Sonic & Knuckles
Sonic & Knuckles is a 1994 platform game developed and published by Sega for the Sega Genesis. An installment in the main Sonic the Hedgehog series, it is the sequel to Sonic the Hedgehog 3, released earlier that year; the story Knuckles the Echidna in their quests to save Angel Island. Development began after the release of Sonic the Hedgehog 2, was developed alongside Sonic 3; the two games were intended to be released as a single game. The Sonic & Knuckles cartridge features "lock-on technology" that allows the game to connect to the Sonic the Hedgehog 2 or Sonic the Hedgehog 3 cartridges, combining elements from either game. Sonic & Knuckles received positive reviews. Critics were impressed with the lock-on technology, though some made note of its similarity to its predecessor, it has been rereleased in various compilations and on digital platforms such as Xbox Live Arcade, Virtual Console, Steam. Since Sonic & Knuckles and Sonic the Hedgehog 3 were developed as one game, their gameplay is similar: both are 2D side-scrolling platformers with similar level design and game mechanics.
However, in Sonic & Knuckles, unlike in Sonic 3, the player chooses either Sonic or Knuckles at the title screen, Miles "Tails" Prower is not available to select, the player cannot control two characters together. There is no multiplayer mode or save feature; the player character moves through each divided into two acts. The first act of each level ends with a miniboss fight with one of Dr. Robotnik's robots, while the second ends with a regular boss fight with Robotnik. Sonic and Knuckles traverse levels differently: Sonic can jump higher, is faster and can use the insta-shield ability which makes him invincible for a split-second, whereas Knuckles can glide, break obstacles and climb most walls; the levels include cutscenes that differ based on the character selected, as Sonic and Knuckles are rivals for most of the game. The game contains two types of bonus stages accessed by passing a checkpoint with at least 20 rings; the first type has Sonic or Knuckles orbit floating, glowing spheres, jetting off each one when a button is pressed, while a fence of light approaches from the bottom and will remove the player from the stage if touched.
Collecting 50 rings in this stage earns the player a continue. The second type involves bouncing around a room with a slot machine in its center with the intention of winning extra lives and power-ups. Special Stages are entered by finding giant rings hidden in secret passageways: the player is placed in a 3D environment and must turn all of a number of blue spheres red by running through them, but must avoid all red spheres, including blue ones. Yellow spheres bounce the player long distances, white spheres with red stars on them make the player walk backwards in the opposite direction. Completing a Special Stage earns the player a Chaos Emerald. Sonic & Knuckles features "lock-on technology" that allows players to open the hatch on the cartridge and insert a second cartridge; when Sonic 3 is inserted, the player can play through both games as Sonic 3 & Knuckles. This features several changes to the games, such as altered level layouts, the ability to play through Sonic 3 levels as Knuckles or Sonic & Knuckles levels as Tails, the ability to save progress in Sonic & Knuckles levels.
Additionally, combining the cartridges is the only way to collect "Super Emeralds", earned by accessing Special Stages in the Sonic & Knuckles levels after collecting all seven Chaos Emeralds from Sonic 3. When all Super Emeralds have been collected, Sonic and Tails can transform into Hyper Sonic, Hyper Knuckles, Super Tails each with unique abilities. Inserting Sonic 2 unlocks Knuckles the Echidna in Sonic the Hedgehog 2, wherein the player can play Sonic 2 using Knuckles' abilities. If the player attaches any other Genesis game released prior to Sonic & Knuckles, a screen with Sonic, Tails and Robotnik stating "No Way!" is displayed. From here, the player can access a minigame based on Sonic 3's and Sonic & Knuckles's Chaos Emerald Special Stages; the attached cartridge determines the Special Stage layout. If the player attaches the original Sonic the Hedgehog or Sonic Compilation, the "No Way" screen appears, but the player is able to access all of the possible variations of Special Stages, each with a unique level number and corresponding password.
This game is named Blue Sphere in Sonic Mega Collection. The story begins after the events of Sonic 3, where Dr. Robotnik's orbital weapon, the Death Egg, is damaged in a battle with Sonic and crash-lands back onto Angel Island. Sonic travels through each zone looking to retrieve the Chaos Emeralds to defeat Robotnik, once again comes into conflict with Knuckles, who believes Sonic is trying to steal the Emeralds for himself. In Hidden Palace Zone, Sonic defeats Knuckles; the two hear a disturbance outside of the chamber, go out to find Dr. Robotnik stealing the Master Emerald, the secret to the island's levitation powers. Knuckles attempts to attack Robotnik, but is electrically shocked in the process, is trapped with Sonic in an underground passage. Knuckles, realizing Sonic is on his side, shows him a portal that leads them to Sky Sanctuary, where the Death Egg is relaunching. Sonic proceeds to i
Sega Games Co. Ltd. is a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher headquartered in Tokyo. The company known as Sega Enterprises Ltd. and Sega Corporation, is a subsidiary of Sega Holdings Co. Ltd., part of Sega Sammy Holdings. Its international branches, Sega of America and Sega of Europe, are headquartered in Irvine and London. Sega's arcade division, once part of Sega Corporation, has existed as Sega Interactive Co. Ltd. a Sega Holdings subsidiary, since 2015. The company was founded by Martin Bromley as Nihon Goraku Bussan on June 3, 1960, which became known as Sega Enterprises, Ltd. after acquiring Rosen Enterprises, an importer of coin-operated games. Sega developed its first coin-operated game with Periscope in the late 1960s. In 1969, Sega was sold to Western Industries. Following a downturn in the arcade business in the early 1980s, Sega began to develop video game consoles, starting with the SG-1000 and Master System, but struggled against competitors such as the Nintendo Entertainment System.
In 1984, Sega executives David Rosen and Hayao Nakayama led a management buyout of the company with backing from CSK Corporation. Sega released its next console, the Sega Genesis, in 1988. Although it was a distant third in Japan, the Genesis found major success after the release of Sonic the Hedgehog in 1991 and outsold its main competitor, the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, in the U. S; however in the decade, Sega suffered commercial failures such as the 32X, Sega Saturn, Dreamcast consoles. In 2001, Sega stopped manufacturing consoles to become a third-party developer and publisher, was acquired by Sammy Corporation in 2004. In the years since the acquisition, Sega has been more profitable, but has been criticized for prioritizing quantity of game releases over quality. Sega produces multi-million-selling game franchises including Sonic the Hedgehog, Total War, Yakuza, is the world's most prolific arcade game producer, it operates amusement arcades and produces other entertainment products, including Sega Toys.
Sega is a subsidiary of Sega Sammy Holdings, a corporate conglomerate with over 60 individual subsidiaries. In 1940, American businessmen Martin Bromley, Irving Bromberg, James Humpert formed Standard Games in Honolulu, Hawaii, to provide coin-operated amusement machines to military bases, they saw that the increase in military personnel with the onset of World War II would create demand for entertainment at military bases. After the war, the founders sold Standard Games and established a new distributor, Service Games, named for the military focus. In 1951, the United States government outlawed slot machines in US territories, so in 1952 Bromley sent two employees, Richard Stewart and Ray LeMaire, to Tokyo to establish a new distributor; the company provided coin-operated slot machines to U. S. bases in Japan, by 1953 had changed its name to Service Games of Japan. The name Sega, an abbreviation of Service Games, was first used in 1954 on the Diamond Star Machine, a slot machine. On May 31, 1960, Service Games of Japan was dissolved.
On June 3, Bromley established two companies to take over its business activities: Nihon Goraku Bussan and Nihon Kikai Seizō. Kikai Seizō focused on manufacturing Sega machines, while Goraku Bussan served as a distributor and operator of coin-operated machines jukeboxes; the two companies merged in 1964. In 1954, David Rosen, an American officer in the United States Air Force stationed in Japan, launched a two-minute photo booth business in Tokyo; this company became Rosen Enterprises, in 1957 began importing coin-operated games to Japan. In 1965, Nihon Goraku Bussan acquired Rosen Enterprise to form Sega Enterprises, Ltd. Rosen was installed as the CEO and managing director. Shortly afterward, Sega stopped leasing to military bases and moved its focus from slot machines to become a publicly traded company of coin-operated amusement machines, its imports included Rock-Ola jukeboxes, pinball games by Williams, gun games by Midway Manufacturing. Because Sega imported second-hand machines that required maintenance, Sega began the transition from importer to manufacturer by constructing replacement guns and flippers for its imported games.
According to former Sega director Akira Nagai, this led to Sega developing their own games as well. The first electromechanical game Sega manufactured was the submarine simulator game Periscope, released worldwide in the late 1960s; the game sported light and sound effects considered innovative, was successful in Japan. It was placed in malls and department stores, it cost 25 cents per play in the United States. Sega was surprised by the success, for the next two years produced and exported between eight and ten games per year. Despite this, rampant piracy in the industry would lead to Sega stepping away from exporting its games. In order to advance the company, Rosen had a goal to take the company public, decided this would be easier to accomplish in the United States than in Japan. Rosen was advised that this would be easiest accomplished by Sega being acquired by a larger company. In 1969, Sega was sold to American conglomerate Gulf and Western Industries, although Rosen remained CEO following the sale.
Rosen continued to develop his relationship with Gulf and Western chairman Charles Bluhdorn, in 1974 Gulf and Western made Sega Enterprises, Ltd. a subsidiary of an American company renamed Sega Enterprises, Inc. Sega released Pong-Tron, its first video-based game, in 1973. Despite late competition from Taito's hit arcade game Space Invaders in 1978, Sega prospered from the arcade gam
Sonic the Hedgehog (1991 video game)
Sonic the Hedgehog referred to as Sonic 1, is a platform game developed by Sonic Team and published by Sega for the Sega Genesis console. It was released in North America in June 1991, in PAL regions and Japan the following month; the game features an anthropomorphic hedgehog named Sonic in a quest to defeat Doctor Robotnik, a scientist who has imprisoned animals in robots and stolen the powerful Chaos Emeralds. The gameplay involves collecting rings as a form of health and a simple control scheme, with jumping and attacking controlled by a single button. Development began in 1990 when Sega ordered its developers to create a game featuring a mascot for the company. After considering a number of suggestions, the developers decided on a blue hedgehog and named themselves "Sonic Team" to match their character. Sonic the Hedgehog, designed for fast gameplay, was influenced by games by Super Mario series creator Shigeru Miyamoto. Sonic the Hedgehog uses a novel technique that allows Sonic's sprite to roll along curved scenery, which originated in a tech demo created by programmer Yuji Naka.
Sonic the Hedgehog was well received by critics, who praised its visuals and gameplay. It was commercially successful, establishing the Genesis as a key player in the 16-bit era and allowing it to compete with Nintendo and their Super Nintendo Entertainment System console; the game has been ported a number of times, inspired several clones, a successful franchise, adaptations into other media. It is cited as one of the greatest video games of all time. Sonic the Hedgehog is a side-scrolling platform video game; the gameplay centers around Sonic's ability to run at high speed through levels that include springs, bottomless pits, vertical loops. The levels are populated with hazards in the form of robots inside which Dr. Robotnik has trapped animals. Destroying a robot frees the creature, but is not necessary to complete the game; the player must avoid touching spikes, falling into bottomless pits, being crushed by moving walls or platforms, as well as drowning, which may be prevented by breathing air bubbles from vents.
Sonic's main means of attack is the Spin Attack, in which he curls into a ball and spins his body, damaging enemies and certain obstacles upon collision. This may be performed by rolling on the ground. At the start of the game, the player is given three lives, each of which may be lost if Sonic collides with hazardous enemies or objects while in possession of no rings, falls to the bottom of the level screen, or exceeds an act's ten-minute time limit. Signposts act as checkpoints to allow Sonic to return to the most activated post when he loses a life; the time resets. The game ends when the player runs out of lives, although the player may return to the beginning of the act with three lives if the player has any continues. Scattered around each level are gold rings. Collecting 100 rings rewards the player with an extra life. Rings act as a layer of protection against hazards: if Sonic holds at least one ring when he collides with an enemy or dangerous obstacle, he survives. However, all his rings scatter, disappear in a few seconds if not picked up again.
If he is hit without holding any rings, he loses a life. Shields and temporary invincibility can be collected to provide additional layers of protection, but certain hazards, such as drowning, being crushed, bottomless pits, or running out of time, kill Sonic regardless of rings or other protection; the game is split into six principal zones, followed by a short'Final Zone'. Each main zone has its own visual style, while some enemies appear throughout, each zone has unique enemies and obstacles; each main zone is split into three acts. At the end of each main zone's third act, the player confronts Dr. Robotnik for a boss fight. For most of the fights, Robotnik's vehicle is fitted with different weapons. After completing the sixth zone, the player continues directly to the single-level "Final Zone" for a last encounter with Robotnik inside a large machine environment. Destroying Robotnik's machine ends the game. A brief animation shows Sonic's return to the first zone. Optionally, if Sonic reaches the end of any zone's Act 1 or Act 2 while holding at least 50 rings, a large ring appears through which he can jump to enter a "Special Stage."
In the Special Stages, Sonic is continually curled up in his Spin Attack animation, bounces off the bumpers and walls of a rotating maze. In these levels, the player earns a number of continues for each multiple of 50 rings collected, but the main goal is to obtain the Chaos Emerald hidden within the maze. Colliding with any of the blocks marked "GOAL" ends the level. In an attempt to steal the six Chaos Emeralds and harness their power, the evil Dr. Ivo Robotnik has trapped the animal inhabitants of South Island in aggressive robots and stationary metal capsules; the player controls Sonic, who aims to halt Robotnik's plans by freeing his animal friends and collecting the emeralds himself. If the player collects all the Chaos Emeralds and completes the game, an ending sequence is shown. If all the emeralds are not collected, Robotnik taunts the player while juggling any of the Chaos Emeralds not collected by the player. In 1990, Sega ordered its in-house development studio to develop a game featuring a mascot for the company.
This was a position held by the character Alex Kidd, but he was considered too similar to Nintendo's mascot Mario and deemed unsatisfactory. Sega had competition with Nintendo, dominant at the time, Sega
A game engine is a software-development environment designed for people to build video games. Developers use game engines to construct games for consoles, mobile devices, personal computers; the core functionality provided by a game engine includes a rendering engine for 2D or 3D graphics, a physics engine or collision detection, scripting, artificial intelligence, streaming, memory management, localization support, scene graph, may include video support for cinematics. Implementers economize on the process of game development by reusing/adapting, in large part, the same game engine to produce different games or to aid in porting games to multiple platforms. In many cases game engines provide a suite of visual development tools in addition to reusable software components; these tools are provided in an integrated development environment to enable simplified, rapid development of games in a data-driven manner. Game engine developers attempt to "pre-invent the wheel" by developing robust software suites which include many elements a game developer may need to build a game.
Most game engine suites provide facilities that ease development, such as graphics, physics and AI functions. These game engines are sometimes called "middleware" because, as with the business sense of the term, they provide a flexible and reusable software platform which provides all the core functionality needed, right out of the box, to develop a game application while reducing costs and time-to-market — all critical factors in the competitive video game industry; as of 2001, Gamebryo, JMonkeyEngine and RenderWare were such used middleware programs. Like other types of middleware, game engines provide platform abstraction, allowing the same game to be run on various platforms including game consoles and personal computers with few, if any, changes made to the game source code. Game engines are designed with a component-based architecture that allows specific systems in the engine to be replaced or extended with more specialized game middleware components; some game engines are designed as a series of loosely connected game middleware components that can be selectively combined to create a custom engine, instead of the more common approach of extending or customizing a flexible integrated product.
However extensibility is achieved, it remains a high priority for game engines due to the wide variety of uses for which they are applied. Despite the specificity of the name, game engines are used for other kinds of interactive applications with real-time graphical needs such as marketing demos, architectural visualizations, training simulations, modeling environments; some game engines only provide real-time 3D rendering capabilities instead of the wide range of functionality needed by games. These engines rely upon the game developer to implement the rest of this functionality or assemble it from other game middleware components; these types of engines are referred to as a "graphics engine", "rendering engine", or "3D engine" instead of the more encompassing term "game engine". This terminology is inconsistently used as many full-featured 3D game engines are referred to as "3D engines". A few examples of graphics engines are: Crystal Space, Genesis3D, Irrlicht, OGRE, RealmForge, Truevision3D, Vision Engine.
Modern game or graphics engines provide a scene graph, an object-oriented representation of the 3D game world which simplifies game design and can be used for more efficient rendering of vast virtual worlds. As technology ages, the components of an engine may become outdated or insufficient for the requirements of a given project. Since the complexity of programming an new engine may result in unwanted delays, a development team may elect to update their existing engine with newer functionality or components; such a framework is composed of a multitude of different components. The actual game logic has to be implemented by some algorithms, it is distinct from sound or input work. The rendering engine generates animated 3D graphics by any of a number of methods. Instead of being programmed and compiled to be executed on the CPU or GPU directly, most rendering engines are built upon one or multiple rendering application programming interfaces, such as Direct3D, OpenGL, or Vulkan which provide a software abstraction of the graphics processing unit.
Low-level libraries such as DirectX, Simple DirectMedia Layer, OpenGL are commonly used in games as they provide hardware-independent access to other computer hardware such as input devices, network cards, sound cards. Before hardware-accelerated 3D graphics, software renderers had been used. Software rendering is still used in some modeling tools or for still-rendered images when visual accuracy is valued over real-time performance or when the computer hardware does not meet needs such as shader support. With the advent of hardware accelerated physics processing, various physics APIs such as PAL and the physics extensions of COLLADA became available to provide a software abstraction of the physics processing unit of different middleware providers and console platforms. Game engines can be written in any programming language like C++, C or Java, though each language is structurally different and may provide different levels of access to specific functions; the audio engine is the component which consists of algorithms related to the loading and output of sound through the client's speaker system.
At a minimum i
A fisheye lens is an ultra wide-angle lens that produces strong visual distortion intended to create a wide panoramic or hemispherical image. Fisheye lenses achieve wide angles of view. Instead of producing images with straight lines of perspective, fisheye lenses use a special mapping, which gives images a characteristic convex non-rectilinear appearance; the term fisheye was coined in 1906 by American physicist and inventor Robert W. Wood based on how a fish would see an ultrawide hemispherical view from beneath the water, their first practical use was in the 1920s for use in meteorology to study cloud formation giving them the name "whole-sky lenses". The angle of view of a fisheye lens is between 100 and 180 degrees while the focal lengths depend on the film format they are designed for. Mass-produced fisheye lenses for photography first appeared in the early 1960s and are used for their unique, distorted appearance. For the popular 35 mm film format, typical focal lengths of fisheye lenses are between 8 mm and 10 mm for circular images, 15–16 mm for full-frame images.
For digital cameras using smaller electronic imagers such as 1⁄4" and 1⁄3" format CCD or CMOS sensors, the focal length of "miniature" fisheye lenses can be as short as 1 to 2 mm. These types of lenses have other applications such as re-projecting images that were filmed through a fisheye lens, or created via computer generated graphics, onto hemispherical screens. Fisheye lenses are used for scientific photography such as recording of aurora and meteors, to study plant canopy geometry and to calculate near-ground solar radiation, they are most encountered as peephole door viewers to give the user a wide field of view. In 1906, Wood published a paper detailing an experiment in which he built a camera in a water-filled pail starting with a photographic plate at the bottom, a short focus lens with a pinhole diaphragm located halfway up the pail, a sheet of glass at the rim to suppress ripples in the water; the experiment was Wood's attempt "to ascertain how the external world appears to the fish" and hence the title of the paper was "Fish-Eye Views, Vision under Water".
Wood subsequently built an improved "horizontal" version of the camera omitting the lens, instead using a pinhole pierced in the side of a tank, filled with water and a photographic plate. In the text, he described a third "Fish-Eye" camera built using sheet brass, the primary advantages being that this one was more portable than the other two cameras, was "absolutely leaktight". In his conclusion, Wood thought that "the device will photograph the entire sky a sunshine recorder could be made on this principle, which would require no adjustment for latitude or month" but wryly noted "the views used for the illustration of this paper savour somewhat of the'freak' pictures of the magazines." W. N. Bond described an improvement to Wood's apparatus in 1922 which replaced the tank of water with a simple hemispheric glass lens, making the camera more portable; the focal length depended on the refractive index and radius of the hemispherical lens, the maximum aperture was f/50. Bond noted the new lens could be used to record cloud cover or lightning strikes at a given location.
Bond's hemispheric lens reduced the need for a pinhole aperture to ensure sharp focus, so exposure times were reduced. In 1924, Robin Hill first described a lens with 180° coverage, used for a cloud survey in September 1923 The lens, designed by Hill and R. & J. Beck, Ltd. was patented in December 1923. The Hill Sky Lens is now credited as the first fisheye lens. Hill described three different mapping functions of a lens designed to capture an entire hemisphere. Distortion is unavoidable in a lens that encompasses an angle of view exceeding 125°, but Hill and Beck claimed in the patent that stereographic or equidistant projection were the preferred mapping functions; the three-element, three-group lens design uses a divergent meniscus lens as the first element to bring in light over a wide view followed by a converging lens system to project the view onto a flat photographic plate. The Hill Sky Lens was fitted to a whole sky camera used in a pair separated by 500 metres for stereo imaging, equipped with a red filter for contrast.
Conrad Beck described the camera system in an article published in 1925. At least one has been reconstructed. In 1932, the German firm Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AG filed for a patent on the Weitwinkelobjektiv, a 5-element, 4-group development of the Hill Sky Lens. Compared to the 1923 Hill Sky Lens, the 1932 Weitwinkelobjektiv featured two diverging meniscus elements ahead of the stop and used a cemented achromatic group in the converging section. Miyamoto credits Dr Hans Schulz with the design of the Weitwinkelobjektiv; the basic patented design was produced for cloud recording as a 17 mm f/6.3 lens, the artist known as Umbo used the AEG lens for artistic purposes, with photographs published in a 1937 issue of Volk und Welt. The AEG Weitwinkelobjektiv formed the basis of the Fish-eye-Nikkor 16 mm f/8 lens of 1938, used for military and scientific purposes. Nikon, which had a contract to supply optics to the Imperial Japanese Navy gained access to the AEG design under the Pact of Steel.
After the war, the lens was mated to a
Kid Chameleon is a 1992 platform game released for the Sega Genesis. The plot of the game is that the boss of the new virtual reality video game "Wild Side" begins abducting players and the main character, goes to beat it and rescue them, he does this by using masks to change into different characters. It was released in Japan as Chameleon Kid. After its initial release in 1992 for the Genesis, it was re-released a number of times in the 2000s, including part of the Sega Smash Pack 2 for the PC in 2000, the Sega Genesis Collection for the PlayStation Portable and PlayStation 2 in 2006, as a digital release on the Wii's Virtual Console in 2007, Sonic's Ultimate Genesis Collection for Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 in 2009 and is included in The Sega Forever collection release for iOS and Android in 2017; the player, as Kid Chameleon, progresses through a series of levels, containing an array of deadly enemies and obstacles. Most levels contain a flag, the primary goal of each level, from which the player progresses to the next level.
However, a number of teleporters throughout the game can warp the player not only to different places in the same level, but to different levels, sometimes to an different path through the game. At the end of the game, Kid defeats the final boss, Heady Metal. Kid Chameleon contains 103 levels, of which only about half are on the "main path", counts 32 smaller unnamed levels called "Elsewhere". Despite the game's considerable length, there was no password system or other method of saving the game. There are several bonuses that can be earned at the end of certain levels, including beating a time limit, not getting hit and not collecting any prizes; as Kid Chameleon moves through the game's levels, he gains access to masks that transform him into different characters. Each character has varying numbers of hit points. Collecting a mask that the player is wearing will restore its health; the sheer amount of variety in gameplay due to the various characters is part of what gave Kid Chameleon such an addictive style.
In addition to the offensive abilities of each form, the Kid could defeat enemies by jumping on them, although he may take damage from some enemies by doing so. Each form can make use of Diamond Powers which require diamonds collected in the game to use, accessed by pressing A + Start. Players lose a life if Kid Chameleon loses all his hit points in human form, is crushed, falls into bottomless pits or lava or touches the drill wall which appears in certain levels, or if time runs out. Extra lives and continues can be found in the game, with additional lives awarded for every 50,000 points; the game is a part of the Sega Genesis Collection for the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable. It was released for the Virtual Console in Japan on May 22, 2007, it was released in addition to a series of other Sega games, including Shining Force and Comix Zone, in Sega Smash Pack 2. The game has appeared in Sonic's Ultimate Genesis Collection for Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3. Mega placed the game at #35 in their Top Mega Drive Games of All Time, Retro-Sanctuary placed the game at #31 in their Top 100 Mega Drive Games of All Time.
MegaTech magazine said. In early 1993, Kid Chameleon gained his own comic strip in the new Fleetway publication Sonic the Comic; the first strip ran from issues 7–12 and featured Casey entering the Wildside to rescue his friend Suzy, with a disembodied presence known as "The Voice" giving him advice and encouragement. Through each issue he changed into one of the different personas: Red Stealth, Micromax and Iron Knight, before his Chameleon powers ran out and he had to take down a powerful enemy as his normal self. While he and Suzy escaped Wildside, the story ended with Casey discovering local school bully Brad was trapped in Wildside. In issues 54–59 he returned again to rescue Brad, this time turning into Skycutter, Juggernaut and Cyclone. Here he discovered that The Voice had a more sinister agenda and was keeping children from all over the world prisoner in the Islecatraz gulag, using Brad as warden. Casey, as Cyclone, destroyed Islecatraz and freed everyone from Wildside, but when it became clear only one more person could escape, Brad sacrificed himself as penance for his sins so Casey could escape.
The ending was ambiguous, with a showdown being threatened between Casey and The Voice, but Fleetway did not produce any more strips. Kid Chameleon at MobyGames
Sonic the Hedgehog Spinball abbreviated to Sonic Spinball, is a 1993 pinball video game developed by Sega Technical Institute and published by Sega. It is a spinoff to the Sonic the Hedgehog series, set in the universe of the animated series Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog. In the game, players control Sonic the Hedgehog, who must stop series antagonist Doctor Robotnik from enslaving the population in a giant pinball-like mechanism; the game is set in a series of pinball machine-like environments, Sonic acts as a pinball for the majority of the game. The game was developed by the American staff of Sega Technical Institute, as the Japanese staff was occupied with developing Sonic the Hedgehog 3 and Sonic & Knuckles; when Sega management realized that Sonic 3 would not be completed in time for the 1993 holiday shopping season, they commissioned another Sonic game that would be. The game was hastily designed with most work taking place over two months. Sonic Spinball was released for the Sega Genesis in November 1993, for the Game Gear and Master System in 1994 and 1995, respectively.
Sonic Spinball received mixed reviews, with critics praising the game's novelty and graphics, although its controls were criticized. A second pinball game, Sonic Pinball Party, was released in 2003, a spinning rollercoaster of the same name opened in the Alton Towers theme park in 2010. Spinball has been rereleased on 11 consoles, including appearances in Genesis-related compilations. Sonic the Hedgehog Spinball is one of the few games in the Sonic franchise set in the universe of the animated series Adventures of Sonic the Hedgehog; the evil scientist Doctor Robotnik has built a large fortress on top of a volcano for the purpose of transforming the animals of planet Mobius into robot slaves. The magma within the volcano fuels both the fortress and the pinball machine-like defense systems that act as fortifications; the volcano is kept in stable condition by a series of Chaos Emeralds. In response, Sonic the Hedgehog and his friend Tails mount an aerial assault on the fortress only to be ambushed by the fortress's cannons.
Sonic is knocked into the deep waters that surround the volcano, but manages to avoid drowning and surfaces in the caves below the fortress. From there, Sonic infiltrates the fortress's defenses, absconds with the Chaos Emeralds, frees the animals of Mobius. In the absence of the Chaos Emeralds, a massive eruption begins to destroy the fortress. While Robotnik makes an escape attempt on a massive airship, Sonic pursues him and manages to destroy the aircraft, resulting in the pair plummeting to the volcano below. Tails manages to rescue Sonic just in time, while Robotnik falls into the volcano, which sinks into the ocean and explodes. Sonic Spinball is a pinball game in which the player controls Sonic the Hedgehog, who acts as the pinball; the majority of the game takes place within the "Pinball Defense System", which resembles a series of large pinball machines. The game comprises four levels, each containing numerous flippers that can be used to aim Sonic's trajectory and launch him through the level.
Sonic can be maneuvered while airborne with input from the directional pad, which can be used for better positioning following an impact with a bumper or target or when Sonic is descending toward the drain, bumpers or flippers. The goal of each level is to collect all of the Chaos Emeralds and subsequently defeat the newly accessible boss located at the top of the level; some Chaos Emeralds are blocked off by obstacles that require Sonic to hit certain switches or bumpers in order to create a clear path. The boss at the top of each level requires a specific strategy to defeat. A "status strip" at the top of the screen provides hints for defeating bosses as well as encouraging messages when the player makes progress; the strip tells the player how many Chaos Emeralds are left to collect in a level. Following the defeat of a boss enemy, a bonus round is initiated; these rounds are shown as Sonic playing a regular pinball machine. The player is given three balls to shoot around the board, the object being to accumulate points by hitting as many bumpers and targets as possible.
At any point in the bonus round, the player may trigger a tilt shake that rattles the table and affects the ball's trajectory. If the tilt shake is used too however, all flippers will lock out, leaving the ball to fall down the drain; when the goal of the bonus round is fulfilled, or if all three balls fall through the flippers, the bonus round will end, the next level will commence. When all of the game's Chaos Emeralds are collected and all four boss enemies are defeated, the player wins. Sonic starts the game with three lives. A life is lost. An extra life can be earned by accumulating 20,000,000 points, which can be accumulated by hitting bumpers, navigating through loops, collecting rings and destroying enemy characters. Sonic Spinball was developed by American staff from Sega Technical Institute while the Japanese staff were producing Sonic the Hedgehog 3 and Sonic & Knuckles. Sonic the Hedgehog 2 was credited with boosting sales of the Sega Genesis in the 1992 holiday shopping season. Sega of America's management realized that the next Sonic the Hedgehog title would not be ready until next year and commissioned another game that could be completed in time for the 1993 holiday season.
Sega's research team suggested that the "Casino Night Zone" of Sonic the Hedgehog 2 was among the most popular levels in the game. This provided the game's designer, with a general direction of the upcoming game. With an idea established, the developers envisioned a way of extracting the enjoyable aspects of this single level and expanding on them broadly enough to form a co