Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby
He was known before 1834 as Edward Stanley, and from 1834 to 1851 as Lord Stanley. He is one of only four British Prime Ministers to have three or more separate periods in office, however his ministries all lasted less than two years, and totalled 3 years 280 days. Historian Frances Walsh says it was, Derby who educated the party and acted as its strategist to pass the last great Whig measure, the 1867 Reform Act. It was his greatest achievement to create the modern Conservative Party in the framework of the Whig constitution, Stanley was born to Lord Stanley and his wife, Charlotte Margaret née Hornby, the daughter of the Reverend Geoffrey Hornby. The Stanleys were a long-established and very wealthy landowning family whose residence was Knowsley Hall in Lancashire. Stanley was educated at Eton College and at Christ Church, Oxford, in 1822 Edward Stanley, as he was then, was elected to Parliament in the rotten borough of Stockbridge as a Whig, the traditional party of his family. In 1824, however, he alienated his Whig colleagues by voting against Joseph Humes motion for an investigation into the Established Protestant Church of Ireland.
When the Whigs returned to power in 1830, Stanley became Chief Secretary for Ireland in Lord Greys Government, as Chief Secretary Stanley pursued a series of coercive measures which frequently brought him into conflict with the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord Anglesey. In 1833, Stanley moved up to the important position of Secretary of State for War. Stanley, a conservative Whig, broke with the ministry over the reform of the Church of Ireland in 1834, the term Derby Dilly was coined by Irish Nationalist leader Daniel OConnell. Joining the Conservatives, Stanley again served as Colonial Secretary in Sir Robert Peels second government in 1841, in 1844 he was summoned to the House of Lords as Lord Stanley of Bickerstaffe in his fathers Barony of Stanley by Writ of Acceleration. He broke with the Prime Minister again in 1845, this time over the repeal of the Corn Laws and he thereafter led the protectionist faction of the Conservative Party. In 1851 he succeeded his father as Earl of Derby, the party system was in a state of flux when the Conservatives left office in 1846, the outstanding issues being the question of Ireland and the unresolved franchise.
The protectionists had a core of leaders, of whom Disraeli was a leading light, but in opposition the party was still in-fighting, although Disraeli was determined to heal rifts. Derby formed a minority Government in February 1852 following the collapse of Lord John Russells Whig Government, in this new ministry, Benjamin Disraeli would be appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer. With many senior Conservative ministers having followed Peel, Derby was forced to appoint many new men to office – of the Cabinet only three were pre-existing Privy Counsellors. When the aged Duke of Wellington, by very deaf, heard the list of inexperienced Cabinet Ministers being read aloud in the House of Lords, from this government would be known as the Who. Traditionally Derbys ministries were thought in hindsight to have been dominated by Disraeli, however recent research suggests that this was not always the case, especially in the governments conduct of foreign policy
Secretary of State for Air
The Secretary of State for Air was a cabinet-level British position. The person holding this position was in charge of the Air Ministry and it was created on 10 January 1919 to manage the Royal Air Force. On 1 April 1964, the Air Ministry was incorporated into the Ministry of Defence, hansard - Secretary of State for Air
William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone, FRS, FSS was a British Liberal and earlier conservative politician. In a career lasting over sixty years, he served as Prime Minister four separate times, more than any other person, Gladstone was Britains oldest Prime Minister, he resigned for the final time when he was 84 years old. Gladstone first entered Parliament in 1832, beginning as a High Tory, Gladstone served in the Cabinet of Sir Robert Peel. After the split of the Conservatives Gladstone was a Peelite – in 1859 the Peelites merged with the Whigs, as Chancellor Gladstone became committed to low public spending and to electoral reform, earning him the sobriquet The Peoples William. Gladstones first ministry saw many reforms including the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland, after his electoral defeat in 1874, Gladstone resigned as leader of the Liberal Party, but from 1876 began a comeback based on opposition to Turkeys reaction to the Bulgarian April Uprising. Gladstones Midlothian Campaign of 1879–80 was an example of many modern political campaigning techniques.
The government passed the Third Reform Act, Back in office in early 1886, Gladstone proposed Irish home rule but this was defeated in the House of Commons in July. The resulting split in the Liberal Party helped keep out of office, with one short break. In 1892 Gladstone formed his last government at the age of 82, the Second Home Rule Bill passed the Commons but was defeated in the Lords in 1893. Gladstone resigned in March 1894, in opposition to increased naval expenditure and he left Parliament in 1895 and died three years aged 88. Gladstone was known affectionately by his supporters as The Peoples William or the G. O. M, Gladstone is consistently ranked as one of Britains greatest Prime Ministers. Born in 1809 in Liverpool, at 62 Rodney Street, William Ewart Gladstone was the son of the slave-owning merchant Sir John Gladstone. Although born and brought up in Liverpool, William Gladstone was of purely Scottish ancestry, in 1814 young Willy visited Scotland for the first time, as he and his brother John travelled with their father to Edinburgh and Dingwall to visit their relatives.
William and his brother were both made freemen of the burgh of Dingwall, in 1815 Gladstone travelled to London and Cambridge for the first time with his parents. In London he attended a service of thanksgiving with his family at St Pauls Cathedral following the Battle of Waterloo, William Gladstone was educated from 1816 to 1821 at a preparatory school at the vicarage of St Thomass Church at Seaforth, close to his familys residence, Seaforth House. In December 1831 he achieved the double first-class degree he had long desired, Gladstone served as President of the Oxford Union debating society, where he developed a reputation as an orator, which followed him into the House of Commons. At university Gladstone was a Tory and denounced Whig proposals for parliamentary reform, following the success of his double first, William travelled with his brother John on a Grand Tour of Europe, visiting Belgium, France and Italy. On his return to England, William was elected to Parliament in 1832 as Tory Member of Parliament for Newark, partly through the influence of the local patron, the Duke of Newcastle
George Robinson, 1st Marquess of Ripon
He was educated privately, attending neither school nor college. He was awarded the degree of DCL by Oxford University in 1870. Ripon served on Sir Henry Ellis British special mission to the Brussels Conference on the affairs of Italy during 1848–49, although his father had been a Tory, Ripon was first a Whig and a Liberal. He entered the House of Commons as member for Hull in 1852, both he and his party colleague, James Clay, were unseated in 1853 by petition over claims of widespread corruption in their election, of which they were exonerated of any knowledge. He was returned for Huddersfield in 1853 and the West Riding of Yorkshire in 1857 and he was Under-Secretary of State for War under Lord Palmerston between 1859 and 1861 and 1861 and 1863 and briefly Under-Secretary of State for India in 1861. In 1863 he was made a Privy Counsellor and Secretary of State for War under Palmerston and he retained this office when Lord Russell became prime minister on Palmerstons death in 1865, and served under Russell as Secretary of State for India between February and June 1866.
In Gladstones first administration he was Lord President of the Council, during this period he acted as chairman of the joint commission for drawing up the Treaty of Washington with the United States over the Alabama Claims. For this, in 1871 he was created Marquess of Ripon and he had already been made a Knight of the Garter in 1869. In 1878 he served as President of the first day of the Co-operative Congress, when Gladstone returned to power in 1880 he appointed Ripon Viceroy of India, an office he held until 1884. During his time in India, Ripon introduced legislation, that would have granted native Indians more legal rights, though progressive in its intent, this legislation was gutted by the British Parliament which did not want to lose its legal superiority. He was instrumental in supporting Dietrich Brandis to reorganize the Madras Forest Department and he is still revered in Chennai, India as Ripon engal appan meaning, Ripon our father. The Corporation of Chennais Ripon Building was named for him, as well as the town of Riponpet in the Shivamogga district in the state of Karnataka, in Calcutta, the Ripon Street was named for him.
The Ghanta Ghar Multan or Clock Tower of Multan in Pakistan was named Ripon Building, Lord Ripon became a supporter of Home Rule for Ireland. In Gladstones 1886 government he was First Lord of the Admiralty, when the Liberals again returned to power in 1905 under Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, he took office, aged 78, as Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords. In 1908, he declined to remain as Lords leader when H. H. Asquith became Prime Minister in April, and he resigned as Lord Privy Seal in October. As noted by Neil Smith, Ripon’s liberalism had roots in the century, but his political views “shifted with the times. ”Lord Ripon was President of the Royal Geographical Society during 1859–60. Lord Ripon held positions in the public life in Yorkshire. He was a Deputy-Lieutenant and JP for the counties of Lincolnshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire, JP for the Liberty of Ripon, and served as Mayor of Ripon in 1895–96
Jonathan Peel, PC was a British soldier, Conservative politician and racehorse owner. Peel was the son of Sir Robert Peel, 1st Baronet, and his first wife Ellen. Peel was commissioned into the Rifle Brigade as a 2nd Lieutenant in June 1815 and his steady rise through the ranks was obtained by purchase. He was promoted to brevet Colonel in 1841, to Major-General in 1854, peels political career started when he was elected Member of Parliament for Norwich in 1826. He lost this seat in 1830 but returned to Parliament the following year as one of two representatives for Huntingdon, a seat he held until 1868. He served under his brother as Surveyor-General of the Ordnance from 1841–46 and was Secretary of State for War under the Earl of Derby between 1858 and 1859 and 1866 and 1867, in the latter office he was considered competent and successful and became very popular. However, he resigned in March 1867 in protest against the electoral reforms. He had been admitted to the Privy Council in 1858, apart from his military and political career Peel was an owner of racehorses, and in 1844 his horse Orlando won the Derby, after another horse, Running Rein, had been disqualified.
Peel married, on 19 March 1824, Lady Alice Jane, youngest daughter of Archibald Kennedy, first Marquis of Ailsa, by whom he had eight children, five sons and their second son, Edmund Yates Peel, became a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Army. Their fourth son, John Peel, achieved the rank of Lieutenant-General in the Army and their second daughter Alice married the diplomat Sir Robert Morier. Their youngest daughter, Adelaide Georgiana, married Michael Biddulph, M. P, Jonathan Peel died in February 1879, aged 79, at his seat, Marble Hall, Middlesex, on 13 February 1879, and was buried in Twickenham new cemetery on 19 February. Earl Peel Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Peel, Sir Robert, hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by Jonathan Peel Leigh Rayments Historical List of MPs
Secretary of State for Defence
Her Majestys Principal Secretary of State for Defence is an official within Her Majestys Government and head of the Ministry of Defence. The office is a British Cabinet level position, the post was created in 1964 as successor to the posts of Minister for Coordination of Defence and Minister of Defence. The position of Minister for Co-ordination of Defence was a British Cabinet-level position established in 1936 to oversee, the position was established by Prime Minister Baldwin in response to criticism that Britains armed forces were understrength compared to those of Nazi Germany. Despite this, Baldwins choice of the Attorney General Sir Thomas Inskip provoked widespread astonishment, a famous comment made in response to Inskips appointment was This is the most cynical appointment since Caligula made his horse a consul. In 1939 Inskip was succeeded by First Sea Lord Lord Chatfield, in April 1940 the position was formally wound up and the functions transferred to other Ministers. Colour key, Conservative none The post of Minister of Defence was responsible for co-ordination of defence, the post was a Cabinet level post and generally ranked above the three service ministers, some of whom, continued to serve in Cabinet.
On his appointment as Prime Minister in May 1940, Winston Churchill created for himself the new post of Minister of Defence, the post was created in response to previous criticism that there had been no clear single minister in charge of the prosecution of World War II. Colour key, Conservative Labour Labour Co-op none The post of Secretary of State for Defence was created on 1 April 1964
Edward Cardwell, 1st Viscount Cardwell
Edward Cardwell, 1st Viscount Cardwell PC, PC, FRS was a prominent British politician in the Peelite and Liberal parties during the middle of the 19th century. He is best remembered for his tenure as Secretary of State for War between 1868 and 1874 and the introduction of the Cardwell Reforms, Cardwell was the son of John Henry Cardwell, of Liverpool, a merchant, and Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Birley. He was educated at Winchester and Balliol College, from where he took a degree in 1835 and he was called to the bar, Inner Temple, in 1838. Cardwell was elected Member of Parliament for Clitheroe in Lancashire in 1842 and he became a follower and confidant of Sir Robert Peel, the Prime Minister, and held his first office under him as Financial Secretary to the Treasury between 1845 and 1846. When Peel split the Conservative Party in 1846 over the issue of repealing the Corn Laws, Cardwell followed Peel, and became a member of the Peelite faction. When the Peelites came to power in 1852, Cardwell was sworn of the Privy Council and made President of the Board of Trade by Lord Aberdeen, a position he held until 1855.
In 1854 he passed the Cardwell Railway Act which stopped the competition between Railway Companies which was acting to their and the railusers disadvantage. During these years, Cardwell moved from seat to seat in Parliament, in 1847, he was elected as MP for Liverpool. In 1852, he lost elections for Liverpool and for Ayrshire, in 1857, he was defeated for the Oxford seat, but a second election for the seat was held shortly after, which he won. The Peelite faction disintegrated in the late 1850s, and Cardwell officially became a Liberal in 1859, unhappy in that position, he moved two years to another cabinet post, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. A second move within the cabinet came in 1864, when Cardwell became the Secretary of State for the Colonies, when the Liberals returned to power under William Ewart Gladstone in the 1868 election, Cardwell reached the peak of his career, as Gladstones Secretary of State for War. During his six years in the post, in became known as Cardwell reforms, Cardwell reorganised the British army, introduced professional standards for officers.
After Gladstones defeat in the 1874 election, Cardwell was raised to the peerage as Viscount Cardwell and his ennoblement ended his active political career. Liberal prime minister William Ewart Gladstone paid little attention to military affairs, in 1870 he pushed through Parliament major changes in Army organisation. The reforms were not radical—they had been brewing for years and Gladstone seized the moment to enact them, Cardwell as Secretary of State for War designed the reforms that Gladstone supported in the name of efficiency and democracy. In 1868 he abolished flogging, raising the private soldier status to more like an honourable career, in 1870 Cardwell abolished bounty money for recruits, discharged known bad characters from the ranks. He pulled 20,000 soldiers out of self-governing colonies like Canada, the most radical change, and one that required Gladstones political muscle, was to abolish the system of officers obtaining commissions and promotions by purchase, rather than by merit.
The system meant that the rich landholding families controlled all the middle, promotion depended on the familys wealth, not the officers talents, and the middle class was shut out almost completely
George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen
The Aberdeen ministry was filled with powerful and talented politicians, whom Aberdeen was largely unable to control and direct. Despite trying to avoid this happening, it took Britain into the Crimean War, aberdeens career was dominated by foreign policy, but his experience did not prevent the slide towards the Crimean War. His personal life was marked by the loss of parents by the time he was eleven, and of his first wife after only seven years of a happy marriage. His daughters died young, and his relations with his sons were difficult, before his marriage he travelled extensively in Europe, including Greece, and he had a serious interest in the classical civilisations and their archaeology. On his return to Britain in 1805 he devoted much time, after the death of his wife in 1812 he became a diplomat, almost immediately being given the important embassy to Vienna while still in his twenties. After holding the position for two years, followed by another role, by 1841 his experience led to his appointment as Foreign Secretary again under Robert Peel for a longer term.
This was despite his being a bad speaker, which mattered far less in the House of Lords. Nonetheless his Peelite colleague, himself Prime Minister, William Ewart Gladstone, I have loved others, but never like him. Born in Edinburgh on 28 January 1784, he was the eldest son of George Gordon, Lord Haddo, son of George Gordon and his mother was Charlotte, youngest daughter of William Baird of Newbyth. He lost his father in 1791 and his mother in 1795 and was brought up by Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville and he was educated at Harrow, and St Johns College, where he graduated with a Master of Arts in 1804. Before this, however, he had become Earl of Aberdeen on his grandfathers death in 1801, on his return to England, he founded the Athenian Society. In 1805, he married Lady Catherine Elizabeth, daughter of John Hamilton, in December 1805 Lord Aberdeen took his seat as a Tory Scottish representative peer in the House of Lords. In 1808, he was created a Knight of the Thistle, following the death of his wife from tuberculosis in 1812 he joined the Foreign Service.
He was appointed Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Austria, in the company of the Austrian Emperor, Francis II he was an observer at the decisive Coalition victory of the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, he had met Napoleon in his earlier travels. Aberdeen was greatly affected by the aftermath of war which he witnessed at first hand and he wrote home, The near approach of war and its effects are horrible beyond what you can conceive. The whole road from Prague to was covered with full of wounded, dead. The shock and disgust and pity produced by such scenes are beyond what I could have supposed possible. the scenes of distress, I have been quite haunted by them. Returning home he was created a peer of the United Kingdom as Viscount Gordon, of Aberdeen in the County of Aberdeen, and made a member of the Privy Council
Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Defence is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majestys Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. The MoD states that its objectives are to defend the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and its interests and to strengthen international peace. The MoD manages day-to-day running of the forces, contingency planning. As rearmament became a concern during the 1930s, Stanley Baldwin created the position of Minister for Coordination of Defence. Winston Churchill, on forming his government in 1940, created the office of Minister of Defence to exercise control over the Chiefs of Staff Committee. The post was held by the Prime Minister of the day until Clement Attlees government introduced the Ministry of Defence Act of 1946, the new ministry was headed by a Minister of Defence who possessed a seat in the Cabinet. These departments merged in 1964, the functions of the Ministry of Aviation Supply merged into the Ministry of Defence in 1971.
The Ministers in the Ministry of Defence are as follows, The Ministers and Chiefs of the Defence Staff are supported by a number of civilian, the Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Defence is the senior civil servant at the MoD. His or her role is to ensure the MoD operates effectively as a department of the government, Permanent Under-Secretary of State, Stephen Lovegrove—commencing April 2016 Defence Equipment & Support CEO - Tony Douglas — commencing 2016 Chief Scientific Adviser, Professor Vernon C. He is supported by the Vice Chief of the Defence Staff, vice-Chief of the Defence Staff, General Sir Gordon Messenger, Royal Marines. First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff, Admiral Sir Philip Jones, Royal Navy Chief of the General Staff, General Sir Nick Carter, the Surgeon General, represents the Defence Medical Services on the Defence Staff, and is the clinical head of that service. These forces must be capable of representing Britain as lead nation in any coalition operations, the ability, at longer notice, to deploy forces in a large-scale operation while running a concurrent small-scale operation.
The MoD has since been regarded as a leader in elaborating the post-Cold War organising concept of defence diplomacy, the UK is establishing air and naval bases in the Persian Gulf, located in the UAE and Bahrain. A presence in Oman is being considered, the Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015 included £178 billion investment in new equipment and capabilities. The review set a policy with four primary missions for the Armed Forces and contribute to the security and resilience of the UK. Contribute to improved understanding of the world through strategic intelligence and the defence network. Reinforce international security and the capacity of our allies, partners. Conduct operations to restore peace and stability, conduct major combat operations if required, including under NATO Article 5
George Cornewall Lewis
Sir George Cornewall Lewis, 2nd Baronet PC was a British statesman and man of letters. He is best known for preserving the peace in 1862 when the British cabinet debated intervention into the American Civil War, proponents such as Chancellor of the Exchequer William Gladstone, Foreign Minister Russell and Prime Minister Palmerston favored the Confederacy. They worried about the danger of an extremely bloody race war in the United States, Lewis was a strong opponent, warning that there were very high risks to British interests. His views finally prevailed and the British remained neutral throughout the Civil War and he was born in London, the son of Thomas Frankland Lewis of Harpton Court and his wife Harriet Cornewall. Thomas, after holding office in various administrations, became a poor-law commissioner. His maternal grandparents were Sir George Cornewall, 2nd Baronet and Catherine Cornewall, Lewis was educated at Eton College and at Christ Church, where in 1828 he earned a first-class in classics and a second-class in mathematics.
He entered the Middle Temple, and was called to the bar in 1831, in 1833 he undertook his first public work as one of the commissioners to inquire into the condition of the poor Irish residents in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1834 Lord Althorp included him in the commission to inquire into the state of church property, during this period Lewiss mind was occupied with the study of language. Its successor was the Classical Museum which he supported by occasional contributions and he compiled a glossary of provincial words used in Herefordshire and the adjoining counties. But the most important work of earlier period was one to which his logical and philological tastes contributed. Moreover, he translated Philipp August Böckhs Public Economy of Athens and Mullers History of Greek Literature, some time afterward he edited a text of the Fables of Babrius. While his friend Abraham Hayward conducted the Law Magazine, he wrote in it frequently on such subjects as secondary punishments, one leading object of both commissioners was to associate the Maltese in the responsible government of the island.
On his return to Britain, Lewis succeeded his father as one of the principal poor-law commissioners, the Essay on the Government of Dependencies appeared in 1841, a systematic statement and discussion of the various relations in which colonies may stand towards the mother country. In 1844 Lewis married Lady Maria Theresa Villiers, a lady of literary tastes and she was a daughter of George Villiers and Theresa Parker and younger sister of George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon. She was the widow of novelist Thomas Henry Lister and mother of three children by her previous marriage, much of their married life was spent in Kent House, Knightsbridge. His wife and her family promoted Lewiss career, in 1847 Lewis resigned his office. He was returned for the county of Hereford, and Lord John Russell appointed him Secretary to the Board of Control, in 1850 he succeeded Hayter as Financial Secretary to the Treasury. About this time, his Essay on the Influence of Authority in Matters of Opinion was published, from 1853 to 1854 he sat on Royal Commission on the City of London
Fox Maule-Ramsay, 11th Earl of Dalhousie
Fox Maule-Ramsay, 11th Earl of Dalhousie KT GCB PC, known as Fox Maule before 1852, as The Lord Panmure between 1852 and 1860, was a British politician. Dalhousie was the eldest son of William Maule, 1st Baron Panmure, christened Fox as a compliment to Charles James Fox, the great Whig, he served for a term in the Army. In 1835 he entered the House of Commons as member for Perthshire, in April 1852, he succeeded his father as 2nd Baron Panmure. In early 1855, he joined Lord Palmerstons cabinet, filling the new office of Secretary of State for War, Lord Panmure held this office until February 1858. He was at the War Office during the period of the Crimean War. He was Keeper of the Privy Seal of Scotland from 1853 until his death, always interested in church matters, Dalhousie was a prominent supporter of the Free Church of Scotland after it split from the Church of Scotland in the disruption of 1843. In December 1860, he succeeded his kinsman, the 1st Marquess of Dalhousie and he shortly afterwards changed his surname to Maule-Ramsay.
Lord Dalhousie married the Hon. Montague, daughter of George Abercromby, 2nd Baron Abercromby and she died in November 1853, aged 46. Lord Dalhousie died July 1874, aged 73, on his death, the barony of Panmure became extinct, but the earldom of Dalhousie passed to his cousin, George Ramsay. Hansard 1803–2005, contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Dalhousie Walford, Edward