Kabbalah is an esoteric method and school of thought that originated in Judaism. A traditional Kabbalist in Judaism is called a Mekubbal, Kabbalah is a set of esoteric teachings meant to explain the relationship between an unchanging and mysterious Ein Sof and the mortal and finite universe. While it is used by some denominations, it is not a religious denomination in itself. It forms the foundations of religious interpretation. Kabbalah seeks to define the nature of the universe and the human being, the nature and purpose of existence and it presents methods to aid understanding of the concepts and thereby attain spiritual realisation. Kabbalah originally developed within the realm of Jewish tradition, and kabbalists often use classical Jewish sources to explain, traditional practitioners believe its earliest origins pre-date world religions, forming the primordial blueprint for Creations philosophies, sciences and political systems. Safed Rabbi Isaac Luria is considered the father of contemporary Kabbalah and it was popularised in the form of Hasidic Judaism from the 18th century onwards.
According to the Zohar, a text for kabbalistic thought. These four levels are called pardes from their initial letters, the direct interpretations of meaning. Derash, midrashic meanings, often with imaginative comparisons with similar words or verses, the inner, esoteric meanings, expressed in kabbalah. Kabbalah is considered by its followers as a part of the study of Torah – the study of Torah being an inherent duty of observant Jews. A third tradition, related but more shunned, involves the magical aims of Practical Kabbalah and they can be readily distinguished by their basic intent with respect to God, The Theosophical tradition of Theoretical Kabbalah seeks to understand and describe the divine realm. Consequently, it formed a minor tradition shunned from Kabbalah. According to traditional belief, early kabbalistic knowledge was transmitted orally by the Patriarchs, According to this view, early kabbalah was, in around the 10th century BC, an open knowledge practiced by over a million people in ancient Israel.
Foreign conquests drove the Jewish spiritual leadership of the time to hide the knowledge and make it secret and it is hard to clarify with any degree of certainty the exact concepts within kabbalah. There are several different schools of thought with different outlooks, however. From the Renaissance onwards Jewish Kabbalah texts entered non-Jewish culture, where they were studied and translated by Christian Hebraists, syncretic traditions of Christian Kabbalah and Hermetic Qabalah developed independently of Jewish Kabbalah, reading the Jewish texts as universal ancient wisdom. Both adapted the Jewish concepts freely from their Judaic understanding, to merge with other theologies, religious traditions, with the decline of Christian Cabala in the Age of Reason, Hermetic Qabalah continued as a central underground tradition in Western esotericism
The Midrash, refers to a specific compilation of these writings, primarily from the first ten centuries CE. Gesenius ascribes the etymology of midrash to the Qal of the common Hebrew verb darash to seek, inquire. The word midrash occurs twice in the Hebrew Bible,2 Chronicles 13,22 in the midrash of the prophet Iddo, in Second Temple Jewish literature it began to be used in the sense of education and learning generally. According to the PaRDeS approaches to exegesis, interpretation of Biblical texts in Judaism is realized through peshat, derash, the Midrash concentrates somewhat on remez but mostly on derash. Many different exegetical methods are employed in an effort to derive meaning from a text. This is not limited to the traditional thirteen textual tools attributed to the Tanna Rabbi Ishmael, in many cases, a dialogue is expanded manifold, handfuls of lines in the Biblical narrative may become long philosophical discussions. It is unclear whether the midrash assumes these dialogues took place in reality or if this refers only to subtext or religious implication, many midrashim start off with a seemingly unrelated sentence from the Biblical books of Psalms, Proverbs or the Prophets.
This sentence turns out to reflect the content of the rabbinical interpretation offered. This strategy is used particularly in a subgenre of midrash known as the Petikhta, some Midrash discussions are highly metaphorical, and many Jewish authors stress that they are not intended to be taken literally. Rather, other sources may sometimes serve as a key to particularly esoteric discussions. Later authors maintain that this was done to make this material accessible to the casual reader. In general the midrash is focused on either halakha or aggadic subject matter, Midrash halakha is the name given to a group of tannaitic expositions on the first four books of the Hebrew Bible. These Midrashim, which are written in Mishnahic Hebrew set out a distinction between the Biblical texts that they discuss, and the rabbinic interpretation of that text. They often go well beyond simple interpretation and derive or provide support for halakha and this work is based on pre set assumptions about the sacred and divine nature of the text, and the belief in the legitimacy that accords with rabbinic interpretation.
By collecting and compiling these thoughts they could be presented in a manner which helped to refute claims that they were only human interpretations, Midrashim which seek to explain the non-legal portions of the Hebrew Bible are sometimes referred to as aggadah or haggadah. Some of these midrashim entail mystical teachings, the presentation is such that the Midrash is a simple lesson to the uninitiated, and a direct allusion, or analogy, to a Mystical teaching for those educated in this area. An example of a Midrashic interpretation, And God saw all that He had made, and there was evening, and there was morning, the sixth day. —Midrash, Rabbi Nahman said in Rabbi Samuels name, Behold, it was very good refers to the Good Desire, AND behold, can the Evil Desire be very good
Tetzaveh, Ttzaveh, or Ttzavveh is the 20th weekly Torah portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading and the eighth in the Book of Exodus. The parashah reports Gods commands to bring oil for the lamp, make sacred garments for the priests, conduct an ordination ceremony. The parashah is made up of 5,430 Hebrew letters,1,412 Hebrew words, and 101 verses, Jews read it the 20th Sabbath after Simchat Torah, in February or March. In traditional Sabbath Torah reading, the parashah is divided into seven readings, or עליות, in the first reading, God instructed the Israelites to bring Moses clear olive oil, so that Aaron and his descendants as High Priest could kindle lamps regularly in the Tabernacle. God instructed Moses to make sacral vestments for Aaron, a breastpiece, the Ephod, a robe, a gold frontlet inscribed holy to the Lord, a tunic, a headdress, a sash. In the second reading, God detailed the instructions for the breastpiece, God instructed Moses to place Urim and Thummim inside the breastpiece of decision.
In the third reading, God detailed the instructions for the robe, fringed tunic, headdress and breeches. God instructed Moses to place pomegranates and gold bells around the hem, to make a sound when the High Priest entered and exited the sanctuary. In the sixth reading, God promised to meet and speak with Moses and the Israelites there, to abide among the Israelites, in the seventh reading, God instructed Moses to make an incense altar of acacia wood overlaid with gold—sometimes called the Golden Altar. As the creation story unfolds in seven days, the instructions about the Tabernacle unfold in seven speeches, in both creation and Tabernacle accounts, the text notes the completion of the task. In both creation and Tabernacle, the work done is seen to be good, in both creation and Tabernacle, when the work is finished, God takes an action in acknowledgement. In both creation and Tabernacle, when the work is finished, a blessing is invoked, and in both creation and Tabernacle, God declares something holy.
Martin Buber and others noted that the used to describe the building of the Tabernacle parallels that used in the story of creation. And Carol Meyers noted that Exodus 25, 1–9 and 35, 4–29 list seven kinds of substances — metals, skins, oil, the Torah mentions the combination of ear and toe in three places. And Leviticus 8, 23–24 reports that Moses followed Gods instructions to initiate Aaron, Leviticus 14,14,17,25, and 28 set forth a similar procedure for the cleansing of a person with skin disease. And finally, in Leviticus 14,25 and 28, God instructed the priest to repeat the procedure on the day to complete the persons cleansing. The parashah is discussed in these early sources, Ben Sira wrote of the splendor of the High Priest’s garments in Exodus 28. As he came out of the House of the curtain
Amuka is a communal settlement near Safed in the Upper Galilee in northern Israel. It belongs to the Merom HaGalil Regional Council and it is named for the Biblical city of the same name, which is presumed to be located near the present-day settlement. In 2015 it had a population of 125, the community was founded in 1980 as part of the Galilee Lookouts program. Near the community is the place of Rabbi Jonathan ben Uzziel. Children in the community schools in nearby villages Nof Harim elementary school in Sasa, Anne Frank high school in Sasa, Har VeGai high school. There is a ruined building above the burial place of Jonathan ben Uzziel. Its remnants are located east of the valley where the Arab village Ammuqa was located until its depopulation in 1948. In the 19th century, the researcher Geren saw there the base of a pillar, tzvi Ilan writes that today that some of the hewn stones are centralized in the center of the ruin like a platform for worship. West of the platform is an area of 20 by 30 meters appropriate for a synagogue.
In the past there was a board with a figure of a grapevine
Sataf is a tourist site showcasing ancient agricultural techniques used in the Jerusalem Mountains. Before 1948 it was a Palestinian Arab village in the Jerusalem Subdistrict depopulated during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and it is located 10 km west of Jerusalem, with Sorek Valley bordering to the east. Two springs, Ein Sataf and Ein Bikura flow from the site into the riverbed below. A monastery located across the valley from Sataf, i. e. south of Wadi as-Sarar, remains of a 4,000 BCE Chalcolithic village were discovered at the site. The related traces of agricultural activities number among the oldest in the region, most ancient remains date to the Byzantine period. The first written mention of the site is from the Mamluk era, in the late Ottoman period, in 1863, Victor Guérin described a village of one hundred and eighty people. He further noted that their houses were standing on the slopes of a mountain, an Ottoman village list from about 1870 counted 38 houses and a population of 115, whereby only men were counted.
In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Funds Survey of Western Palestine described Setaf as a village of moderate size, of stone houses and it has a spring lower down, on the north. By the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, all the Christians were Roman Catholic. The 1931 census lists 381 inhabitants,379 Muslim and 2 Christian, in 1945 the population of Sataf was 540, all Muslims, and the total land area was 3,775 dunams, according to an official land and population survey. Of this,928 dunams were plantations and irrigable land,465 for cereals, on July 13–14,1948 the Arab village was depopulated by the Harel Brigade, during Operation Dani. Sataf and the area became part of the newly created State of Israel. A short time after the 1948 War, a group of Jewish immigrants from North Africa settled for a few months in the village area. Subsequently the IDFs Unit 101 and paratroopers used it for training purposes, in the 1980s the Jewish National Fund began the restoration of ancient agricultural terraces, and the area around the springs has been turned into a tourist site.
A forest around the site was planted by the Jewish National Fund. In 1992, Sataf was described as follows, Many half-destroyed walls still stand, a Jewish family has settled on the west side of the village, and have fenced in some of the village area. Welcome To Sataf in Palestineremembered. com Sataf, from Zochrot Survey of Western Palestine, Map 17, IAA, Wikimedia commons Map,1946
Hamodia is a Hebrew-language daily newspaper published in Jerusalem, Israel. A daily English-language edition is published in the United States. A weekly edition for French-speaking readers debuted in 2008, the newspapers slogan is The Newspaper of Torah Jewry. It comes with two magazines and Binyan, the newspaper of Israels secular left, describes Hamodia as one of the most powerful newspapers in the Haredi community. Hamodia was founded in 1950 by Rabbi Yehuda Leib Levin, son of the Agudat Israel leader Rabbi Yitzhak-Meir Levin of Warsaw and its current director general is Rabbi Chaim Moshe Knopf and its deputy director general is Knopfs son, Rabbi Elazar Knopf. The English edition of Hamodia is published by Levins daughter, Ruth Lichtenstein and it was first printed on February 27,1998, as a weekly paper and on December 15,2003, it expanded to include a daily publication as well. The daily edition is published from Monday to Friday, with no edition appearing on Saturday, Sunday, or the week of Passover, the weekly edition is printed on Wednesdays, and includes expanded sections and a glossy magazine.
The English-language Hamodia is published in four editions, United States, Australia, the daily edition of the American Hamodia is available in a digital online edition. The American version is the first Haredi Jewish daily newspaper published in English in the U. S. In 2008, a French language weekly edition was introduced and enjoys a wide circulation both in the French-speaking community in Israel and in France itself, editorial policy reflects the Haredi point of view. Although not Zionist, on grounds it is right of center in its Israeli coverage. It is very vociferous on the issue of Jerusalem and opposes even minimal concessions. It includes editorials on all sides of American political and economic issues, regarding same-sex marriage, the newspaper does not even use that name, but rather uses immorality. The publication adheres to an interpretation of Tzniut that prohibits photographs of women on its pages. As Hareidi culture shuns television, internet usage and the reading of secular newspapers, at first, the publishers refused to produce an internet edition of Hamodia, but it now exists.
Rabbi Dovid Kaplan, chinuch columnist Rabbi Issamar Ginzberg, rebbetzin Tziporah Heller, columnist A. Peer, military correspondent Rabbi Dr. Abraham J. Twerski List of Israeli newspapers Binah magazine Hamodia UK Home Page Hamodia Home Page
Etrog is the yellow citron or Citrus medica used by Jewish people during the week-long holiday of Sukkot, as one of the four species. Together with a lulav and aravah, the etrog is to be taken in each Jewish hand, some taxonomic experts, like Hodgson and others, have mistakenly treated etrog as one specific variety of citron. The various Jewish rites utilize different varieties, according to their tradition or the decision of their respective Posek, the romanization as Etrog according to the Sephardic pronunciation, is widely used in Israel through Modern Hebrew. The Ashkenazi pronunciation as in Yiddish, is esrog or esrig and it has been transliterated as Ethrog or Ethrogh in scholarly work, which is according to Yemenite Hebrew. The Hebrew word is thought to derive from the Persian name for the fruit, rabbinic Judaism believes the Biblical phrase peri eitz hadar refers to the etrog. Grammatically, the Hebrew phrase is ambiguous, it is translated as fruit of a beautiful tree. Etrogs are carefully selected for the performance of the Sukkot holiday rituals, in modern Hebrew, hadar refers to the genus Citrus.
Nahmanides suggests that the word was the original Hebrew name for the citron, according to him, the word etrog was introduced over time, adapted from the Aramaic. The Arabic name for the fruit, mentioned in hadith literature, is associated with the Hebrew. Etrog have been cultivated in the Holy Land extensively at the times of the Second Temple and is found in many archaeological foundlings of that era and those include mosaics of Maon Synagogue, Beth Alpha Synagogue, Hamat Tiberias Synagogue and more. In all those cites it is depicted alongside other important religious symbols and it is found on numerous Bar Kokhba coins. The earliest reference to etrog in the land is still the recent discovery of citron pollen that was found in excavations on the Ramat Rachel site. After the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE, exiled Jews planted citron orchards wherever they settled, in Europe as well as in North Africa and Asia Minor. Jews who resided in north of warm citron-growing areas were dependent on imported etrogim.
By the seventeenth century some of the most popular sources were the islands of Corsica, Jewish communities in Europe and America turned to Palestine, where etrog farmers had been marketing etrogim to Europe since the late 1850s through The Fruit of the Goodly Tree Association. Some Jewish communities still preferred citrons from Italy, Morocco, or Yemen, but many Jews seeking citrons turned to Eretz Yisrael, the land of Israel. These days, American Jews continue to import the majority of their holiday etrogim from Israel, a pitam or pitom is composed of a style, and a stigma, and usually falls off during the growing process. An etrog with an intact pitam is considered valuable
Rabbi Meir or Rabbi Meir Baal HaNes was a Jewish sage who lived in the time of the Mishna. He was considered one of the greatest of the Tannaim of the fourth generation, according to the Talmud, his father was a descendant of the Roman Emperor Nero who had converted to Judaism. His wife Bruriah is one of the few women cited in the Gemara and he is the third most frequently mentioned sage in the Mishnah. In the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Gittin p. 4a, it says that all anonymous Mishnas are attributed to Rabbi Meir. This rule was required because, following an attempt to force the resignation of the head of the Sanhedrin, Rabbi Meirs opinions were noted. Meir may have been a sobriquet, Rabbi Meirs real name is thought to have been Nahori or Misha. The name Meir, meaning Illuminator, was given to him because he enlightened the eyes of scholars, the sobriquet Master of the Miracle is based on the following story. Rabbi Meir was married to Bruriah, the daughter of Rabbi Chananiah ben Teradyon, the government ordered the execution of the couple for teaching Torah publicly.
Bruriahs sister was sent to a brothel, Rabbi Meir took a bag of gold coins and went to the brothel disguised as a Roman horseman. He offered the money as a bribe to the guard. The guard replied, “When my supervisor comes, he will notice one missing and kill me. ”Rabbi Meir answered, “Take half the money for yourself, and use the half to bribe the officials. ”The guard continued, “And when there is no more money. I will go to them and you see for yourself. ”Rabbi Meir walked over the dogs. He cried, “God of Meir - answer me. ”The guard was convinced, when the group of supervisors came, the guard bribed them with the money. When the money was used up, they arrested the guard, when they tied the rope around his neck, he said, “God of Meir - answer me. ”From on, a tradition developed that a Jew in crisis gives charity in memory of Rabbi Meir. He says, “God of Meir - answer me, some say the above and give a small amount of charity, as a way to recover a lost item. In the Gemara to tractate Erubin in the Babylonian Talmud there is a discussion of the real name of this Rabbi Meir.
At 13b there is, without argumentation, a statement that this Rabbi Meir is Eleazar Ben Arach. This Eleazar ben Arach is given praise in Avot of Rabbi Natan
An incantation or enchantment is a charm or spell created using words. An incantation may take place during a ritual, either a hymn or prayer, in magic, occultism and witchcraft it is used with the intention of casting a spell on an object or a person. The term derives from Latin incantare, meaning to chant upon, from in- into, upon, in medieval literature, fairy tales and modern fantasy fiction, enchantments are charms or spells. The term was loaned into English since around AD1300, the corresponding native English term being galdr song, spell. It has led to the terms enchanter and enchantress, for those who use enchantments, the weakened sense delight is modern, first attested in 1593. The most widely known example is probably the spell that Cinderellas Fairy Godmother uses to turn a pumpkin into a coach, an enchantment with negative characteristics is usually instead referred to as a curse. Conversely, enchantments are used to describe spells that cause no real effects but deceive people, enchantresses are frequently depicted as able to seduce by such magic.
Other forms include deceiving people into believing that they have suffered a magical transformation, to be enchanted is to be under the influence of an enchantment, usually thought to be caused by charms or spells. The Latin incantare, which means to utter an incantation, or cast a spell, forms the basis of the word enchant. So it can be said that an enchanter or enchantress casts magic spells, or utters incantations, mesopotamian incantations were composed to counter anything from witchcraft to field pests. Carmen, the term for an Ancient Roman incantation Lorica Magic word Mantra Prayer Shamanism Spell Yajna Bibliography John Clute and John Grant, The Encyclopedia of Fantasy
A chuppah, chipe, chupah, or chuppa, is a canopy under which a Jewish couple stand during their wedding ceremony. It consists of a cloth or sheet, sometimes a tallit, stretched or supported over four poles, a chuppah symbolizes the home that the couple will build together. In a more general sense, chupah refers to the method by which nesuin, according to some opinions, it is accomplished by the couple standing under the canopy, there are other views. A traditional chuppah, especially within Orthodox Judaism, recommends that there be open sky exactly above the chuppah, if the wedding ceremony is held indoors in a hall, sometimes a special opening is built to be opened during the ceremony. Many Hasidim prefer to conduct the entire ceremony outdoors and it is said that the couples ancestors are present at the chuppah ceremony. This room was decorated with large hanging sheets of colored, patterned cloth, replete with wall cushions. Their marriage is consummated when they have left together alone in this room.
For we recite in the Jerusalem Talmud, Sotah 46a, Those bridal chambers, they hang within them patterned sheets and gold-embroidered ribbons, the word chuppah appears in the Hebrew Bible. There were for centuries regional differences in what constituted a huppah, Solomon Freehof finds that the wedding canopy was unknown before the 16th century. Alfred J. Kolatch notes that it was during the Middle Ages that the chupa. in use today became customary, daniel Sperber notes that for many communities prior to the 16th Century, the huppah consisted of a veil worn by the bride. In others, it was a spread over the shoulders of the bride. Numerous illustrations of Jewish weddings in medieval Europe, North Africa, moses Isserles notes that the portable marriage canopy was widely adopted by Ashkenazi Jews in the generation before he composed his commentary to the Shulchan Aruch. In Biblical times, a couple consummated their marriage in a room or tent, in Talmudic times, the room where the marriage was consummated was called the chuppah.
Jewish weddings consist of two parts, the betrothal ceremony, known as erusin or kiddushin, and the actual wedding ceremony. The first ceremony prohibits the bride to all men and cannot be dissolved without a religious divorce. The second ceremony permits the bride to her husband, the two ceremonies usually took place separately. After the ceremony the bride and groom would spend an hour together in a room, and the bride would enter the chuppah and, after gaining her permission. In the Middle Ages these two stages were combined into a single ceremony and the chuppah lost its original meaning
Rachels Tomb is the site revered as the burial place of the Hebrew matriarch Rachel. The tomb, located at the entrance of Bethlehem, is considered holy to Jews, Christians. Since the mid-1990s the site has been referred to by Palestinians as the Bilal bin Rabah mosque, the burial place of the matriarch Rachel as mentioned in the Jewish Tanakh and Christian Old Testament, and in Muslim literature is contested between this site and several others to the north. Although this site is considered unlikely to be the site of the grave. The earliest extra-biblical records describing this tomb as Rachels burial place date to the first decades of the 4th century CE, the structure in its current form dates from the Ottoman period, and is situated in an Ottoman-period Muslim cemetery. When Sir Moses Montefiore renovated the site in 1841 and obtained the keys for the Jewish community, he added an antechamber, including a mihrab for Muslim prayer. Following the Israeli occupation of the West Bank in 1967, though not initially falling within Area C, Rachels tomb is the third holiest site in Judaism and has become one of the cornerstones of Jewish-Israeli identity.
According to Genesis 35,20, a mazzebah was erected at the site of Rachels grave in ancient Israel, according to Martin Gilbert, Jews have made pilgrimage to the tomb since ancient times. The first historically recorded pilgrimages to the site were by early Christians, throughout history, the site was rarely considered a shrine exclusive to one religion and is described as being held in esteem equally by Jews and Christians. In 2005, following Israeli approval on 11 September 2002, the Israeli West Bank barrier was built around the tomb, effectively annexing it to Jerusalem. A2005 report from OHCHR Special Rapporteur John Dugard noted that, Although Rachel’s Tomb is a site holy to Jews and Christians, it has effectively closed to Muslims. On October 21,2015, UNESCO adopted a resolution reaffirming a 2010 statement that Rachels Tomb was. On 22 October 2015, the tomb was separated from the rest of Bethlehem with a series of concrete barriers, in rabbinical tradition the duality is resolved by using two different terms in Hebrew to designate these different localities.
In the Hebrew version given in Genesis and Jacob journey from Shechem to Hebron, a distance from Ephrath. She dies on the way giving birth to Benjamin, And Rachel died, and was buried on the way to Ephrath, and Jacob set a pillar upon her grave, that is the pillar of Rachels grave unto this day. The Judean scribal gloss which is Bethlehem was added to distinguish it from a similar toponym Ephrathah in the Bethlehem region, at 1 Samuel 10,2, Rachels tomb is located in the territory of Benjamin at Zelzah. In the period of the monarchy down to the exile, it would follow, the indications for this are based on 1 Sam 10,2 and Jer. 31,15, which give a location north of Jerusalem, in the vicinity of ar-Ram, biblical Ramah