she was elected Lieutenant Governor of Iowa. Culver and Judge lost in their bid for re-election in 2010. Judge announced on December 30, 2012, that she declined to run for lieutenant governor in 2014. In 2015, Judge was appointed the Co-Chair of a new bi-partisan PAC whose sole purpose is to make candidates visiting Iowa aware of the need for the Renewable Fuel Standard.
Judge has long been seen as a champion of Agricultural issues and known for breaking barriers in being the first woman to serve as the Iowan Secretary of Agriculture. Judge has since met with many potential candidates to show them the importance of the RFS. Judge will continue to serve in this role throughout the 2016 Election Cycle. On March 4, 2016, Judge announced her plan to run for the Senate Seat held by Senator Charles Grassley; the New York Times deemed her a "formidable challenger" to Grassley. Judge lost the election by a 24.4% margin. List of female lieutenant governors in the United States Patty Judge for Senate campaign site Profile at Vote Smart Campaign contributions for Gov/Lt. Gov. at the National Institute for Money in State Politics Appearances on C-SPAN
Archaeology of Iowa
The archaeology of Iowa is the study of the buried remains of human culture within the U. S. state of Iowa from the earliest prehistoric through the late historic periods. When the American Indians first arrived in what is now Iowa more than 13,000 years ago, they were hunters and gatherers living in a Pleistocene glacial landscape. By the time European explorers visited Iowa, American Indians were settled farmers with complex economic and political systems; this transformation happened gradually. During the Archaic period American Indians adapted to local environments and ecosystems becoming more sedentary as populations increased. More than 3,000 years ago, during the Late Archaic period, American Indians in Iowa began utilizing domesticated plants; the subsequent Woodland period saw an increase on the reliance on agriculture and social complexity, with increased use of mounds and specialized subsistence. During the Late Prehistoric period increased use of maize and social changes led to social flourishing and nucleated settlements.
The arrival of European trade goods and diseases in the Protohistoric period led to dramatic population shifts and economic and social upheaval, with the arrival of new tribes and early European explorers and traders. During the Historical period European traders and American Indians in Iowa gave way to American settlers and Iowa was transformed into an agricultural state. Archaeologists have studied the prehistory of Iowa since the mid-19th century, when large American Indian mounds were first observed along the Mississippi. Early archaeologists such as S. V. Proudfit and Theodore Lewis documented large sites such as earthworks and earthlodges. Systematic recording of Iowa sites began with Charles R. Keyes and Ellison Orr’s surveys and excavations beginning in the 1920s. Documenting hundreds of sites just before they disappeared under the plow, Keyes’ and Orr’s work led to the formation of the Iowa Archaeological Survey, the Iowa Archeological Society, the designation of Effigy Mounds National Monument.
After their deaths in 1951, the Survey was disbanded, their efforts were continued by the University of Iowa’s Department of Sociology and Anthropology, which formed the Office of the State Archaeologist in 1959. The OSA maintains an extensive list of more than 23,000 recorded archaeological sites in Iowa, conducts survey and excavation across the state. Other institutions conducting archaeological research in Iowa include the State Historical Society of Iowa, the Iowa Archeological Society, the University of Iowa, Iowa State University, Grinnell College, Luther College, private archaeological firms. Professional archaeologists in Iowa are represented by the Association of Iowa Archaeologists. Iowa archaeology grew beginning in the 1960s with the introduction of Cultural Resources Management legislation that required archaeological survey and excavation at many federal projects in Iowa. Paleoindian hunters and gatherers were the first occupants of Iowa, entering the state at the end of the Pleistocene glacial period.
At the time the state was covered by tundra, conifer forests, deciduous forests. Areas north of Des Moines extending to Minnesota were covered by the receding Des Moines Lobe, a large glacier system. Mobile, their sites are scattered across Iowa and are noted for their large stone points. While Paleoindians were traditionally viewed as big game hunters, more recent research suggests much of their subsistence was derived from small game and wild plants. Paleoindian points are found throughout Iowa, but no intact Paleoindian sites have been excavated because they were ephemeral and are now either destroyed by plowing or are deeply buried in river valleys; the oldest artifacts found in Iowa are Clovis points, large lanceolate points found in all parts of the state except for the Des Moines Lobe. Possible sources of game were giant Pleistocene megafauna, including mammoth and giant forms of bison, all of which are now extinct. While widespread, only two Clovis sites have been excavated in Iowa; the Rummells-Maske site is a Clovis site in Cedar County.
The Carlisle Clovis Cache Site in Warren County contained 38 unfinished stone tools that appear to date to the Clovis period, but these results have not yet been published. Other Iowa Early Paleoindian points include Gainey, a point that appears to be intermediate between Clovis and Folsom. Gainey points were recovered at Rummells-Maske. While Folsom points are found throughout Iowa western Iowa, none have been excavated in a well-preserved site. At the beginning of the glacial-free Holocene Epoch, humans in Iowa utilized projectile point found throughout the mid-continent, including Dalton, Agate Basin, Hell Gap. Humans were still mobile, by this time most of the Pleistocene megafauna had gone extinct; as with the Early Paleoindian period, no intact Late Paleoindian sites have been excavated in Iowa. The Archaic is the longest period of Iowa prehistory, lasting about 8,000 years. Overall, populations appear to have increased in Iowa during the Archaic, despite a changing climate. During this time American Indians transitioned from mobile hunters and gatherers with large ranges towards a focus on local resources and ecosystems.
Domesticated plants appeared in Iowa towards the end of the Archaic. During the Early Archaic period regional variation in point forms is seen in Iowa, Indians adapted to more localized forms of hunting and gathering while maintaining seasonal movements from camp to camp. Common stone tool types are Corner-no
Jones County, Iowa
Jones County is a county located in the U. S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,638; the county seat is Anamosa. The county was founded in 1837 and named after George Wallace Jones, a United States Senator and member of Congress. Jones County is included in IA Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 577 square miles, of which 576 square miles is land and 1.4 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 151 Iowa Highway 1 Iowa Highway 38 Iowa Highway 64 Iowa Highway 136 Monticello Regional Airport serves the county and surrounding communities. Delaware County Dubuque County Jackson County Clinton County Cedar County Linn County Wapsipinicon State Park - Anamosa Central Park Pictured Rocks County Park Wapsipinicon State Park – This 400-acre park includes hiking, nature study, fishing in the Wapsipinicon River, modern camping and golf; the park is covered with vegetation and trees, hik¬ing reveals a multitude of flowers and wildlife.
A road makes a complete circle of the park, winding between the river and bluffs, where the view is great. Included along the drive is a trip through the oldest plant¬ing of white pine in Iowa. There are several caves such as Horse Thief Cave and Ice Cave; the Wapsi has long been famous for its channel and flathead catfish, as well as spring crappies and bullheads below the dam at the park's entrance. Bass and northern inhabit the waters. Of the 30 campsites, 15 have electricity. Running water and hot showers are available for modern camping, mushroom hunting is allowed. Wapsipinicon Country Club maintains a nine-hole golf course in the park; the park has two lodges – one heated and one for summer use – that are available upon reservation with the park ranger. For more information, call 319-462-2761. For information about golfing, call the Wapsipinicon Country Club at 319-462-3930. Central Park: This 217-acre park is located four miles southeast of Amber off County Roads X44 and E29 and Central Park Road.
Campsites and the park’s 25-acre lake are the main draws to Central Park. Campsites range from primitive to full hook-up. Central Parks other amenities include a swimming beach, sand volleyball area, horseshoe pits, boat ramp, hiking trails, rental pavilions, handicapped-accessible fishing pier, picnic areas, rental cabins and a nature center; the Central Park Nature Center is open 1-5 p.m. Saturdays and Sundays, Memorial Day through Labor Day weekend. Pictured Rocks Park – Located south of Monticello off Highway 38, this park offers hiking and access to the Maquoketa River. Picnic shelters, playground equipment, a boat ramp are available. Whitewater Canyon – Known for its beauty, the Whitewater Canyon area totals 562 acres of timber, restored prairie, riverine habitat. Public hunting and fishing are allowed, mowed hiking trails provide year-round recreational opportunities; this area is located east of Cascade on Highway 151, south on Curoe Road. Mon-Maq Dam – Located one mile northeast of Monticello along the Maquoketa River, this river access includes 63 acres of riverine habitat.
Known for its fishing holes, the Mon-Maq Dam area provides fishing fun for local anglers. Sandy areas downstream from the dam serve as put-in sites for kayakers; the 2010 census recorded a population of 20,638 in the county, with a population density of 35.8728/sq mi. There were 8,911 housing units, of which 8,151 were occupied; as of the census of 2000, there were 20,221 people, 7,560 households, 5,299 families residing in the county. The population density was 35 people per square mile. There were 8,126 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.68% White, 1.79% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.23% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races. 1.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,560 households out of which 31.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.00% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.90% were non-families.
25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.10% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, 15.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,449, the median income for a family was $44,269. Males had a median income of $31,039 versus $22,075 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,816. About 6.20% of families and 8.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.80% of those under age 18 and 10.20% of those age 65 or over. Center Junction Stone City Canton Fairview Langworthy Center Junction The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Jones County.† county seat National Register of Historic Places listings in Jones County, Iowa History of Jones County, Iowa and present - Vol 1.
M. Corbit. History of Jones County, Iowa and present - Vol 2. M. Corbit. Jones County government's website Jones County Genealogy Iowa GenWeb website
The oat, sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, known by the same name. While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Oats are a nutrient-rich food associated with lower blood cholesterol. Avenins present in oats can trigger celiac disease in a small proportion of people. Oat products are contaminated by other gluten-containing grains wheat and barley; the wild ancestor of Avena sativa and the related minor crop, A. byzantina, is the hexaploid wild oat, A. sterilis. Genetic evidence shows the ancestral forms of A. sterilis grew in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East. Oats are considered a secondary crop, i.e. derived from a weed of the primary cereal domesticates spreading westward into cooler, wetter areas favorable for oats leading to their domestication in regions of the Middle East and Europe. Oats are best grown in temperate regions, they have a lower summer heat requirement and greater tolerance of rain than other cereals, such as wheat, rye or barley, so they are important in areas with cool, wet summers, such as Northwest Europe and Iceland.
Oats are an annual plant, can be planted either in autumn or in the spring. In 2016, global production of oats was 23 million tonnes, led by the European Union with 35% of the world total, followed by Russia with 21% of the total, Canada with 13% of the total. Other substantial producers were Poland and Finland, each with over one million tonnes. Oats have numerous uses in foods. Oatmeal is chiefly eaten as porridge, but may be used in a variety of baked goods, such as oatcakes, oatmeal cookies and oat bread. Oats are an ingredient in many cold cereals, in particular muesli and granola. Historical attitudes towards oats have varied. Oat bread was first manufactured in Britain, where the first oat bread factory was established in 1899. In Scotland, they were, still are, held in high esteem, as a mainstay of the national diet. In Scotland, a dish was made by soaking the husks from oats for a week, so the fine, floury part of the meal remained as sediment to be strained off and eaten. Oats are widely used there as a thickener in soups, as barley or rice might be used in other countries.
Oats are commonly used as feed for horses when extra carbohydrates and the subsequent boost in energy are required. The oat hull may be crushed for the horse to more digest the grain, or may be fed whole, they may be given alone or as part of a blended food pellet. Cattle are fed oats, either whole or ground into a coarse flour using a roller mill, burr mill, or hammer mill. Oat forage is used to feed all kinds of ruminants, as pasture, hay or silage. Winter oats may be grown as an off-season groundcover and ploughed under in the spring as a green fertilizer, or harvested in early summer, they can be used for pasture. Oat straw is prized by cattle and horse producers as bedding, due to its soft dust-free, absorbent nature; the straw can be used for making corn dollies. Tied in a muslin bag, oat straw was used to soften bath water. Oats are occasionally used in several different drinks. In Britain, they are sometimes used for brewing beer. Oatmeal stout is one variety brewed using a percentage of oats for the wort.
The more used oat malt is produced by the Thomas Fawcett & Sons Maltings and was used in the Maclay Oat Malt Stout before Maclays Brewery ceased independent brewing operations. A cold, sweet drink called avena made of ground oats and milk is a popular refreshment throughout Latin America. Oatmeal caudle, made of ale and oatmeal with spices, was a traditional British drink and a favourite of Oliver Cromwell. Oat extracts can be used to soothe skin conditions, are popular for their emollient properties in cosmetics. Oat grass has been used traditionally for medicinal purposes, including to help balance the menstrual cycle, treat dysmenorrhoea and for osteoporosis and urinary tract infections. In China in western Inner Mongolia and Shanxi province, oat flour called youmian is processed into noodles or thin-walled rolls, is consumed as staple food. Oats are considered healthful due to their rich content of several essential nutrients. In a 100 gram serving, oats provide 389 kilocalories and are an excellent source of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins and numerous dietary minerals manganese.
Oats are 66 % carbohydrates, including 4 % beta-glucans, 7 % fat and 17 % protein. The established property of their cholesterol-lowering effects has led to acceptance of oats as a health food. Oat bran is the outer casing of the oat, its daily consumption over weeks lowers LDL and total cholesterol reducing the risk of heart disease. One type of soluble fiber, beta-glucans, has been proven to lower cholesterol. After reports of research finding that dietary oats can help lower cholesterol, the United States Food and Drug Administration issued a final rule that allows food companies to make health claims on food labels of foods that contain soluble fiber from whole oats, noting that 3
Iowa State Capitol
The Iowa State Capitol called the Iowa Statehouse, is in Iowa's capital city, Des Moines. As the seat of the Iowa General Assembly, the building houses the Iowa Senate, Iowa House of Representatives, the Office of the Governor, the Offices of the Attorney General, Auditor and Secretary of State; the building includes a chamber for the Iowa Supreme Court, although court activities take place in the neighboring Iowa Supreme Court building. The building was constructed between 1871 and 1886, is the only five-domed capitol in the country. Located at East 9th Street and Grand Avenue, the Capitol is set atop a hill and offers a panoramic view of the city's downtown and the West Capitol Terrace. Various monuments and memorials are to its sides and front, including the Soldiers and Sailors' Monument and the Lincoln and Tad statue. Not long after achieving statehood, Iowa recognized that the Capitol should be moved farther west than Iowa City, the 1st General Assembly, in 1846, authorized a commission to select a location.
In 1847, the town of Monroe City, in Jasper County was selected as the new location of the capitol and platted out, but the 1848 Legislature decided not to move the capitol from Iowa City. In 1854, the General Assembly decreed a location “within two miles of the Raccoon fork of the Des Moines River.” The exact spot was chosen when Wilson Alexander Scott gave the state nine and one-half acres where the Capitol now stands. Final legislative approval for the construction of a permanent statehouse was given on April 8, 1870. A three-story brick building served as a temporary Capitol and was in use for 30 years until destroyed by fires, but in the meantime, the permanent Capitol was being built. In 1870, the General Assembly established a Capitol commission to employ an architect, choose a plan for a building, proceed with the work, but only by using funds available without increasing the tax rate. John C. Cochrane and Alfred H. Piquenard were designated as architects, a cornerstone was laid on November 23, 1871.
However, much of the original stone deteriorated through waterlogging and severe weather and had to be replaced. The cornerstone was relaid on September 29, 1873. Although the building could not be constructed for $1.5 million as planned, the Cochrane and Piquenard design was retained and modifications were undertaken. Cochrane resigned in 1872, but Piquenard continued until his death in 1876, he was succeeded by two of his assistants, Mifflin E. Bell and W. F. Hackney. Bell redesigned the dome. Hackney was the only architect; the capitol building was dedicated on January 17, 1884, it was completed sometime in 1886. The building commission made its final report on June 29, 1886, with a total cost of $2,873,294.59. The audit showed. On January 4, 1904, a fire was started; the fire swept through the areas that housed the Supreme Iowa House of Representatives. A major restoration was performed and documented, with the addition of electrical lighting, a telephone system. Little information is available about.
However, Elmer Garnsey created the ceiling artwork in the House Chamber. These earlier efforts to preserve the Capitol dealt with maintaining and upgrading its interior, it was not until 1965, when the dome was regilded, that legislators made significant investments in preserving the building's exterior. By the early 1980s, the exterior of the Capitol had noticeably deteriorated. Sandstone pieces had begun falling from the building, prompting the installation of steel canopies at all entrances of the building to protect pedestrians. Decorative stone, whose deterioration had first been documented as early as the start of the 20th century, had eroded. Work on the exterior restoration was completed in nine phases. Phase 9 work began in the spring of 1998, the entire project was completed in the fall of 2001, at a cost of $41 million. While its primary use is as the house of the legislative branch of Iowa government, the Capitol functions as a living museum and state and international cultural facility.
Since 1987, the World Food Prize laureate award ceremony is held annually in October in the House of Representatives chamber of the statehouse. The ceremony rivals that of the Nobel Prize; each year, world-class performers take the stage to honor the World Food Prize Laureate. Past performers have included Ray Charles, John Denver, Noa to name a few. Following the ceremony, the celebration continues at a laureate award dinner held in the Capitol rotunda; the architectural design of the Capitol, rectangular in form, with great windows and high ceilings, follows the traditional pattern of 19th-century planning for public buildings. A modified and refined Renaissance style gives the impression of strength and dignity combined with utility; the building measures 364 feet from north to south and 247 feet from east to west. The exterior of the building is of stone with elaborate columns and handsomely designed cornices and capitals. Iowa stone is the foundation for the many porticoes of the building.
The building is brick with limestone from Iowa, Minnesota and Illinois. The substructure is of dark Iowa stone topped by a heavy course of wari-colored granite cut from glacial boulders gathered from the Iowa prairie; the superstructure, or main part of the building, is of bluff colored sandstone from quarries along th
Cargill, Incorporated is an American held global corporation based in Minnetonka and incorporated in Wilmington, Delaware. Founded in 1865, it is the largest held corporation in the United States in terms of revenue. If it were a public company, it would rank, as of 2015, number 15 on the Fortune 500, behind McKesson and ahead of AT&T; some of Cargill's major businesses are trading and distributing grain and other agricultural commodities, such as palm oil. Cargill has a large financial services arm, which manages financial risks in the commodity markets for the company. In 2003, it split off a portion of its financial operations into Black River Asset Management, a hedge fund with about $10 billion of assets and liabilities, it owned 2/3 of the shares of The Mosaic Company, one of the world's leading producers and marketers of concentrated phosphate and potash crop nutrients. Cargill reports revenues of $114.695 billion and earnings of $3.103 billion in 2018. Employing over 155,000 employees in 66 countries, it is responsible for 25% of all United States grain exports.
The company supplies about 22% of the US domestic meat market, importing more product from Argentina than any other company, is the largest poultry producer in Thailand. All the eggs used in US McDonald's restaurants pass through Cargill's plants, it is the only US producer of Alberger process salt, used in the fast-food and prepared food industries. Cargill remains a family-owned business; as a result, most of its growth has been due to reinvestment of the company's own earnings rather than public financing. Gregory R. Page succeeded former CEO Warren Staley in mid-2007, as Staley reached Cargill's mandatory retirement age of 65, was CEO and chairman until 2013, when he in turn was succeeded by Dave MacLennan. Cargill was founded in 1865 by William W. Cargill when he bought a grain flat house in Conover, Iowa. A year William was joined by his brother Sam, forming W. W. Cargill and Brother. Together, they opened a lumberyard. In 1875, Cargill moved to La Crosse and their brother James joined the business.
La Crosse was strategically located on the Mississippi near the junctions of the La Crosse River and Southern Minnesota divisions of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad. Sam Cargill left La Crosse in 1887 to manage the office in Minneapolis, an important emerging grain center. Three years the Minneapolis operation incorporated as Cargill Elevator Co.. In 1898, John H. MacMillan, Sr. and his brother, began working for W. W. Cargill. MacMillan married William Cargill's eldest daughter, Edna. Upon Sam Cargill's death in 1903, William Cargill became the sole owner of the La Crosse office. John MacMillan was named general manager of Cargill Elevator Company and moved his family to Minneapolis. William Cargill died in 1909. MacMillan worked to resolve the credit issues and to force his brother-in-law William S. Cargill out of the company; the current owners are descended from John MacMillan's two sons, John H. MacMillan, Jr. and Cargill MacMillan, Sr. and his youngest brother-in-law, Austen S. Cargill I.
John MacMillan ran the company until his retirement in 1936. Under his leadership Cargill grew several fold, expanding out of the Midwest by opening its first East coast offices, in New York, in 1923, the first Canadian and Latin American offices in 1928, 1929 and 1930. During this time, Cargill saw both record profits and major cash crunches; the first of the crises was the debt left by the death of William W. Cargill; the company issued $2.25 million in Gold Notes, backed by Cargill stock. The Gold Notes were due in 1917, but thanks to record grain prices caused by World War I all debts were paid by 1915; as World War I continued into 1917, Cargill made record earnings and faced criticisms of war profiteering. Four years as a fallout from the financial crash of 1920, Cargill posted its first loss. One of the biggest criticisms of the company has been its perceived arrogance; the MacMillans' aggressive management style led to a decades-long feud with the Chicago Board of Trade. It began in 1934.
The US government forced it to accept Cargill as a member. The 1936 corn crop failed and with the 1937 crop unavailable until October, the Chicago Board of Trade ordered Cargill to sell some of its corn. Cargill refused to comply; the US Commodity Exchange Authority and Chicago Board of Trade accused Cargill of trying to corner the corn market. In 1938, the Chicago Board suspended three of its officers from the trading floor; when the Board lifted its suspension a few years Cargill refused to rejoin, instead trading through independent traders. In 1962, Cargill did rejoin the Chicago Board of Trade, two years after the death of John MacMillan, Jr. During World War II, MacMillan, Jr. continued to expand the company, which boomed as it stored and transported grain and built ships for the United States Navy. In 1960, Erwin Kelm became the first non-family chief executive. Aiming for expansion into downstream production, he led the company into milling, starche