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Secretary of State for the Colonies

The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet minister in charge of managing the United Kingdom's various colonial dependencies. The position was first created in 1768 to deal with the troublesome North American colonies, following passage of the Townsend Acts. Colonial responsibilities were held jointly by the Lords of Trade and Plantations and the Secretary of State for the Southern Department, responsible for Southern England, Ireland, the American colonies, relations with the Catholic and Muslim states of Europe. Joint responsibility continued under the Secretary of State for the Colonies, but led to a diminution of the board's status, it became an adjunct to the new Secretary's Department. Following the loss of the American colonies, both the board and the short-lived secretaryship were dismissed by the king on 2 May 1782. Following this, colonial duties given to the Home Secretary Lord Sydney. Following the Treaty of Paris 1783, a new board, named the Committee of Council on Trade and Plantations was established under William Pitt the Younger, by an Order in Council in 1784.

In 1794, a new office was created for Henry Dundas — the Secretary of State for War, which now took responsibility for the Colonies, was renamed the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies in 1801. In 1854, military reforms led to the Colonial and Military responsibilities of this secretary of state being split into two separate offices, with Sir George Grey becoming the first Secretary of State for the Colonies under the new arrangement. In the latter part of the nineteenth century, Britain gained control over a number of territories with the status of "protectorate"; the ministerial responsibility for these territories was held by the Foreign Secretary. However, by the early years of the twentieth century the responsibility for each of these territories had been transferred to the Colonial Secretary as well; the League of Nations mandated territories acquired as a result of the Treaty of Versailles became a further responsibility of the Colonial Office in the aftermath of the First World War.

In 1925, part of the Colonial Office was separated out as the Dominions Office, with its own Secretary of State. The new office was responsible for dealing with the Dominions together with a small number of other territories. In the twenty years following the end of the Second World War, much of the British Empire was dismantled as its various territories gained independence. In consequence, the Colonial Office was merged in 1966 with the Commonwealth Relations Office to form the Commonwealth Office, while ministerial responsibility was transferred to the Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs. In 1968, the Commonwealth Office was subsumed into the Foreign Office, renamed the Foreign and Commonwealth Office; the Colonial Secretary never had responsibility for the provinces and princely states of India, which had its own Secretary of State. From 1768 until 1966 the Secretary of State was supported by an Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, latterly by a Minister of State. Sometimes referred to as Secretary of State for the American Colonies.

Office abolished in 1782 after the loss of the American Colonies. Responsibility for the Colonies thereafter held by: Home Secretary 1782–1801 Secretary of State for War and the Colonies 1801–1854 Secretary of State for the Colonies from 1854 Responsibility for the colonies held by: Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs 1966–1968 Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs 1968–presentFollowing the British Nationality Act 1981 the term "colony" ceased to be used. Britain retains certain overseas territories. Notes A few title holders were born in colonies under their portfolio and some beyond: Bonar Law - born in pre-Canada colony of New Brunswick and moved to the United Kingdom Victor Bruce, 9th Earl of Elgin - born in Canada during his father's, James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, term as Governor General of Canada and a British appointee Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner - born in Grand Duchy of Hesse to Charles Milner Leo Amery - born in British India to an English father serving in India

Borj Rahal

Borj Rahal is a village in the Tyre District in South Lebanon. According to E. H. Palmer in 1881, the name Burj Rahhal means "the traveller’s tower". In the 1860s, Ernest Renan found here seven singular constructions in a row, three being open, the rest closed, he was informed that to the north-east of these there are seven more hidden under ground. The locals call them the Tombs of Kubur el Moluk. In 1875, Victor Guérin found here a village with 400 Metawileh inhabitants. "Here are seen good cut stones lying here and there, taken from an ancient fort."He further noted: "Ten minutes to the west of the village I observed three good subterranean magazines contiguous and parallel. Cut in the rock and constructed of cut stones, they measure ten metres in length by a breadth not greater than a metre and a half, they are covered within by a stony cement, in which are inserted fragments of pottery, arc surmounted by great inclined slabs forming a triangular roof. These are covered over by a layer of earth, so as to form a platform.

Several other similar caves are adjoining them. They served as oil and wine- cellars, or stores for corn; the place is called Kh. Mahatma."In 1881, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described it as: "A large village built of stone, containing 150 Metawileh, on a ridge, surrounded by figs and arable land. There is a good spring and well near." They further noted: "A few more minutes to the west, Guérin found. Kerry el Meserta, where he observed the uprights of grooved oil-presses, broken sarcophagi, mill stones, numerous little cubes of mosaic scattered about, a great cistern extending under a platform. At twenty minutes' march west-south-west of El Meserta, he observed a hillock with the remains of a ruined village called Kh. Halua. Not far from this place, to the east-north-east, he found a platform surrounded by a wall of large stones, having a great cistern hollowed in the middle, it is called Bir el Mellaha." Borj Rahhal - Ain Abou Abdallah - Ain Zarka, Localiban Survey of Western Palestine, Map 1: IAA, Wikimedia commons

Barnhart Twin 15

The Barnhart Twin 15 "Wampus-Kat" is a twin engine biplane, built in 1920. The prototype was built in Pasadena, California in 1920 by G. E. Barnhart, an engineer for the Handley Page program; the "Wampus-Kat" was a twin engine conventional landing gear-equipped biplane with folding wings. There are ailerons on lower wings; the wooden fuselage had a small nose-mounted door that allowed access for four passengers inside and one pilot in an open cockpit above. All surfaces are fabric covered except the cabin; the main fuel tank was below the fuselage with a small gravity feeder tank. The Wampus-Kat was christened with a spray of roses in Pasadena in August 1921. Four passengers flew in a flight demonstration, it was wrecked in a windstorm at the Makepeace Airport in California. Financing for a rebuild was not obtained, further development stopped. Data from FlightFlight:THE BARNHART TWIN 15 " WAMPUS-KAT, Aerofiles BAGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 4 pax / 1,404 lb Length: 30 ft 10 in Wingspan: 50 ft Width: 22 ft wings folded Height: 11 ft Wing area: 484.9 sq ft Airfoil: R.

A. F. 6A Empty weight: 2,611 lb Gross weight: 4,015 lb Fuel capacity: fuel and oil 540 lb Powerplant: 2 × Curtiss OX-5 V-8 water-cooled piston engines, 90 hp each Propellers: 2-bladed fixed pitch propellersPerformance Maximum speed: 90 mph Stall speed: 40 mph Service ceiling: 11,600 ft Rate of climb: 350 ft/min Time to altitude: 3,500 ft in 10 minutes Wing loading: 8.23 lb/sq ft Power/mass: 22.3 lb/hp Aircraft of comparable role and era Handley Page Type O