Segovia is a city of Spain located in the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is most populated municipality of the Province of Segovia. Segovia is located in the Inner Plateau, near the northern slopes of the Sistema Central mountain range, straddling the course of the Eresma river; the city is famous for its historic buildings including the three main landmarks: its midtown Roman aqueduct, its cathedral, the castle, which served as one of the templates for Walt Disney's Cinderella Castle. The city center of Segovia was declared World Heritage by UNESCO in 1985; the name of Segovia is of Celtiberian origin. Although the historians linked the old name of the city to Segobriga, the recent discovery of the original Roman city in the Spanish village of Saelices discarded this possibility; the name of "Segovia" is mentioned by Livy in the context of the Sertorian War. Under the Romans and Moors, the city was called Šiqūbiyyah respectively. Segovia is located on the plains of Old Castile, near the Spanish capital, Madrid.

Segovia is one of nine provinces that make up the autonomous region of León. Burgos and Valladolid lie to the north, Ávila to the west, Madrid to the south, Soria to the east; the altitude of the province varies from 750 metres in the extreme northwest to a maximum of 2,430 m at Peñalara peak in the Sierra de Guadarrama. The town lies on the main route of the Camino de Santiago de Madrid; the climate is cold-winter Mediterranean near the boundaries of Csb and BSk, resulting from the high altitude and the distance from the coast. The average annual temperature is 12.42 °C, with an average low in January of 0.3 °C and an average high in July of 29.7 °C. The annual precipitation range from 400 to 500 mm per year in the lower plains, can reach above 1000 mm right in the nearby mountainous area of Sierra de Guadarrama, as rainfall and snowfall is more frequent up the mountains. Decent showers coming from summer thunderstorms help the mountainous area of the province to be rainier than average than most of the central Spanish plateau, which gives the area lush vegetation.

All of this make the province a damp corner in the context of the region. The predominant forms of vegetation in the mountainous areas include pine, oak and juniper. Aside from the main city, there are a number of other villages within the municipality of Segovia. Fuentemilanos Hontoria Madrona Revenga, established in 1983 as a "minor local entity", a category of sub-municipal entities in Spain. Zamarramala Torredondo Perogordo The first recorded mention of a settlement in what is today Segovia was a Celtic possession. Control passed into the hands of the Romans; the city is a possible site of the battle in 75 BCE where Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius was victorious over Quintus Sertorius and Hirtuleius. Hirtuleius died in the fighting. During the Roman period the settlement belonged to one of numerous contemporary Latin convents, it is believed. After the conquest of Toledo by Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the son of King Alfonso VI, Segovia was resettled with Christians from the north of the Iberian peninsula and beyond the Pyrenees, providing it with a significant sphere of influence whose boundaries crossed the Sierra de Guadarrama and the Tagus.

Segovia's position on trading routes made it an important centre of trade in wool and textiles. The end of the Middle Ages saw something of a golden age for Segovia, with a growing Jewish population and the creation of a foundation for a powerful cloth industry. Several splendid works of Gothic architecture were completed during this period. Notably, Isabella I was proclaimed queen of Castile in the church of San Miguel de Segovia on December 13, 1474. Like most Castilian textile centres, Segovia joined the Revolt of the Comuneros under the command of Juan Bravo. Despite the defeat of the Communities, the city's resultant economic boom continued into the sixteenth century, its population rising to 27,000 in 1594; as well as all the cities of Castile, Segovia entered a period of decline. Only a century in 1694, the population had been reduced to only 8,000 inhabitants. In the early eighteenth century, Segovia attempted to revitalize its textile industry, with little success. In the second half of the century, Charles III made another attempt to revive the region's commerce.

However, the lack of competitiveness of production caused the crown withdraw its sponsorship in 1779. In 1764, the Royal School of Artillery, the first military academy in Spain, was opened; this academy remains present in the city today. In 1808, Segovia was sacked by French troops during the War of Independence. During the First Carlist War, troops under the command of Don Carlos unsuccessfully attacked the city. During the nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century, Segovia experienced a demographic recovery, the result of relative economic stability; the population growth experienced during the nineteenth century accelerated beginning around 1920: 16,013 inhabitants that year, 33,360 in 1960, 53,237 in 1981. Since the 1980s growth has slowed markedly: 55,586 in 2004 and 56,047 in 2007. In 1985 the old city of Segovia and its Aqueduct were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO; the old city contains a multitude of historic buildings both civil and religious, including a large number of buildings of Jewish origin, n


Arisarum is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae. It is native to the Mediterranean region, east to the Caucasus and west to islands of the eastern North Atlantic. Accepted species: Arisarum × aspergillum Dunal - Spain, Morocco Arisarum simorrhinum Durieu - Portugal Spain, Balearic Islands, Morocco Arisarum proboscideum Savi - Spain, Italy Arisarum vulgare O. Targ. Tozz. - Mediterranean region of northern Africa and southern Europe from Portugal and Morocco to Turkey and Palestine.

Human microbiome

The human microbiome is the aggregate of all microbiota that reside on or within human tissues and biofluids along with the corresponding anatomical sites in which they reside, including the skin, mammary glands, seminal fluid, ovarian follicles, saliva, oral mucosa, biliary tract, gastrointestinal tract. Types of human microbiota include bacteria, fungi and viruses. Though micro-animals can live on the human body, they are excluded from this definition. In the context of genomics, the term human microbiome is sometimes used to refer to the collective genomes of resident microorganisms. Humans are colonized by many microorganisms; some microorganisms that colonize humans are commensal, meaning they co-exist without harming humans. Conversely, some non-pathogenic microorganisms can harm human hosts via the metabolites they produce, like trimethylamine, which the human body converts to trimethylamine N-oxide via FMO3-mediated oxidation. Certain microorganisms perform tasks that are known to be useful to the human host but the role of most of them is not well understood.

Those that are expected to be present, that under normal circumstances do not cause disease, are sometimes deemed normal flora or normal microbiota. The Human Microbiome Project took on the project of sequencing the genome of the human microbiota, focusing on the microbiota that inhabit the skin, nose, digestive tract, vagina, it reached a milestone in 2012. Though known as flora or microflora, this is a misnomer in technical terms, since the word root flora pertains to plants, biota refers to the total collection of organisms in a particular ecosystem; the more appropriate term microbiota is applied, though its use has not eclipsed the entrenched use and recognition of flora with regard to bacteria and other microorganisms. Both terms are being used in different literature; as of 2014, it was reported in popular media and in the scientific literature that there are about 10 times as many microbial cells in the human body as there are human cells. In 2014, the American Academy of Microbiology published a FAQ that emphasized that the number of microbial cells and the number of human cells are both estimates, noted that recent research had arrived at a new estimate of the number of human cells – 37.2 trillion, meaning that the ratio of microbial-to-human cells, if the original estimate of 100 trillion bacterial cells is correct, is closer to 3:1.

In 2016, another group published a new estimate of the ratio being 1:1. The problem of elucidating the human microbiome is identifying the members of a microbial community which includes bacteria and viruses; this is done using DNA-based studies, though RNA, protein and metabolite based studies are performed. DNA-based microbiome studies can be categorized as either targeted amplicon studies or more shotgun metagenomic studies; the former focuses on specific known marker genes and is informative taxonomically, while the latter is an entire metagenomic approach which can be used to study the functional potential of the community. One of the challenges, present in human microbiome studies, but not in other metagenomic studies is to avoid including the host DNA in the study. Aside from elucidating the composition of the human microbiome, one of the major questions involving the human microbiome is whether there is a "core", that is, whether there is a subset of the community, shared among most humans.

If there is a core it would be possible to associate certain community compositions with disease states, one of the goals of the Human Microbiome Project. It is known that the human microbiome is variable both within a single subject and among different individuals, a phenomenon, observed in mice. On 13 June 2012, a major milestone of the Human Microbiome Project was announced by the NIH director Francis Collins; the announcement was accompanied with a series of coordinated articles published in Nature and several journals in the Public Library of Science on the same day. By mapping the normal microbial make-up of healthy humans using genome sequencing techniques, the researchers of the HMP have created a reference database and the boundaries of normal microbial variation in humans. From 242 healthy U. S. volunteers, more than 5,000 samples were collected from tissues from 15 to 18 body sites such as mouth, skin, lower intestine, vagina. All the DNA, human and microbial, were analyzed with DNA sequencing machines.

The microbial genome data were extracted by identifying the bacterial specific ribosomal RNA, 16S rRNA. The researchers calculated that more than 10,000 microbial species occupy the human ecosystem and they have identified 81 – 99% of the genera, it is difficult to culture in laboratory communities of bacteria and viruses, therefore sequencing technologies can be exploited in metagenomics, too. Indeed, the complete knowledge of the functions and the charac