Human gait refers to locomotion achieved through the movement of human limbs. Human gait is defined as bipedal, biphasic forward propulsion of center of gravity of the human body, in which there are alternate sinuous movements of different segments of the body with least expenditure of energy. Different gait patterns are characterized by differences in limb-movement patterns, overall velocity, forces and potential energy cycles, changes in the contact with the surface. Human gaits are the various ways in which a human can move, either or as a result of specialized training. Human gaits are classified in various ways; every gait can be categorized as either natural or trained. Examples of the latter include hand walking and specialized gaits used in martial arts. Gaits can be categorized according to whether the person remains in continuous contact with the ground. One variable in gait is foot strike – how the foot contacts the ground which part of the foot first contacts the ground. Forefoot strike – toe-heel: ball of foot lands first midfoot strike – heel and ball land heel strike – heel-toe: heel of foot lands plantar flexes to ballIn sprinting, gait features a forefoot strike, but the heel does not contact the ground.
Some researchers classify foot strike by the initial center of pressure. In this classification: a rearfoot strike has the initial center of pressure in the rear third of the shoe. Foot strike varies to some degree between strides, between individuals, it varies and notably between walking and running, between wearing shoes and not wearing shoes. Barefoot walking features heel or midfoot strike, while barefoot running features midfoot or forefoot strike. Barefoot running features heel strike because the impact can be painful, the human heel pad not absorbing much of the force of impact. By contrast, 75% of runners wearing modern running shoes heel strike, running shoes being characterized by a padded sole, stiff soles and arch support, sloping down from a more padded heel to a less padded forefoot; the cause of this change in gait in shoe running is unknown, but Liebermann noted that there is correlation between the foot-landing style and exposure to shoes. In some individuals, the gait pattern is unchanged – the leg position and foot position are identical in barefoot and shoe running – but the wedge shape of the padding moving the point of impact back from the forefoot to the midfoot.
In other cases, it is conjectured that the padding of the heel softens the impact and resulting in runner modifying their gait to contact further back in the foot. A 2012 study involving Harvard University runners found that those who "habitually rearfoot strike had twice the rate of repetitive stress injuries than individuals who habitually forefoot strike"; this was the first study that investigated the link between foot injury rates. However, earlier studies have shown that smaller collision forces were generated when running forefoot strike compared to rear-foot strike; this may protect the ankle joints and lower limbs from some of the impact-related injuries experienced by rear-foot strikers. In a 2017 article called "Foot Strike Pattern in Children During Shod-Unshod Running," there was a study done where over 700 children were observed from the ages of 6-16 to see their foot strike patterns and neutral support, they wanted to see what outside factors to shod and unshod conditions and sex.
This study used multiple video recording devices to get their results. The results showed that most foot patterns such as foot rotation and the rearfoot strike were similar in boys and girls at the same ages; the CNS regulates gait in a ordered fashion. The signals fire in a rhythmic fashion that matches the movement seen in behavior; this rhythmic firing is the result of Central Pattern Generators that are present throughout the tracts. Regardless of if a motion is voluntary or not, these processes occur. Therefore, CPG's are autonomous to cognition. Gait in humans is difficult to study due to ethical concerns. Therefore, the majority of what is known about gait in humans comes from fMRI data in different walking conditions; these studies have provided the field with several important discoveries. There are numerous centers, both in the brain and in the spinal cord, that have been proposed to regulate gait. There are three centers that are described to regulate locomotion: MLR - Mesopontine Tegmentum Locomotor Region SLR - Spinal cord Locomotor Region CLR - Cerebellar Locomotor RegionThese centers are coordinated with the posture control systems in place in the cerebral hemisphere and the cerebellum.
With each behavioral movement, the sensory systems responsible for posture control respond. These signals act on the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum, the brainstem. Many of these pathways are under investigation, but some aspects of this control are well understood. From fMRI studies, two regions have been identified to hold particular importance in gait regulation; these are the supplementary motor area and the prefrontal cortex When these regions are inhibited in bi-pedal monkeys, a close relative to humans, they experience irregular gait. In addition, the firing rate of these regions has been shown to regulate speed of gait; this suggestion is the result of a study showing that elderly have less activity
Amobarbital is a drug, a barbiturate derivative. It has sedative-hypnotic properties, it is a white crystalline powder with no odor and a bitter taste. It was first synthesized in Germany in 1923, it is considered an intermediate acting barbiturate. If amobarbital is taken for extended periods of time and psychological dependence can develop. Amobarbital withdrawal may be life-threatening. Amobarbital was once manufactured by Eli Lilly and Company in the US under the brand name Amytal in bright blue bullet shaped capsule form containing either 50 or 100 mg of the drug, it was abused, known as "blue heavens" on the streets, was discontinued by Eli Lilly in the early 1980s. In an in vitro study in fat thalamic slices amobarbital worked by activating GABAA receptors, which decreased input resistance, depressed burst and tonic firing in ventrobasal and intralaminar neurons, while at the same time increasing burst duration and mean conductance at individual chloride channels. Amobarbital has been used in a study to inhibit mitochondrial electron transport in the rat heart in an attempt to preserve mitochondrial function following reperfusion.
A 1988 study found that amobarbital increases benzodiazepine receptor binding in vivo with less potency than secobarbital and pentobarbital, but greater than phenobarbital and barbital. It has an LD50 in mice of 212 mg/kg s.c. Amobarbital undergoes both hydroxylation to form 3'-hydroxyamobarbital, N-glucosidation to form 1-amobarbital. Anxiety Epilepsy Insomnia Wada test When given by an intravenous route, sodium amobarbital has a reputation for acting as a so-called truth serum. Under the influence, a person will divulge information that under normal circumstances they would block; this was most due to loss of inhibition. As such, the drug was first employed clinically by Dr. William Bleckwenn at the University of Wisconsin to circumvent inhibitions in psychiatric patients; the use of amobarbital as a truth serum has lost credibility due to the discovery that a subject can be coerced into having a "false memory" of the event. The drug may be used intravenously to interview patients with catatonic mutism, sometimes combined with caffeine to prevent sleep.
It was used by the United States armed forces during World War II in an attempt to treat shell shock and return soldiers to the front-line duties. This use has since been discontinued as the powerful sedation, cognitive impairment, dis-coordination induced by the drug reduced soldiers' usefulness in the field. Amobarbital was once manufactured in the US by Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals under the brand name Amytal in capsule form, it was discontinued in the early 80's replaced by the benzodiazepine family of drugs. Amobarbital was widely abused, known on the streets as "blue heavens" because of their blue capsule; the following drugs should be avoided when taking amobarbital: Antiarrhythmics, such as verapamil and digoxin Antiepileptics, such as phenobarbital or carbamazepine Antihistamines, such as doxylamine and clemastine Antihypertensives, such as atenolol and propranolol EthanolAlcohol https://www.drugs.com/food-interactions/amobarbital.html Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, nitrazepam,alprazolam,or lorazepam Chloramphenicol Chlorpromazine Cyclophosphamide Ciclosporin Digitoxin Doxorubicin Doxycycline Methoxyflurane Metronidazole Narcotic analgesics, such as morphine and oxycodone Quinine Steroids, such as prednisone and cortisone Theophylline Warfarin Amobarbital has been known to decrease the effects of hormonal birth control, sometimes to the point of uselessness.
Being chemically related to phenobarbital, it might do the same thing to digitoxin, a cardiac glycoside. Some side effects of overdose include confusion. Amobarbital, like all barbiturates, is synthesized by reacting malonic acid derivatives with urea derivatives. In particular, in order to make amobarbital, α-ethyl-α-isoamylmalonic ester is reacted with urea, it has been used to convict alleged murderers such as Andres English-Howard, who strangled his girlfriend to death but claimed innocence. He was surreptitiously administered the drug by his lawyer, under the influence of it he revealed why he strangled her and under what circumstances. On the night of August 28, 1951, the housekeeper of actor Robert Walker found him to be in an emotional state, she called Walker's psychiatrist who administered amobarbital for sedation. Walker was drinking prior to his emotional outburst, it is believed the combination of amobarbital and alcohol resulted in a severe reaction; as a result, he passed out and stopped breathing, all efforts to resuscitate him failed.
Walker died at 32 years old. Eli Lilly manufactured Amobarbital under the brand name Amytal, it was discontinued in the 1980's replaced by the benzodiazepine family of drugs. Amytal was widely abused. Street names for Amobarbital include "blues", "blue angels", "blue birds", "blue devils", "blue heavens" due to their blue capsule. Blue 88 Depressant Tuinal
Hypnotic or soporific drugs known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia, or for surgical anesthesia. This group is related to sedatives. Whereas the term sedative describes drugs that serve to calm or relieve anxiety, the term hypnotic describes drugs whose main purpose is to initiate, sustain, or lengthen sleep; because these two functions overlap, because drugs in this class produce dose-dependent effects they are referred to collectively as sedative-hypnotic drugs. Hypnotic drugs are prescribed for insomnia and other sleep disorders, with over 95% of insomnia patients being prescribed hypnotics in some countries. Many hypnotic drugs are habit-forming and, due to a large number of factors known to disturb the human sleep pattern, a physician may instead recommend changes in the environment before and during sleep, better sleep hygiene, the avoidance of caffeine or other stimulating substances, or behavioral interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia before prescribing medication for sleep.
When prescribed, hypnotic medication should be used for the shortest period of time necessary. Among individuals with sleep disorders, 13.7% are taking or prescribed nonbenzodiazepines, while 10.8% are taking benzodiazepines, as of 2010. Early classes of drugs, such as barbiturates, have fallen out of use in most practices but are still prescribed for some patients. In children, prescribing hypnotics is not yet acceptable unless used to treat night terrors or somnambulism. Elderly people are more sensitive to potential side effects of daytime fatigue and cognitive impairments, a meta-analysis found that the risks outweigh any marginal benefits of hypnotics in the elderly. A review of the literature regarding benzodiazepine hypnotics and Z-drugs concluded that these drugs can have adverse effects, such as dependence and accidents, that optimal treatment uses the lowest effective dose for the shortest therapeutic time period, with gradual discontinuation in order to improve health without worsening of sleep.
Falling outside the above-mentioned categories, the neuro-hormone melatonin has a hypnotic function. Hypnotica was a class of somniferous drugs and substances tested in medicine of the 1890s and including: Urethan, Methylal, paraldehyde, Hypnon and Ohloralamid or Chloralimid. Research about using medications to treat insomnia evolved throughout the last half of the 20th century. Treatment for insomnia in psychiatry dates back to 1869 when chloral hydrate was first used as a soporific. Barbiturates emerged as the first class of drugs that emerged in the early 1900s, after which chemical substitution allowed derivative compounds. Although the best drug family at the time they were dangerous in overdose and tended to cause physical and psychological dependence. During the 1970s, quinazolinones and benzodiazepines were introduced as safer alternatives to replace barbiturates. Benzodiazepines are not without their drawbacks. Questions have been raised as to. Nonbenzodiazepines are the most recent development.
Although it's clear that they are less toxic than their predecessors, comparative efficacy over benzodiazepines have not been established. Without longitudinal studies, it is hard to determine. Other sleep remedies that may be considered "sedative-hypnotics" exist. Examples of these include mirtazapine, clonidine and the over-the-counter sleep aid diphenhydramine. Off-label sleep remedies are useful when first-line treatment is unsuccessful or deemed unsafe. Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to total anesthesia, they are effective as anxiolytics and anticonvulsalgesic effects. They have dependence liability, both psychological. Barbiturates have now been replaced by benzodiazepines in routine medical practice – for example, in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia – because benzodiazepines are less dangerous in overdose. However, barbiturates are still used in general anesthesia, for epilepsy, assisted suicide.
Barbiturates are derivatives of barbituric acid. The principal mechanism of action of barbiturates is believed to be positive allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. Examples include amobarbital, phenobarbital and sodium thiopental. Quinazolinones are a class of drugs which function as hypnotic/sedatives that contain a 4-quinazolinone core, their use has been proposed in the treatment of cancer. Examples of quinazolinones include cloroqualone, etaqualone, mebroqualone and methaqualone. Benzodiaz
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus. A reflex is made possible by neural pathways called reflex arcs which can act on an impulse before that impulse reaches the brain; the reflex is an automatic response to a stimulus that does not receive or need conscious thought. Myotatic reflexes The myotatic reflexes, provide information on the integrity of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Decreased reflexes indicate a peripheral problem, lively or exaggerated reflexes a central one. A stretch reflex is the contraction of a muscle in response to its lengthwise stretch. Biceps reflex Brachioradialis reflex Extensor digitorum reflex Triceps reflex Patellar reflex or knee-jerk reflex Ankle jerk reflex While the reflexes above are stimulated mechanically, the term H-reflex refers to the analogous reflex stimulated electrically, tonic vibration reflex for those stimulated to vibration. A tendon reflex is the contraction of a muscle in response to striking its tendon.
The Golgi tendon reflex is the inverse of a stretch reflex. Newborn babies have a number of other reflexes which are not seen in adults, referred to as primitive reflexes; these automatic reactions to stimuli enable infants to respond to the environment before any learning has taken place. They include: Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex Palmomental reflex Moro reflex known as the startle reflex Palmar grasp reflex Rooting reflex Sucking reflex Symmetrical tonic neck reflex Tonic labyrinthine reflex Other reflexes found in the central nervous system include: Abdominal reflexes Gastrocolic reflex Anocutaneous reflex Baroreflex Cough reflex Cremasteric reflex Diving reflex Muscular defense Photic sneeze reflex Scratch reflex Sneeze Startle reflex Withdrawal reflex Crossed extensor reflexMany of these reflexes are quite complex requiring a number of synapses in a number of different nuclei in the CNS. Others of these involve just a couple of synapses to function. Processes such as breathing and the maintenance of the heartbeat can be regarded as reflex actions, according to some definitions of the term.
In medicine, reflexes are used to assess the health of the nervous system. Doctors will grade the activity of a reflex on a scale from 0 to 4. While 2+ is considered normal, some healthy individuals are hypo-reflexive and register all reflexes at 1+, while others are hyper-reflexive and register all reflexes at 3+. List of reflexes All-or-none law Automatic behavior Conditioned reflex Instinct Jumping Frenchmen of Maine Voluntary action Preflexes
Death is the permanent cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. Phenomena which bring about death include aging, malnutrition, suicide, starvation and accidents or major trauma resulting in terminal injury. In most cases, bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death. Death – the death of humans – has been considered a sad or unpleasant occasion, due to the affection for the being that has died and the termination of social and familial bonds with the deceased. Other concerns include fear of death, anxiety, grief, emotional pain, sympathy, solitude, or saudade. Many cultures and religions have the idea of an afterlife, hold the idea of reward or judgement and punishment for past sin; the word death comes from Old English dēaþ. This comes from the Proto-Indo-European stem *dheu- meaning the "process, condition of dying"; the concept and symptoms of death, varying degrees of delicacy used in discussion in public forums, have generated numerous scientific and acceptable terms or euphemisms for death.
When a person has died, it is said they have passed away, passed on, expired, or are gone, among numerous other accepted, religiously specific and irreverent terms. Bereft of life, the dead person is a corpse, cadaver, a body, a set of remains, when all flesh has rotted away, a skeleton; the terms carrion and carcass can be used, though these more connote the remains of non-human animals. As a polite reference to a dead person, it has become common practice to use the participle form of "decease", as in the deceased; the ashes left after a cremation are sometimes referred to by the neologism cremains, a portmanteau of "cremation" and "remains". Senescence refers to a scenario when a living being is able to survive all calamities, but dies due to causes relating to old age. Animal and plant cells reproduce and function during the whole period of natural existence, but the aging process derives from deterioration of cellular activity and ruination of regular functioning. Aptitude of cells for gradual deterioration and mortality means that cells are sentenced to stable and long-term loss of living capacities despite continuing metabolic reactions and viability.
In the United Kingdom, for example, nine out of ten of all the deaths that occur on a daily basis relates to senescence, while around the world it accounts for two-thirds of 150,000 deaths that take place daily. All animals who survive external hazards to their biological functioning die from biological aging, known in life sciences as "senescence"; some organisms experience negligible senescence exhibiting biological immortality. These include the jellyfish Turritopsis dohrnii, the hydra, the planarian. Unnatural causes of death include homicide. From all causes 150,000 people die around the world each day. Of these, two thirds die directly or indirectly due to senescence, but in industrialized countries – such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany – the rate approaches 90%. Physiological death is now seen as a process, more than an event: conditions once considered indicative of death are now reversible. Where in the process a dividing line is drawn between life and death depends on factors beyond the presence or absence of vital signs.
In general, clinical death is neither sufficient for a determination of legal death. A patient with working heart and lungs determined to be brain dead can be pronounced dead without clinical death occurring; as scientific knowledge and medicine advance, formulating a precise medical definition of death becomes more difficult. Signs of death or strong indications that a warm-blooded animal is no longer alive are: Respiratory arrest Cardiac arrest Brain death Pallor mortis, paleness which happens in the 15–120 minutes after death Algor mortis, the reduction in body temperature following death; this is a steady decline until matching ambient temperature Rigor mortis, the limbs of the corpse become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate Livor mortis, a settling of the blood in the lower portion of the body Decomposition, the reduction into simpler forms of matter, accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor. The concept of death is a key to human understanding of the phenomenon. There are many scientific approaches to the concept.
For example, brain death, as practiced in medical science, defines death as a point in time at which brain activity ceases. One of the challenges in defining death is in distinguishing it from life; as a point in time, death would seem to refer to the moment. Determining when death has occurred is difficult, as cessation of life functions is not simultaneous across organ systems; such determination therefore requires drawing precise conceptual boundaries between death. This is due to there being little consensus on how to define life; this general problem applies to the particular challenge of defining death in the context of medicine. It is possible to define life in terms of consciousness; when consciousness ceases, a living organism can be said to have died. One of the flaws in this approach is that there are many organisms which are alive but not conscious. Another problem is in defining consciousness, which has many different d
Benzodiazepines, sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring. The first such drug, was discovered accidentally by Leo Sternbach in 1955, made available in 1960 by Hoffmann–La Roche, since 1963, has marketed the benzodiazepine diazepam. In 1977 benzodiazepines were globally the most prescribed medications, they are in the family of drugs known as minor tranquilizers. Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid at the GABAA receptor, resulting in sedative, anxiolytic and muscle relaxant properties. High doses of many shorter-acting benzodiazepines may cause anterograde amnesia and dissociation; these properties make benzodiazepines useful in treating anxiety, agitation, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal and as a premedication for medical or dental procedures. Benzodiazepines are categorized as either intermediary, or long-acting. Short- and intermediate-acting benzodiazepines are preferred for the treatment of insomnia.
Benzodiazepines are viewed as safe and effective for short-term use, although cognitive impairment and paradoxical effects such as aggression or behavioral disinhibition occur. A minority of people can have paradoxical reactions such as worsened panic. Benzodiazepines are associated with increased risk of suicide. Long-term use is controversial because of concerns about decreasing effectiveness, physical dependence, an increased risk of dementia. Stopping benzodiazepines leads to improved physical and mental health; the elderly are at an increased risk of both short- and long-term adverse effects, as a result, all benzodiazepines are listed in the Beers List of inappropriate medications for older adults. There is controversy concerning the safety of benzodiazepines in pregnancy. While they are not major teratogens, uncertainty remains as to whether they cause cleft palate in a small number of babies and whether neurobehavioural effects occur as a result of prenatal exposure. Benzodiazepines can cause dangerous deep unconsciousness.
However, they are less toxic than their predecessors, the barbiturates, death results when a benzodiazepine is the only drug taken. When combined with other central nervous system depressants such as alcoholic drinks and opioids, the potential for toxicity and fatal overdose increases. Benzodiazepines are misused and taken in combination with other drugs of abuse. Benzodiazepines possess psycholeptic, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, amnesic actions, which are useful in a variety of indications such as alcohol dependence, anxiety disorders, panic and insomnia. Most are administered orally. In general, benzodiazepines are well-tolerated and are safe and effective drugs in the short term for a wide range of conditions. Tolerance can develop to their effects and there is a risk of dependence, upon discontinuation a withdrawal syndrome may occur; these factors, combined with other possible secondary effects after prolonged use such as psychomotor, cognitive, or memory impairments, limit their long-term applicability.
The effects of long-term use or misuse include the tendency to cause or worsen cognitive deficits and anxiety. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia recommends discontinuing the usage of benzodiazepines in those on opioids and those who have used them long term. Benzodiazepines can have serious adverse health outcomes, these findings support clinical and regulatory efforts to reduce usage in combination with non-benzodiazepine receptor agonists; because of their effectiveness and rapid onset of anxiolytic action, benzodiazepines are used for the treatment of anxiety associated with panic disorder. However, there is disagreement among expert bodies regarding the long-term use of benzodiazepines for panic disorder; the views range from those that hold that benzodiazepines are not effective long-term and that they should be reserved for treatment-resistant cases to those that hold that they are as effective in the long term as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The American Psychiatric Association guidelines note that, in general, benzodiazepines are well tolerated, their use for the initial treatment for panic disorder is supported by numerous controlled trials.
APA states that there is insufficient evidence to recommend any of the established panic disorder treatments over another. The choice of treatment between benzodiazepines, SSRIs, serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, psychotherapy should be based on the patient's history and other individual characteristics. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are to be the best choice of pharmacotherapy for many patients with panic disorder, but benzodiazepines are often used, some studies suggest that these medications are still used with greater frequency than the SSRIs. One advantage of benzodiazepines is that they alleviate the anxiety symptoms much faster than antidepressants, therefore may be preferred in patients for whom rapid symptom control is critical. However, this advantage is offset by the possibility of developing benzodiazepine dependence. APA does not recommend benzodiazepines for persons with depressive
A club is among the simplest of all weapons: a short staff or stick made of wood, wielded as a weapon since prehistoric times. There are several examples of blunt-force trauma caused by clubs in the past, including at the site of Nataruk in Turkana, described as the scene of a prehistoric conflict between bands of hunter-gatherers 10,000 years ago. In popular culture, clubs are associated with primitive cultures cavemen. Most clubs are small enough to be swung with one hand, although larger clubs may require the use of two to be effective. Various specialized clubs are used in martial arts and other fields, including the law-enforcement baton; the military mace is a more sophisticated descendant of the club made of metal and featuring a spiked, knobbed, or flanged head attached to a shaft. The wounds inflicted by a club are known as strike trauma or blunt-force trauma injuries. Police forces and their predecessors have traditionally favored the use, whenever possible, of less-lethal weapons than guns or blades.
Until recent times, when alternatives such as tasers and capsicum spray became available, this category of policing weapon has been filled by some form of wooden club variously termed a truncheon, nightstick, or lathi. Short, flexible clubs are often used by plainclothes officers who need to avoid notice; these are known colloquially as saps, or coshes. They are used in olden ages of the Philippines to punish citizens. Conversely, criminals have been known to arm themselves with an array of homemade or improvised clubs of concealable sizes, or which can be explained as being carried for legitimate purposes. In addition, Shaolin monks and members of other religious orders around the world have employed cudgels from time to time as defensive weapons. Though the simplest of all weapons, there are many varieties of club, including: For other types see Baton. Aklys – a club with an integrated leather thong, used to return it to the hand after snapping it at an opponent. Used by the legions of the Roman Empire.
Ball club – These clubs were used by the Native Americans. There are two types; these consisted of a free-moving head of rounded stone or wood attached to a wooden handle. Baseball, cricket and T-ball bats – The baseball bat is used as an improvised weapon, much like the pickaxe handle. In countries where baseball is not played, baseball bats are first thought of as weapons. Tee ball bats are used in this manner, their smaller size and lighter weight make the bat easier to handle in one hand than a baseball bat. Baton Blackjack: see cosh. Clava – a traditional stone hand-club used by Mapuche Indians in Chile, featuring a long flat body. In Spanish, it is known as clava cefalomorfa, it has some ritual importance as a special sign of distinction carried by the tribal chief. Cosh: A weapon made of covered metal similar to a blackjack. Any of various sorts of blunt instrument such as bludgeon, truncheon or the like. Cudgel – A stout stick carried by peasants during the Middle Ages, it functioned as a weapon for both self-defence and wartime.
Regiments of clubmen were raised as late as the English Civil War. The cudgel is known as the singlestick. Crowbar – The crowbar is a used improvised weapon, though some examples are too large to be wielded with a single hand, therefore should be classified as staves. Flashlight – A large metal flashlight, such as a Maglite, can make a effective improvised club. Though not classified as a weapon, it is carried for self-defense by security guards and civilians in countries where carrying weapons is restricted. Gunstock war club – The wooden stocks of firearms introduced during the European colonization of the Americas were re-used by First Nations as improvised weapons. Regardless, the gunstock is an essential part of firearms, but it was stylized as a war club made famous by the American Indians as the gunstock war club. Another more modern variation of this kind of war club is the combat skill of bayonet usage. Without a knife or blade type attachment, the rifle's body itself is used for close-quarters combat.
Jutte – One of the more distinctive weapons of the samurai police was the jutte. An iron rod, the jutte was popular because it could parry and disarm a sword-wielding assailant without serious injury. A single hook on the side near the handle allowed the jutte to be used for trapping or breaking the blades of edged weapons, as well as for jabbing and striking; the hook could be used to entangle the clothes or fingers of an opponent. Thus, feudal Japanese police used the jutte to arrest subjects without serious bloodshed; the jutte came to be considered a symbol of official status. Kanabō – Various types of different-sized Japanese clubs made of wood and or iron with iron spikes or studs. First used by the Samurai. Kiyoga, a spring baton similar in concept to the Asp collapsible police baton, but with the center section made of a heavy duty steel spring; the tip and first section slide into the spring, the whole nests into a seven-inch handle. To deploy the kiyoga, all, necessary is to grasp the handle and swing.