Ad Astra Aero
Ad Astra Aero was a Swiss airline based at Zürichhorn in Zürich. Initiated by Oskar Bider and Fritz Rihner, in July 1919 the Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Lufttourismus was established in Zürich]. Touristical flights with flying boats were planned from sites at Zürichhorn in Zürich-Riesbach, with its numerous lakes, appeared predestined for the use of seaplanes, so that no expensive airports would have to be built. Oskar Bider was killed in an accident before the project was realized. The driving forces of the latter Ad Astra Aero company were the Swiss aviation pioneers Walter Mittelholzer, Alfred Comte was appointed by the board as chief pilot for land planes and Walter Mittelholzer as head of the aerial photography department. On 21 April 1920 Avion Tourisme SA in Geneva was bought, following the recent merger, the company was renamed in Ad Astra Aero, Avion Tourisme S. A. Flight stations were held in Bern, Lugano, Romanshorn, on 24 May 1920 Emile Taddéoli, the chief pilot for seaplanes, and his mechanic, died during a demonstration flight at an air show in Romanshorn aboard a Savoia flying boat.
Operations were limited to the air stations at Zürichhorn and Geneva, in 192, the seven pilots of the company did 4,699 touristical flights with 7,384 passengers, resulting in 1,254 hours flight time and a total distance of about 166,920 kilometres. Ad Astra Aero closed its first year with a loss of 426,365 Swiss francs. The co-CEO of Ad Astra, Henry Pillichody, made on July 18,1921, in 1924 Alfred Comte founded the Alfred Comte Flug- und Sportfliegerschule in Horgen respectively Oberrieden, Walter Mittelholzer became Ad Astras one and only CEO. On behalf of Junkers, scheduled flights to Berlin, Danzig, in April 1924 the air route Zürich-Stuttgart-Frankfurt was established with connections to the route Berlin-Amsterdam. At the same time, the Ad Astra route Geneva-Zürich-München got a new station in Lausanne. However, Ad Astra participated the so-called Europa-Union and became a member of the IATA in 1926, the Swiss media events of the 1920s were Walter Mittelholzers Africa flights for aerial photography and cartography purposes.
In 1924, he did the first transcontinental flight expedition, starting from the airport at Zürichhorn via Egypt to South Africa. Mittelholzers aircraft was a Dornier Merkur, it was taken over on March 26,1931, by the Swissair airline, in winter 1924/25, Mittelholzer flew to Tehran, the trip lasted a month including two emergency landings. Its flights are considered outstanding technical achievements of its time, in 1930, during another flight to Africa, Walter Mittelholzer was the first pilot to fly over Mount Kilimanjaro The modern Junkers F13 and Junkers G23 have been leased from Junkers. Besides, Ad Astra Aero concentrated to post and photo flights with smaller machines, from Zürichhorn seaplanes were used, among others, two Dornier Merkur B Bal, three Fokker F. On 31 December 1930, was the retroactive merger done with Air Basel AG, as per decision of the General Assembly on 17 March 1931
In modern usage, a causeway is a road or railway on top an embankment usually across a broad body of water or wetland. When first used, the word appeared in a such as causey way making clear its derivation from the earlier form causey. This word seems to have come from the source by two different routes. It derives ultimately, from the Latin for heel, anciently, the construction was trodden down, one layer at a time, often by slaves or flocks of sheep. Today, this work is done by machines, the same technique would have been used for road embankments, raised river banks, sea banks and fortification earthworks. The second derivation route is simply the hard, trodden surface of a path, the name by this route came to be applied to a firmly-surfaced road. It is now little-used except in dialect and in the names of roads which were notable for their solidly-made surface. The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica states causey, a mound or dam, which is derived, through the Norman-French caucie, from the late Latin via calciata, a road stamped firm with the feet.
The word is comparable in both meanings with the French chaussée, from a form of which it reached English by way of Norman French. The French adjective, chaussée, carries the meaning of having given a hardened surface. As a noun chaussée is used on the one hand for a metalled carriageway, other languages have a noun with similar dual meaning. The Welsh is relevant here, as it has a verb, sarnu, a transport corridor that is carried instead on a series of arches, perhaps approaching a bridge, is a viaduct. In the U. S. a short stretch of viaduct is called an overpass, some low causeways across shore waters become inaccessible when covered at high tide. The modern embankment may be constructed within a cofferdam, two parallel steel sheet pile or concrete retaining walls, anchored to each other with steel cables or rods. This construction may serve as a dyke that keeps two bodies of water apart, such as bodies with a different water level on each side, or with water on one side. This may be the purpose of a structure, the road providing a hardened crest for the dike.
It provides access for maintenance as well perhaps, as a public service, notable causeways include those that connect Singapore and Malaysia and Saudi Arabia and Venice to the mainland, all of which carry roadways and railways. In the Netherlands there are a number of prominent dykes which double as causeways, including the Afsluitdijk, Brouwersdam, in Louisiana, two very long bridges, called the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, stretch across Lake Pontchartrain for almost 38 km, making them the worlds longest bridges
Lindenhof in Rapperswil is a moraine hill and a public square being the historic center of Rapperswil, Switzerland. Lindenhof hill dominates the old city of Rapperswil, a locality of the municipality of Rapperswil-Jona in the canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland. Being a moraine remain of the last Glacial period in Switzerland, endingerhorn is the name of the western side of the longish mountain where the monastery is situated. Lindenhof is named after the Tilia trees planted there probably in the 13th century AD by the House of Rapperswil, around the hill, there leads the so-called Bühler-Allee and some small pathways on lakeshore, where the Rapperswil lido is located. At Schlosshügel the Deer park towards Kempratnerbucht is located, established in 1871, endingen houses the early 17th-century Capuchine monastery, and the medieval fortifications. At the Schlossberg vineyard and at the Einsiedlerhaus there are the rose gardens situated, hintergasse at the southernly base of the hill, is probably the oldest street in Rapperswil, and is flanked by medieval houses and estates, and further small private Rose gardens.
Among other traditions, Eis-zwei-Geissebei is celebrated on Lindenhof, at the Rathaus, the Rapperswil Castle, built in the early 13th century by Rudolf II and Rudolf II von Rapperswil, houses the Polenmuseum and the Poland memorial column. Inside the castles palais, there is located the Schloss Restaurant having a rather expensive cuisine, latter is the former late medieval bastion and the easternly end of the Lindenhof hill and Rapperswils historical core. The hillside area is as part of the castle and the museum listed in the Swiss inventory of property of national and regional significance as Class A object of national importance. Lindenhof remained an area, and the slopes got shady promenades thanks to new plantings. The historic metal railing at the platforms were retained and supplemented with fall protection as they no longer met the safety requirements. The Deer park was remodeled, and the mammals got a rebuilt stable, peter Röllin, Kulturbaukasten Rapperswil-Jona,36 Museen ohne Dach.
Gerold Späth, Stilles Gelände am See and Deer park on the website of Verkehrsverein Rapperswil-Jona
Alwina Gossauer was a Swiss photographer and businesswoman. Born and raised in Rapperswil, as an adult she made Rapperswil again her home and became one of the first women professional photographers in Switzerland, Alwina Gossauer was born in Rapperswil, where her parents operated a business and where she spent her childhood. At the age of 18, Gossauer married Johann Kölla, who worked as a saddler and they lived in Zürich, and in 1864 her husband learned to make photographs. In the attic of their house at Napfgasse near Neumarkt, Zürich, in the same year, Kölla was sentenced to a fine of one month in prison because he had photographed nude dames. Shortly after, the moved to Rapperswil where Kölla bought an inn at the Rapperswil railway station. Alwina learned photography by working in the atelier, and started photographing in 1865, in 1868 Kölla committed an offense of making counterfeit bank bills and was sentenced to eighteen months in prison and 10 years banishment from the Canton of St.
Gallen. From the bankruptcy of her husband, Alwina saved a portion of household effects, under the name Alwina Kölla-Gossauer she published a newspaper advertisement in June 1868 which announced the continuation of the joint business. She rented the house Kunstgüetli on Seequai, at the pier of the present Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft probably to benefit from the excursion traffic and increasing tourism. There, she set up the photography studio Photographie A. Gossauer, usering her unmarried name The family lived on the first floor, and on the ground floor the customers were served. From this point, Alwina led the business successfully as a photographer and businesswoman, initially under the name of her husband, Kölla. Her field of activity were classic portrait photography, landscape photography and commissioned works for books and his wife loaned him photographic equipment, and due the local separation, their relationship deteriorated rapidly. In 1871 Alwina Gossauer filed for divorce against the will of her husband and their five children – aged between one and eleven – were attributed to her, and Alwina reverted to her maiden name Gossauer and added, as it was customary, the words divorced Koella.
Kölla did not pay alimony, sold his studio in Richterswil and the photographic equipment loaned from his wife, meanwhile, Kölla made himself scarce, as noted in the court records, and migrated finally to America around 1868. Around the 1890s and 1900s, Gossauer used a camera type Engel-Feitknecht for reportages. Alfred Engel Feitknecht was the designer of the made in Switzerland. On the top floor, she established a photography studio with a glass roof. Jean Kölla, Gossauers son, learned his mothers photographic craft, just as her daughter Alwina and her son Albert did not train as a photographer, but worked together with his brother Jean. The youngest daughter Caroline married the photographer Karl Stalder, in 1920 they ran her mothers business in Rapperswil under the name K. Stalder-Kölla until the 1940s, Alwina Gossauer was a fighter, the pastor said in 1926 at her grave
A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle. There are many different designs that each serve a particular purpose, the Oxford English Dictionary traces the origin of the word bridge to an Old English word brycg, of the same meaning. The word can be traced back to Proto-Indo-European *bʰrēw-. The word for the game of the same name has a different origin. The first bridges made by humans were probably spans of cut wooden logs or planks and eventually stones, using a simple support, some early Americans used trees or bamboo poles to cross small caverns or wells to get from one place to another. Dating to the Greek Bronze Age, it is one of the oldest arch bridges still in existence, several intact arched stone bridges from the Hellenistic era can be found in the Peloponnese. The greatest bridge builders of antiquity were the ancient Romans, the Romans built arch bridges and aqueducts that could stand in conditions that would damage or destroy earlier designs.
An example is the Alcántara Bridge, built over the river Tagus, the Romans used cement, which reduced the variation of strength found in natural stone. One type of cement, called pozzolana, consisted of water, sand and mortar bridges were built after the Roman era, as the technology for cement was lost. In India, the Arthashastra treatise by Kautilya mentions the construction of dams, a Mauryan bridge near Girnar was surveyed by James Princep. The bridge was swept away during a flood, and repaired by Puspagupta, the use of stronger bridges using plaited bamboo and iron chain was visible in India by about the 4th century. A number of bridges, both for military and commercial purposes, were constructed by the Mughal administration in India and this bridge is historically significant as it is the worlds oldest open-spandrel stone segmental arch bridge. European segmental arch bridges date back to at least the Alconétar Bridge, rope bridges, a simple type of suspension bridge, were used by the Inca civilization in the Andes mountains of South America, just prior to European colonization in the 16th century.
During the 18th century there were innovations in the design of timber bridges by Hans Ulrich Grubenmann, Johannes Grubenmann. The first book on bridge engineering was written by Hubert Gautier in 1716, a major breakthrough in bridge technology came with the erection of the Iron Bridge in Shropshire, England in 1779. It used cast iron for the first time as arches to cross the river Severn, with the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, truss systems of wrought iron were developed for larger bridges, but iron does not have the tensile strength to support large loads. With the advent of steel, which has a tensile strength, much larger bridges were built. In 1927 welding pioneer Stefan Bryła designed the first welded bridge in the world
Aerial photography is the taking of photographs of the ground from an elevated/direct-down position. Usually the camera is not supported by a ground-based structure, mounted cameras may be triggered remotely or automatically, hand-held photographs may be taken by a photographer. Aerial photography should not be confused with air-to-air photography, where one or more aircraft are used as chase planes that chase, Aerial photography was first practiced by the French photographer and balloonist Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, known as Nadar, in 1858 over Paris, France. However, the photographs he produced no longer exist and therefore the earliest surviving aerial photograph is titled Boston, as the Eagle, taken by James Wallace Black and Samuel Archer King on October 13,1860, it depicts Boston from a height of 630m. Kite aerial photography was pioneered by British meteorologist E. D. Archibald in 1882 and he used an explosive charge on a timer to take photographs from the air. Frenchman Arthur Batut began using kites for photography in 1888, Samuel Franklin Cody developed his advanced Man-lifter War Kite and succeeded in interesting the British War Office with its capabilities.
The first use of a motion picture camera mounted to an aircraft took place on April 24,1909 over Rome in the 3,28 silent film short. The use of aerial photography rapidly matured during the war, as aircraft were equipped with cameras to record enemy movements. At the start of the conflict, the usefulness of aerial photography was not fully appreciated, germany adopted the first aerial camera, a Görz, in 1913. The French began the war with several squadrons of Blériot observation aircraft equipped with cameras for reconnaissance, the French Army developed procedures for getting prints into the hands of field commanders in record time. Frederick Charles Victor Laws started aerial photography experiments in 1912 with No.1 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps, in 1916 the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy made vertical camera axis aerial photos above Italy for map-making. The camera was inserted into the floor of the aircraft and could be triggered by the pilot at intervals. In January 1918, General Allenby used five Australian pilots from No.1 Squadron AFC to photograph a 624 square miles area in Palestine as an aid to correcting and improving maps of the Turkish front and this was a pioneering use of aerial photography as an aid for cartography.
Beginning 5 January, they flew with an escort to ward off enemy fighters. The first commercial aerial photography company in the UK was Aerofilms Ltd, founded by World War I veterans Francis Wills, the company soon expanded into a business with major contracts in Africa and Asia as well as in the UK. Operations began from the Stag Lane Aerodrome at Edgware, using the aircraft of the London Flying School, the Aircraft Manufacturing Company, hired an Airco DH.9 along with pilot entrepreneur Alan Cobham. From 1921, Aerofilms carried out vertical photography for survey and mapping purposes, during the 1930s, the company pioneered the science of photogrammetry, with the Ordnance Survey amongst the companys clients. One Fairchild aerial survey aircraft in 1935 carried unit that combined two synchronized cameras, and each camera having five six inch lenses with a ten-inch lenses, each photo covered two hundred and twenty five square miles
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
The Linth is a Swiss river that rises near the village of Linthal in the mountains of the canton of Glarus, and eventually flows into the Obersee section of Lake Zurich. It is about 50 kilometres in length, the water power of the Linth was a main factor in the creation of the textile industry of the canton Glarus, and is today used to drive the Linth–Limmern power stations in its upper reaches. The river and its upper valley forms the boundary between the ranges of the Glarus Alps, to its east and south, and the Schwyzer Alps. The river rises to the south-west of the village of Linthal, the last of these is dammed to create the Limmerensee, a part of the Linth–Limmern hydro-electric scheme. In Schwanden, the Linth is joined by one of its tributaries, the Sernf. From Schwanden, the continues to flow north through the villages of Mitlödi and Ennenda. In Netstal, the Linth is joined by the Löntsch, which drains the Klöntalersee, as a result of the river regulation works, the river is today diverted down an artificial channel in an easterly direction into Lake Walen.
Another artificial channel takes the outfall of Lake Walen at Weesen and flows west through the Linth Plain and this caused frequent floodings and backing up of water which made the level of Lake Walen rise several meters and turned the whole countryside into swamps. Agriculture became more and more difficult, the poverty increased, and diseases like Tuberculosis, the statesman, scientist and manager Conrad Escher from Zurich developed and executed the plan of channeling the Linth into Lake Walen, where the gravel could be deposited without damage. A second channel, the Linth Channel connected the lakes of Walen and Zurich, replacing the former Maag
The Voralpen-Express is a named train connecting medium-sized cities in central and eastern Switzerland, carrying this name since 1992. It is operated by Südostbahn and runs every hour between St. Gallen and Lucerne, the first through trains from Romanshorn to Arth-Goldau started in 1940 after the electrification of the Südostbahn line between Rapperswil and Arth-Goldau. Romanshorn–Rapperswil had been under wires since 1926/31, the trains were jointly operated by Bodensee–Toggenburg-Bahn, Südostbahn and the Swiss Federal Railways. 1944 BT added buffet cars to the trainsets,1947 some trains continued from Arth-Goldau to Lucerne. In 1960 operation was changed to push-pull operation with very powerful motor coaches, the trainsets were now painted in green an cream. 1982 brought the clock-face timetable with a train Romanshorn–Lucerne every two hours but the end for buffet cars, in 1991 BT and SOB bought EW IV inter-city coaches to replace the push-pull sets. 1995 unnamed trains every two hours were added between Romanshorn and Arth-Goldau, again with push-pull sets.
After Revvivo-coaches had been used for trains from 1997 on, it was decided to sell the EW IV to SBB. 2001 BT and SOB merged into the new SOB, which reduced the number of participating companies to two, VAE ran as an InterRegio express train until 2013. On 15 December 2013 the concept changed and SOB became the sole operator, VAE became a distinct train category but the train was limited to St. Gallen–Lucerne. To cope with the number of passengers, trains now generally have seven coaches. This is due to the 50‰ grades between Pfäffikon SZ and Arth-Goldau, motive power is at each end, allowing a push-pull service without driving trailers. Besides creating a link on the southern edge of the greater Zurich area. If less than five pairs are available, SOB leases a Re 4/4 II from SBBC which can be used together with an Re 446, five trainsets are needed for the daily operation and a sixth set is in Herisau as a reserve. It allows to exchange the sets in order to clean and maintain them, thus, if one motor coach RBDe needs maintenance, an additional set with locomotives will be formed.
31 air-conditioned Revvivo coaches, 1997/99 rebuilt from Einheitswagen I coaches, are the backbone of the VAE coaching stock, ten quite recent NPZ vehicles were added to the stock to allow for enough capacity. Four older coaches are kept as a reserve but the Revvivo prototype of 1995 has been withdrawn