Don Quixote (ballet)
Don Quixote is a ballet in four acts and eight scenes, based on episodes taken from the famous novel Don Quixote de la Mancha by Miguel de Cervantes. It was choreographed by Marius Petipa to the music of Ludwig Minkus and first presented by the Ballet of the Imperial Bolshoi Theatre of Moscow, Russia on 26 December 1869. Petipa and Minkus revised the ballet into a far more expanded and elaborated edition in five acts and eleven scenes for the Imperial Ballet, first presented on 21 November 1871 at the Imperial Bolshoi Kamenny Theatre of St. Petersburg. All modern productions of the Petipa/Minkus ballet are derived from the version staged by Alexander Gorsky for the Bolshoi Theatre of Moscow in 1900, a production the ballet master staged for the Imperial Ballet of St. Petersburg in 1902; the two chapters of the novel that the ballet is based on were first adapted for the ballet in 1740 by Franz Hilverding in Vienna, Austria. In 1768, Jean Georges Noverre mounted a new version of Don Quixote in Vienna to the music of Josef Starzer, a production that appears to have been a revival of the original by Hilverding.
Charles Didelot, known today as the "father of Russian Ballet," staged a two-act version of Don Quixote in St. Petersburg for the Imperial Ballet in 1808. In 1809 a version of the work was mounted at Her Majesty's Theatre by James Harvey D'Egville. Paul Taglioni presented his own version of Don Quixote for the Berlin Court Opera Ballet in 1839, his uncle, Salvatore Taglioni, set a production at the Teatro Regio, in Turin, in 1843; the most famous and enduring ballet adaptation was created by the choreographer Marius Petipa, unrivalled Maître de Ballet of the Tsar's Imperial Ballet of St. Petersburg, the composer Ludwig Minkus. By special commission, Petipa mounted the work for the Ballet of the Imperial Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow; the production premiered on 26 December 1869 to great success. Petipa restaged the ballet in a far more opulent and grandiose production for the St. Petersburg Imperial Ballet on 21 November 1871; this new production used the same designs as the first production. Alexander Gorsky presented his revival of the ballet for the Ballet of the Moscow Imperial Bolshoi Theatre on 19 December 1900, a production that he staged for the Imperial Ballet of St. Petersburg, premiering 2 February 1902.
For his productions of 1900 and 1902 Gorsky interpolated new dances. For his 1900 production, he added new dances to music by Anton Simon – a variation for the Queen of the Dryads, a dance for her mistresses, as well as an additional Spanish dance for the last scene; when he staged the production in St. Petersburg in 1902, the composer Riccardo Drigo composed two new variations for Mathilde Kschessinskaya, who danced Kitri/Dulcinea – the famous Variation of Kitri with the fan for the ballet's final pas de deux, the Variation of Kitri as Dulcinea for the scene of Don Quixote's dream, it is believed that Gorsky interpolated the Grand Pas des toréadors from the 1881 Petipa/Minkus ballet Zoraiya, a piece, still included in modern productions of Don Quixote. However, this piece was in Don Quixote by the time Gorsky came to revive it as it was found published in the ballet score in 1882. Therefore, the likelihood is that it was Petipa himself who interpolated the Grand Pas des toréadors in Don Quixote.
Gorsky's 1902 revival was not well received in St Petersburg, causing shock among both Petipa and the balletomanes, who claimed that the production was a mutilation of Petipa's original masterpiece by one of his former students and dancers. The ballet lived on in Russia well after the revolution of 1917, whereas many other ballets ceased to be performed into the Soviet period. In fact, it became part of the permanent repertoire both of the Moscow Bolshoi Theatre and the Leningrad Kirov Theatre. Don Quixote was brought from Russia to other countries first by Anna Pavlova's company in 1924 in an abridged version of Gorsky's 1902 production, though the full-length work was not staged abroad for many years; the famous Grand Pas de Deux from the ballet's final scene was staged in the West as early as the 1940s, given first by the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo. The first full-length production mounted outside of Russia was a new staging and choreographed by Ninette de Valois for The Royal Ballet in 1950.
The first full revival of the original Russian production to be staged in the West was by Ballet Rambert in 1962. In 1966 Rudolf Nureyev staged his version for the Vienna State Opera Ballet, with Minkus' score adapted by John Lanchbery. In 1973, Nureyev filmed his version with the Australian Robert Helpmann as Don Quixote. Mikhail Baryshnikov mounted his own version in 1980 for American Ballet Theatre, a production, staged by many companies, including the Royal Ballet, though the company would stage Nureyev's version and most Carlos Acosta's. Today the ballet has been staged by many companies all over the world in many different versions, is considered to be among the great classics of the ballet. American choreographer George Balanchine famously created a modern version in 1965 for the New
Giovanni Paisiello was an Italian composer of the Classical era, was the most popular opera composer of the late 1700s. His works were influenced Haydn Mozart and Beethoven. Paisiello was educated by the Jesuits there, he became known for his beautiful singing voice and in 1754 was sent to the Conservatorio di S. Onofrio at Naples, where he studied under Francesco Durante, became assistant master. For the theatre of the Conservatorio, which he left in 1763, he wrote some intermezzi, one of which attracted so much notice that he was invited to write two operas, La Pupilla and Il Mondo al Rovescio, for Bologna, a third, Il Marchese di Tidipano, for Rome, his reputation now established, he settled for some years at Naples, despite the popularity of Niccolò Piccinni, Domenico Cimarosa and Pietro Guglielmi, of whose triumphs he was bitterly jealous, he produced a series of successful operas, one of which, L'ldolo cinese, made a deep impression upon the Neapolitan public. In 1772 Paisiello began to write church music, composed a requiem for Gennara di Borbone, of the reigning dynasty.
In the same year he married Cecilia Pallini, the marriage was a happy one. In 1776 Paisiello was invited by the empress Catherine II of Russia to St. Petersburg, where he remained for eight years, among other charming works, his masterpiece, Il barbiere di Siviglia, which soon attained a European reputation; the fate of this opera marks an epoch in the history of Italian art. When, in 1816, Gioachino Rossini set a revised version of the libretto to music, under the title of "Almaviva ossia la inutil precauzione" the fans of Paisiello stormed the stage. Rossini's opera, now known as Il barbiere di Siviglia, is now acknowledged as Rossini's greatest work, while Paisiello's opera is only infrequently produced—a strange instance of poetical vengeance, since Paisiello himself had many years endeavoured to eclipse the fame of Giovanni Battista Pergolesi by resetting the libretto of his famous intermezzo, La serva padrona. Paisiello left Russia in 1784, after producing Il Re Teodoro at Vienna, entered the service of Ferdinand IV of Naples, where he composed many of his best operas, including Nina and La Molinara.
After many vicissitudes, resulting from political and dynastic changes, he was invited to Paris by Napoleon, whose favor he had won five years by composing a march for the funeral of General Hoche. Napoleon treated him munificently, while cruelly neglecting two more famous composers, Luigi Cherubini and Etienne Méhul, to whom the new favorite transferred the hatred he had borne to Cimarosa and Piccinni. Paisiello conducted the music of the court in the Tuileries with a stipend of 10,000 francs and 4,800 for lodging, but he failed to conciliate the Parisian public, who received his opera Proserpine so coldly that, in 1803, he requested and with some difficulty obtained permission to return to Italy, upon the plea of his wife's ill health. On his arrival at Naples Paisiello was reinstated in his former appointments by Joseph Bonaparte and Joachim Murat, but he had taxed his genius beyond its strength, was unable to meet the demands now made upon it for new ideas, his prospects, were precarious.
The power of the Bonaparte family was tottering to its fall. The death of his wife in 1815 tried him severely, his health failed and constitutional jealousy of the popularity of others was a source of worry and vexation. Paisiello is known to have composed 94 operas, which are known for their gracefully beautiful melodies; the best-known tune he wrote is Nel cor più non mi sento from La Molinara, immortalized when Beethoven composed variations based on it. Another favourite vocal piece is Chi vuol la zingarella from "I zingari in fiesta", that vividly portrays the scene of an attractive gypsy girl with its dramatic music. Paisiello wrote a great deal of church music, including eight masses, he composed the Inno al Re, the national anthem of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Manuscript scores of many of his operas were presented to the library of the British Museum by Domenico Dragonetti; the library of the Gerolamini at Naples possesses an interesting manuscript compilation recording Paisiello's opinions on contemporary composers, exhibiting him as a somewhat severe critic of the work of Pergolesi.
The Concise Grove Dictionary of Music notes that "Paisiello was one of the most successful and influential opera composers of his time. Most of his over 80 operas are comic and use a simple and spirited style, latterly with sharper characterization, more colorful scoring and warmer melodies, his serious operas have less than the conventional amount of virtuoso vocal writing. Paisiello was an opera composer, his instrumental works are therefore imbued with a similar vocally conceived melodic line, granted they may be lacking in the sophisticated counterpoint and motivic work of Haydn and Mozart's music. This characterization, does not do justice to the extreme drama and topical contrast in all his works such as the Piano Concerto No. 4 in G minor. He had mastered all the techniques which made for good opera, this made his works p
Carmen: Duets & Arias
Carmen: Duets & Arias is an album released in 2010 by Italian tenor, Andrea Bocelli. The album is a collection of arias of Georges Bizet's opera Carmen, including duets with Welsh bass-baritone, Bryn Terfel, Russian mezzo-soprano Marina Domashenko, Italian soprano Eva Mei, from the French opéra comique. In 2005, Bocelli recorded the opera Carmen. Myung-whun Chung conducted the Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio France and the Chœur de Radio France for the recording. Welsh bass-baritone Bryn Terfel, mezzo-soprano Marina Domashenko, soprano Eva Mei, were part of the Ensemble. In 2008, Bocelli played the role of Don José on stage, opposite Hungarian mezzo-soprano Ildikó Komlósi, as Carmen, at the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, in Rome, for four nights, from June 17 to June 28. Bocelli released the complete opera recording of Carmen, in the same year. In March 2010, the recording was released Internationally. Carmen: Duets & Arias contains highlights of arias and duets of that recording. Carmen – Marina Domashenko Don José – Andrea Bocelli Micaëla – Eva Mei Escamillo – Bryn Terfel Zuniga – Thierry Félix Moralès – Jean-Luc Ballestra Frasquita – Magali Léger Mercédès – Delphine Haidan Le Dancaïre – Olivier Lallouette Le Remendado – Alain Gabriel Conductor – Myung-whun Chung Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio France Choeur de Radio France – Chorus Master: Yves Parmentier Maîtrise de Radio France – Chorus Master: Toni Ramon "Prelude" "Habanera: L'amour est un oiseau rebelle" "Carmen!
Sur tes pas nous nous pressons tous!" "Parle-moi de ma mère!" "Que son fils l'aime et la vénère" "Seguidilla: Près des remparts de Séville" "Toreador Song: Votre toast, je peux vous le rendre" "Halte-là! Qui va là?" "Je vais danser en votre honneur" "Flower Song: La fleur que tu m'avais jetée" "Non! Tu ne m'aimes pas!" "Holà! Carmen!" "Je dis que rien ne m'épouvante" "Je suis Escamillo" "Holà! holà! José!" "Halte! quelqu'un est là" "C'est toi!" Andy Gill from the British newspaper, The Independent, gave the complete opera recording a 4 out of 5 stars rating, writing that, "the world's most popular tenor, in the world's most popular opera? Do you suppose this will sell? Decca aren't taking any chances anyway, making it available as a complete CD set with full libretto, as a single-disc collection of Duets & Arias; the peculiar tragic nobility of Bocelli's voice is suited to the role of Don José, but the clinching elements are the supporting performances Marina Domashenko in the title role, whose plummily graceful tones bring just the right note of quixotic disdain to the part.
His lack of vocal consistency is problematic, but at his best here, the fullness his tone, the discipline of his phrasing might well surprise his critics."On the other hand, Joe Banno of the Washington Post gave an unfavorable review of the recording, mentioning the oft-noted failings in Bocelli's vocal resources on full display in this performance: "Bocelli, to be fair, possesses an lovely tenor and knows his stuff when it comes to selling a pop ballad. And Decca's close miking of his puny voice inflates his sound to near-Franco Corelli-like dimensions, but his short-breathed, clumsily phrased, interpretively blank and pinched and strained singing makes his Don Jose a tough listen." Carmen: Duets & Arias on αCharts.us Carmen: Duets & Arias on Ultratop.com Carmen on Worldwide charts Carmen on Ultratop.com
Castanets known as clackers or palillos, are a percussion instrument, used in Spanish, Moorish, Italian, Sephardic and Portuguese music. In ancient Greece and ancient Rome there was a similar instrument called crotalum; the instrument consists of a pair of concave shells joined on one edge by a string. They are held in the hand and used to produce clicks for rhythmic accents or a ripping or rattling sound consisting of a rapid series of clicks, they are traditionally made of hardwood, although fibreglass is becoming popular. In practice a player uses two pairs of castanets. One pair is held in each hand, with the string hooked over the thumb and the castanets resting on the palm with the fingers bent over to support the other side; each pair will make a sound of a different pitch. The origins of the instrument are not known; the practice of clicking hand-held sticks together to accompany dancing is ancient, was practiced by both the Greeks and the Egyptians. In more modern times, the bones and spoons used in Minstrel show and jug band music can be considered forms of the castanet.
During the baroque period, castanets were featured prominently in dances. Composers like Jean-Baptiste Lully scored them for the music of dances which included Spaniards, Egyptians and Korybantes. In addition, they are scored for dances involving less pleasant characters such as demons and nightmares, their association with African dances is stated in the ballet Flore by Lully, "… les Africains inventeurs des danses de Castagnettes entrent d'un air plus gai …" A rare occasion where the accompanying instrument is given concertant solo status is Leonardo Balada's Concertino for Castanets and Orchestra Three Anecdotes. The "Conciertino für Kastagnetten und Orchester" by the German composer Helmut M. Timpelan, in cooperation with the castanet virtuoso, José de Udaeta, is another solo work for the instrument. See the tocatta festiva for castanets by Allan Stephenson. Sonia Amelio has performed her castanet arrangements as a concert soloist. In the late Ottoman Empire, köçeks not only danced but played percussion instruments a type of castanet known as the çarpare, which in times were replaced by metal cymbals called zills.
Castanets are sometimes referred to as clackers in the United States. Castanets are played by singers or dancers. Contrary to popular belief, castanets are not used in the flamenco dance, except for two specific forms: zambra and siguiriyas. In fact, Spanish folk dance "Sevillanas" is the style performed using castanet. Escuela bolera, a balletic dance form, is accompanied by castanets; the name is derived from the diminutive form of castaña, the Spanish word for chestnut, which they resemble. In Andalusia they are referred to as palillos instead, this is the name by which they are known in flamenco. Castanets were used to evoke a Spanish atmosphere in Carmen, they are found in the "Dance of the Seven Veils" from Richard Strauss' opera Salome and in Richard Wagner's Tannhäuser. An unusual variation on the standard castanets can be found in Darius Milhaud's Les Choëphores, which calls for castanets made of metal. Other uses include Rimsky-Korsakov's Capriccio espagnol, Ravel's Rapsodie espagnole, Francis Poulenc's Concerto for Two Pianos and Orchestra in D minor and Karl Jenkins's Tangollen.
One can see Spanish influence in the music of Naples through the presence of castanets, as it was registered by Athanasius Kircher on his Tarantella Napoletana. When used in an orchestral or jug band setting, castanets are sometimes attached to a handle, or mounted to a base to form a pair of machine castanets; this makes them easier to play, but alters the sound for the machine castanets. It is possible to produce a roll on a pair of castanets in any of the three ways in which they are held; when held in the hand, they are bounced against the fingers and palm of the hand. For a machine castanet, a less satisfactory roll is obtained by rapid alternation of the two castanets with the fingers. Handle castanets were developed for use in orchestral music. A pair of castanets are fitted onto the end of a straight piece of wood allowing them to be played with a technique similar to that of the snare drum, they are very useful for producing a sustained roll loud rolls, on the instrument. Be My Baby, popular American Rock n Roll song by The Ronettes with prominent castanets Crotalum, was a kind of clapper/castanet used in religious dances by groups in ancient Greece.
Chácaras Krakebs Zills
Carmen Suite (ballet)
Carmen Suite is a one-act ballet created in 1967 by Cuban choreographer Alberto Alonso to music by Russian composer Rodion Shchedrin for his wife, prima ballerina assoluta Maya Plisetskaya. The premiere took place on 20 April 1967 at the Bolshoi Moscow; the music, taken from the opera Carmen by Georges Bizet and arranged for strings and percussion, is not a 19th-century pastiche but rather "a creative meeting of the minds," as Shchedrin put it, with Bizet's melodies reclothed in a variety of fresh instrumental colors, set to new rhythms and phrased with a great deal of sly wit. Banned by the Soviet hierarchy as "disrespectful" to the opera for these qualities, the ballet has since become Shchedrin's best-known work and has remained popular in the West for what reviewer James Sanderson calls "an iconoclastic but entertaining retelling of Bizet's opera." The ballet is in one act containing 13 dance numbers: I. Introduction: Andante assai II. Dance: Allegro III. First Intermezzo: Allegro moderato - Andante moderato - IV.
Changing of the Guard: Moderato V. Carmen's Entrance and Habañera: Allegro moderato - Quasi andante VI. Scene: Allegro moderato - Tempo precedente - Andante assai VII. Second Intermezzo: Larghetto VIII. Bolero: Allegro vivo IX. Torero: Moderato con stoltezza X. Torero and Carmen: Lento - Tempo I XI. Adagio: Andante moderato - Adagio XII. Fortune-Telling: Andantino - Andante assai XIII. Finale: Allegro - Tempo precedente - Andante assai A standard string orchestra of violins, cellos, double basses is augmented by a percussion battery of four members, who play the following: Player 1: marimba, castanets, three cowbells, four bongos, snare drum, guiro Player 2: vibraphone, snare drum, two woodblocks, triangle, guiro Player 3: hand bells, maracas, snare drum, guiro, three temple blocks, bass drum, tam-tam, snare drum, triangle Player 4: cymbals, bass drum, tam-tam, hi-hat, tambourine, tom-tom, timpani Two factors influenced Shchedrin in choosing this instrumentation; the first, he said in an interview with BBC Music Magazine, was that, "to be far " from Bizet's scoring for the opera, he wanted an ensemble "without brass and woodwind... that gave me many possibilities" for timbral variety.
The second was the high level of string and percussion players available in the Bolshoi orchestra. The idea for Carmen Suite originated with Shchedrin's wife, Bolshoi Theatre ballerina Maya Plisetskaya. In 1964, she asked composer Dmitri Shostakovich to compose a ballet on the story of Carmen, Shchedrin said, they were both on good terms with him. Shostakovich "gently but refused," Plisetskaya remembers. "I'm afraid of Bizet," he told her half-jokingly. "Everyone is so used to the opera that whatever you write, you'll disappoint them." He suggested that Shchedrin could "come up with something special" to fulfill her request. Instead, she went to Aram Khachaturian, the composer of the ballets Gayane and Spartacus, but "things never went beyond talking." Shchedrin added that Khachaturian told Plisetskaya, "Why you need me? You have a composer at home, ask him!" It was he said, that she asked him to write the music. In late 1966, the Ballet Nacional de Cuba stopped in Moscow during its Soviet tour. Plisetskaya's mother encouraged her to go.
Plisetskaya approached the company's choreographer, Alberto Alonso and told him of her desire for a Carmen ballet. Alonso developed the libretto and worked with Ballet Nacional dancers on the choreography flew to Moscow to teach the work to Plisetskaya. Shchedrin agreed to write music for the ballet. However, as much as he struggled to write an original score for this project, Shchedrin found he could not extricate the story from the music that French composer Georges Bizet wrote for his opera of the same name, a score Shchedrin called "fantastic, one of the best in the whole history of music." Shchedrin decided to exploit this connection in what he called "a creative meeting of the minds." With Shostakovich's words in mind, Shchedrin said, "I had to combine... something fresh... with these famous melodies." From this motive came the idea to use just strings and percussion for the instrumentation "because it is a modern combination." His intent was to give homage to what Bizet had done and acknowledge the universality of his music in telling the story of Carmen while adding his own ideas to the work.
In this way, Andrew Lindemann Malone writes in his description of the ballet, Shchedrin positioned him on a creative middle ground, "making himself if not an equal partner at least something above the level of arranger."Toward this end, Shchedrin set Bizet's music with a number of clever and unexpected rhythmic twists and subtler changes in notes and chords. This gives the impression of recognizing something familiar and being surprised in hearing something distorted about it; some melodies are "combined for'found' counterpoint," Malone writes, others interrupted and still more left unaccompanied where Shchedrin assumes the listener knows both music and story all too well. An instance of the last mentioned, Malone writes, is "when a big whipped-up climax in the Torero scene leads to nothing but the lowest percussion, pumping merrily, obliviously along." He adds a number of humorous touches, such as the off-color use of the "Farandole" from Bizet's incidental music to L'Arlésienne and the sudden, unexpected hesitations in the Toreador Song.
None of these changes obfuscate either the general melodic curves of Bizet's music—all the familiar tunes are recognizab
Jacques Offenbach was a German-French composer and impresario of the romantic period. He is remembered for his nearly 100 operettas of the 1850s–1870s and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann, he was a powerful influence on composers of the operetta genre Johann Strauss, Jr. and Arthur Sullivan. His best-known works were continually revived during the 20th century, many of his operettas continue to be staged in the 21st; the Tales of Hoffmann remains part of the standard opera repertory. Born in Cologne, the son of a synagogue cantor, Offenbach showed early musical talent. At the age of 14, he was accepted as a student at the Paris Conservatoire but found academic study unfulfilling and left after a year. From 1835 to 1855 he earned his living as a cellist, achieving international fame, as a conductor, his ambition, was to compose comic pieces for the musical theatre. Finding the management of Paris' Opéra-Comique company uninterested in staging his works, in 1855 he leased a small theatre in the Champs-Élysées.
There he presented a series of his own small-scale pieces. In 1858, Offenbach produced his first full-length operetta, Orphée aux enfers, exceptionally well received and has remained one of his most played works. During the 1860s, he produced at least 18 full-length operettas, as well as more one-act pieces, his works from this period included La belle Hélène, La Vie parisienne, La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein and La Périchole. The risqué humour and gentle satiric barbs in these pieces, together with Offenbach's facility for melody, made them internationally known, translated versions were successful in Vienna and elsewhere in Europe. Offenbach became associated with the Second French Empire of Napoleon III. Napoleon III granted him French citizenship and the Légion d'Honneur. With the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, Offenbach found himself out of favour in Paris because of his imperial connections and his German birth, he remained successful in London, however. He re-established himself in Paris during the 1870s, with revivals of some of his earlier favourites and a series of new works, undertook a popular U.
S. tour. In his last years he strove to finish The Tales of Hoffmann, but died before the premiere of the opera, which has entered the standard repertory in versions completed or edited by other musicians. Offenbach was born Jacob or Jakob Offenbach to a Jewish family, in the German city of Cologne, a part of Prussia, his birthplace in the Großen Griechenmarkt was a short distance from the square, now named after him, the Offenbachplatz. He was the second son and the seventh of ten children of Isaac Juda Offenbach né Eberst and his wife Marianne, née Rindskopf. Isaac, who came from a musical family, had abandoned his original trade as a bookbinder and earned an itinerant living as a cantor in synagogues and playing the violin in cafés, he was known as "der Offenbacher", after his native town, Offenbach am Main, in 1808 he adopted Offenbach as a surname. In 1816 he settled in Cologne, where he became established as a teacher, giving lessons in singing, violin and guitar, composing both religious and secular music.
When Jacob was six years old, his father taught him to play the violin. As he was by the permanent cantor of the local synagogue, Isaac could afford to pay for his son to take lessons from the well-known cellist Bernhard Breuer. Three years the biographer Gabriel Grovlez records, the boy was giving performances of his own compositions, "the technical difficulties of which terrified his master", Breuer. Together with his brother Julius and sister Isabella, Jacob played in a trio at local dance halls and cafés, performing popular dance music and operatic arrangements. In 1833, Isaac decided that the two most musically talented of his children and Jacob needed to leave the provincial musical scene of Cologne to study in Paris. With generous support from local music lovers and the municipal orchestra, with whom they gave a farewell concert on 9 October, the two young musicians, accompanied by their father, made the four-day journey to Paris in November 1833. Isaac had been given letters of introduction to the director of the Paris Conservatoire, Luigi Cherubini, but he needed all his eloquence to persuade Cherubini to give Jacob an audition.
The boy's age and nationality were both obstacles to admission. Cherubini had several years earlier refused the 12-year-old Franz Liszt admission on similar grounds, but he agreed to hear the young Offenbach play, he listened to his playing and stopped him, saying, "Enough, young man, you are now a pupil of this Conservatoire." Julius was admitted. Both brothers adopted French forms of Julius becoming Jules and Jacob becoming Jacques. Isaac failed to do so and returned to Cologne. Before leaving, he found a number of pupils for Jules. At the conservatoire, Jules was a diligent student. By contrast, Jacques was bored by ac
Carmen (1915 Cecil B. DeMille film)
Carmen is a 1915 American silent drama film directed by Cecil B. DeMille; the film is based on the novella Carmen by Prosper Mérimée. The existing versions of this film appear to be from the re-edited 1918 re-release. Don José, an officer of the law, is seduced by the gypsy girl Carmen, in order to facilitate her clan's smuggling endeavors. Don José becomes obsessed. Geraldine Farrar as Carmen Wallace Reid as Don José Pedro de Cordoba as Escamillo Horace B. Carpenter as Pastia William Elmer as Morales Jeanie Macpherson as Gypsy girl Anita King as Gypsy girl Milton Brown as Garcia Tex Driscoll Raymond Hatton as Spectator at Bullfight DeMille had intended to film a musical version of George Bizet's opera Carmen, but its libretto was under copyright so DeMille instructed his screenwriter brother William to base his scenario on the public domain novella Carmen by Prosper Mérimée; the novella's Carmen was more manipulative than the opera version. For instance, William included a cigarette factory fight scene from the book, not found in the opera.
Composer Hugo Riesenfeld arranged the orchestral score, his first of many for film, based on that of Bizet's opera. It was performed at other prestigious screenings. There have been two restorations of Riesenfeld's score: the first was by Gillian Anderson, recorded with the London Philharmonic Orchestra in 1996. Timothy Brock recorded the second in 1997 with the Olympia Chamber Orchestra. Both recordings have accompanied various releases of the restored film on home video. Carmen was praised as a "triumph of superb acting and magnificent scenery" in Motion Picture Magazine. "No small share of this artistic success is due to Mr. Wallace Reid's sympathetic interpretation of Don José," they added. "The'Carmen' film will, in its own way, stand alongside'The Birth of a Nation' as an epochmaker," Photoplay said in their review. One of their few complaints was on the film's faithfulness to Carmen's character of the Mérimée story; the New-York Tribune described it as "The most interesting example of the new art of the photoplay.
Miss Farrar's personality is admirably suited to the screen, her facial expression was excellent." "Geraldine Farrar's'Carmen' makes as dramatic an appeal to the eye as her voice did to the ear," said The San Francisco Call & Post, "The resolution of Geraldine Farrar, the beautiful and gifted star, to employ her talents in the attaining of success in the films is one of the greatest steps in advancing the dignity of the motion pictures. Miss Farrar's'Carmen' in the films is the greatest triumph the motion picture has yet achieved over the speaking stage."Geraldine Farrar came in fourth place in the 1916 "Screen Masterpiece" contest held by Motion Picture Magazine for her performance as Carmen, with 17,900 votes. She was the highest ranking actress and was behind Francis X. Bushman in Graustark, Henry B. Walthall in The Birth of a Nation, the number one winner, Earle Williams, in The Christian. Theda Bara's performance of the same role received 9,150 votes; the film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists: 2002: AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions – Nominated Carmen, a lost film adaption directed by Raoul Walsh A Burlesque on Carmen parody by Charlie Chaplin The House That Shadows Built promotional film released by Paramount Carmen on IMDb Carmen at AllMovie Carmen is available for free download at the Internet Archive Review from Motion Picture News, printed alongside a review for the Walsh production