Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico
Santurce is a barrio in the municipality of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Its population in 2010 was 81,251, it is the biggest and most populated of all the districts in the capital with a bigger population than most municipalities of Puerto Rico and one of the most densely populated areas of the island. Santurce is one of the top ten most-populated areas of the island, it includes the neighborhoods of Miramar, Loíza, Isla Grande, Barrio Obrero, Condado, which are cultural hot spots for art, cuisine, hotels, multimedia, film and startups. The 2010 U. S. Census recorded a total population of 81,251 people living in an area of 5.24 square miles. It is the most populous borough in Puerto Rico and one of the most densely populated areas of San Juan, at 15,447.0 residents per square mile. Geographically speaking, Santurce is a peninsula, attached to the mainland in the east, where it borders with the Isla Verde district of Carolina, it is 7.6 km long from west to east, up to 3.0 km wide in the eastern part.
The peninsula is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean in the north, with more than five km of beaches from the Condado peninsula in the west, to a point 600 m east of "Punta Las Marías", where it borders on the Isla Verde area, "Laguna San José" and its northern embayment, "Laguna Los Corozos" to the east. To the south is the Martín Peña Channel, which separates Santurce from the northern barrios of former municipio Río Piedras: Hato Rey Norte, Hato Rey Central, Oriente. To the west is San Juan Bay, where three bridges, "Puente Dos Hermanos", "Puente G. Esteves" and "Puente San Antonio" connect Santurce with "La Isleta" where Old San Juan is located, it has a total area of 8.70 square miles composed of 5.24 square miles of land and 3.46 square miles of water area. The topography is flat with low hills toward the central areas and swampy areas to the south along the Martín Peña Channel and to the east near the Laguna San José; the highest point is at Monteflores with 23 meters. Santurce is located along the north-eastern coast of Puerto Rico.
It lies east of Old San Juan and west of Isla Verde. The district occupies an area of 5.24 square miles of 3.46 of water. It is surrounded by six bodies of water: San Juan Bay, Condado Natural Lagoon, the Martín Peña Channel, San José Lagoon, Los Corozos Lagoon, the Atlantic Ocean with its respective beaches and estuaries. Santurce was settled by the native Arawak and by slaves of African ancestry who arrived from the neighboring Danish West Indies. Throughout the centuries, the district continued to grow due to its crossfade location between San Juan and its southern suburbs. In 1876, an engineer from the port town of Santurtzi in Spain's autonomous Basque Country region known as Pablo Ubarri arrived on the island to help in the construction of a railroad system and a steam tramway between San Juan and the town of Río Piedras through the center of "Cangrejos" which prompted the gentrification of the district. Many years after his arrival he was granted the title of Count of Santurce by the Spanish Crown.
With his newly acquired title and influence, the district was renamed after his title. The neighboring Condado received its present-name from Ubarri's title, as the district's name translates to "county"; the Treaty of Paris provided that Cuba would become independent from Spain but the U. S. Congress made sure it would be under U. S. control through the Platt Amendment. It ceded to the United States Puerto Rico, other adjacent islands under Spanish sovereignty in the Caribbean, as well as Guam and the Philippines in Asia-Pacific region; the United States Army established the now historical Camp Las Casas, in the area of "Las Casas" in 1904. The camp was the main training base of the "Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry" The Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry was a segregated U. S. Army Regiment, renamed the "65th Infantry Regiment". Correction on the previous statement: The 65th Infantry Regiment was not segregated, it was a Regular Army Regiment that accepted personnel of every race but blacks, there was a black Regiment in the Island for that purpose, the 375th Regiment.
The base continued in operation until 1946, when it was closed and the Residencial Las Casas now stands. When after the Treaty of Paris, the U. S. conducted its first census of Puerto Rico, the population of Santurce was 5,840. In the 20th century the conurbation of the San Juan metropolis expanded beyond its walled confines of Old San Juan to incorporate the boroughs of suburban Miramar, Isla Grande, Condado, along the coast, as well as industrial Hato Rey, with its large sports stadium and modern financial district, the college town of Río Piedras to the southeast. Between 1937 and 1948, Santurce along with neighboring district Miramar became one of the most vibrant areas of the capital. However, by the 1970s, most of the district had fallen into decay, losing the luster and vibrancy it once had. Many residents left Santurce. By 1980 the San Juan metropolitan area included the surrounding municipalities to the east and west and had about one-third of Puerto Rico's total population.
Roberto Cofresí y Ramírez de Arellano, better known as El Pirata Cofresí, was a pirate from Puerto Rico. Despite his birth into a noble family, the political and economic difficulties faced by the island as a colony of the Spanish Empire during the late 18th and early 19th centuries meant that his household was poor. Cofresí worked at sea from an early age, he decided to abandon a sailor's life, becoming a pirate. Despite previous links to land-based criminal activities, the reason for Cofresí's change of vocation is unknown. At the height of his career, he evaded capture by vessels from Spain, Gran Colombia, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Denmark and the United States. Cofresí commanded several small-draft vessels, the best known a fast six-gun sloop named Anne, demonstrated a preference for speed and maneuverability over firepower, he manned them with small, rotating crews, which most contemporary documents and accounts numbered at 10 to 20 in size. Cofresí preferred to outrun his pursuers but his flotilla engaged the West Indies Squadron twice, attacking the schooners USS Grampus and USS Beagle.
Although most crew members were recruited locally, men from the other Antilles, Central America and expatriate Europeans joined the pirates. Despite never confessing to a murder, he boasted about his crimes. Cofresí proved too much for local authorities who, unable to contain him themselves, accepted international help to capture the pirate. On March 5, 1825, the alliance set a trap. After 45 minutes, Cofresí escaped overland. Cofresí was captured and imprisoned, making a last unsuccessful attempt to escape by trying to bribe an official with part of a hidden stash; the pirates were sent to San Juan, Puerto Rico, where a brief military tribunal found them guilty and sentenced them to death. On March 29, 1825, Cofresí and most of his crew were executed by firing squad; the pirate inspired stories and myths after his death, most emphasizing a Robin Hood-like "steal from the rich, give to the poor" philosophy which became associated with him. In poetry and oral tradition this portrayal has evolved into legend accepted as fact in Puerto Rico and throughout the West Indies.
A subset of these claims that Cofresí became part of the Puerto Rican independence movement and other secessionist initiatives, including Simón Bolívar's campaign against Spain. Historic and mythical accounts of his life have inspired songs, plays and films. In Puerto Rico caves and other alleged hideouts or locations of buried treasure have been named after Cofresí, a resort town near Puerto Plata in the Dominican Republic is named for him. In 1945, historian Enrique Ramírez Brau speculated. A theory, held by David Cuesta and historian Úrsula Acosta, held that the name Kupferstein may have been chosen by his family when the 18th-century European Jewish population adopted surnames; the theory was discarded when their research uncovered a complete family tree prepared by Cofresí's cousin, Luigi de Jenner, indicating that their name was spelled Kupferschein. From Prague, Cofresí paternal patriarch Cristoforo Kupferschein received a recognition and coat of arms from Ferdinand I of Austria in December 1549 and moved to Trieste.
His last name was adapted from the town of Kufstein. After its arrival, the family became one of Trieste's early settlers. Cristoforo's son Felice was recognized as a noble in 1620; the family gained prestige and became one of the city's wealthiest, with the next generation receiving the best possible education and marrying into other influential families. Cofresí's grandfather, Giovanni Stanislao Kupferschein, held several offices in the police and municipal administration. According to Acosta, Cofresí's father Francesco received a lateinschule education and left at age 19 for Frankfurt. In Frankfurt he mingled with influential figures such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, returning to Trieste two years later; as a cosmopolitan, mercantile city Trieste was a probable hub of illicit trade, Francesco was forced to leave after he killed Josephus Steffani on July 31, 1778. Although Steffani's death is attributed to a duel, given their acquaintanceship it may have been related to illegal activity. Francesco's name and those of four sailors soon became linked to the murder.
Convicted in absentia, the fugitive remained in touch with his family. Francesco went to Barcelona learning Spanish there. By 1784 he had settled in Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico, a harbor town in the municipality of San Germán, where he was accepted by the local aristocracy with the Spanish honorific Don. Francesco's name was Hispanicized to Francisco Cofresí, easier for his neighbors to pronounce. Since he was linked to illegal commerce in his homeland, he relocated to Cabo Rojo for strategic reasons. Francisco soon met María Germana Ramírez de Arellano, they married, his wife was born
Independence movement in Puerto Rico
The Independence Movement in Puerto Rico refers to initiatives by inhabitants throughout the history of Puerto Rico to obtain full political independence for the island nation. First from the Spanish Empire, from 1493 to 1898 and since 1898, from the United States. A wide variety of groups, political parties, organizations have worked for Puerto Rican Independence over the centuries. A spectrum of autonomous and Independence sentiments and political parties exist on the island. Since the beginning of the 19th century, organizations advocating independence in Puerto Rico have attempted both peaceful political means as well as violent revolutionary actions to achieve its objectives. Since the second half of the 20th century, the independence movement has not been supported by the Puerto Rican public, failing to gain traction in both plebiscites and elections. In a status referendum in 2012, 5.5% voted for independence while Statehood obtained over 61.11% of the votes cast. Independence received the least support, less than 4.5% of the vote, in the status referendums in 1967, 1993 and 1998.
A fourth referendum was held in 2012, with 54% voting to change Puerto Rico's status but the federal government took no action to do so. The fifth plebiscite was held on June 11, 2017. With a voter turnout of 23%, it had the lowest turnout of any status referendum held in Puerto Rico; the independence option only received 1.5% of the vote in the referendum. Some Modern Puerto Rican independence movements have claimed historic connection to the 16th century and the Taíno rebellion of 1511 led by Agüeybaná II. In this revolt, Agüeybaná II, the most powerful cacique at the time, together with Urayoán, cacique of Añasco, organized a revolt in 1511 against the Spaniards in the southern and western parts of the island, he was joined by Guarionex, cacique of Utuado, who attacked the village of Sotomayor and killed 80 Spanish colonists. Juan Ponce de León led the Spaniards in a series of offensives that culminated in the Battle of Yagüecas. Agüeybaná II's people, who were armed only with spears and arrows, were no match for the guns of the Spanish forces, Agüeybaná II was shot and killed in the battle.
The revolt failed, many Taíno either committed suicide or fled the island. Several revolts against the Spanish rulers by the native born, or Criollos, occurred in the 19th century; these include the conspiracy at San Germán in 1809, the uprisings of people in Ciales, San Germán and Sabana Grande in 1898. Many Puerto Ricans became inspired by the ideals of Simón Bolívar to liberate South America from Spanish rule. Bolívar sought to include Puerto Rico and Cuba. Brigadier General Antonio Valero de Bernabé known as "The Liberator from Puerto Rico", fought for the independence of South America together with Bolívar. María de las Mercedes Barbudo, the first female Puerto Rican Independentista, joined forces with the Venezuelan government, under the leadership of Simón Bolívar, to lead an insurrection against the Spanish colonial forces in Puerto Rico; the Spanish occupation forces were the object of more than thirty conspiracies. Some, like the Lares uprising, the riots and sedition of 1897 and the Secret Societies at the end of the 19th century, became popular rebellions.
The most widespread popular revolts, were the one in Lares in 1868, the one in Yauco in 1897. In 1868, the Grito de Lares took place, in which revolutionaries occupied the town of Lares and declared the Republic of Puerto Rico. Ramón Emeterio Betances was the leader of this revolt. Earlier, Segundo Ruiz Belvis and Betances had founded the Comité Revolucionario de Puerto Rico from their exile in the Dominican Republic. Betances wrote several Proclamas, or statements attacking the exploitation of the Puerto Ricans by the Spanish colonial system, called for immediate insurrection; these statements were circulated throughout the island as local dissident groups began to organize. Most dissidents were Criollos; the critical state of the economy, along with the increasing repression imposed by the Spanish, served as catalysts for the rebellion. The stronghold of the movement were towns located on the mountains of the west of the island; the rebels looted local offices owned by peninsulares and took over the city hall.
They took as local government officials. The revolutionaries placed their revolutionary flag on the high altar of the church to signify that the revolution had begun; the Republic of Puerto Rico was proclaimed, Francisco Ramírez Medina was proclaimed interim presidency. The revolutionaries offered immediate freedom to any slave. In the next town, San Sebastián del Pepino, the Grito de Lares revolutionaries encountered heavy resistance from the Spanish militia and retreated to Lares; the Spanish militia rounded up the rebels and brought the insurrection to an end. The government imprisoned some 475 rebels, a military court imposed the death penalty, for treason and sedition, on all the prisoners, but in Madrid, Eugenio María de Hostos and other prominent Puerto Ricans were successful in interceding, the national government ordered a general amnesty and release of all the prisoners. Numerous leaders, such as Betances, Lacroix, Aurelio Méndez and others, were sent into exile. In 1896, a group of residents of Yauco who supported independence joined forces to overthrow the Spanish government in the island.
The group was led by Antonio Mattei Lluberas, a wealthy coffee plantation owner, Mateo Mercado. That year, the l
Hormigueros, Puerto Rico
Hormigueros is a municipality of Puerto Rico located in the western region of the island, northeast of Cabo Rojo. Hormigueros is spread over Hormigueros Pueblo, it is part of the Mayagüez Metropolitan Statistical Area. The region of what is now Hormigueros belonged to the Guaynia region, located on the southernwest portion of Puerto Rico. Archaeological findings have established that there were tribes settled in the region around 820 BC. During the Spanish colonization at the beginning of the 16th century, it is possible that some of them settled in the area. A coffin found underground a basilica was tested in laboratories and was dated prior to 1600; some historians mentioned the Horomico river as one of the main sources of gold during the rush of the era. In 1692, the town of Hormigueros was first established, first as a village of Mayagüez, it was founded by Giraldo González de la Renta sometimes spelled Geraldo). For a short time, in 1898, Hormigueros became a barrio of Mayagüez, before it again became its own municipality.
There is folklore about the town's founder, an explanation of why the church in the town, Basílica Menor de la Virgen de Monserrate, became so important. The legend has to do with the townspeople aiding Geraldo in finding his eight-year-old daughter, "with eyes as blue as the turquoise skies", when she disappeared; when his daughter was found 15 days she was unharmed, not hungry, unafraid and explained that a black woman had helped her. Geraldo and the townspeople imagined it was the Virgin of Montserrat and Geraldo said that for having helped his daughter she would be venerated for all ages. Many people began praying for miracles at the place. Many pilgrimages have been made to the church as early as in the 17th century, it had not been the first time Geraldo had experienced a miracle at the location where the church would be built. The first miracle was when a savage bull was going to attack him but when he prayed the bull bent its knees, bowed its head to the ground, didn't attack; some versions of the story of the bull that would kill Geraldo state the bull's legs broke and thus was unable to charge at him.
Since many Catholics perform penitence by walking the steps to the church on their knees. The town's flag is based on the towns shield, it consists of a blue cloth with a horizontal white rhombus. Superposed on the white rhombus is another blue rhombus with a white globe outlined in blue with a cross; the globe with the cross represents Christ's domain over the world. This symbol is a traditional attribute to the Virgin of Montserrat; the town's shield is formed with silver-plated edge. On the blue bottom there's a green hill, a representation of Our Lady of Monserrate de Hormigueros Sanctuary, with its silver stairway; the border has symmetrical black dots, on guard. On the top of the shield resides a crown formed by a wall, with three towers that have blue doors and windows; the joints of the stones are filled with blue lines. The shield is surrounded by two chains that begin at the crown and finish under the bottom part of the shield with the last links broken; the name of Hormigueros means "anthill" in English.
The town derives its name from three concepts. The first one refers to the crowds that gathered at the Basilica Menor on September 8 to honor the Virgin of Montserrat; the second refers to the topographic formation of the town which consists of countless hills resembling "anthills" or mogotes, reason why it was called "Valle del Hormiguero" or "Anthill Valley". Third, it is possible that the name was originated from a Taíno word: Horomico, which means "río de oro" or "river of gold" due to the importance of the rivers in the area during the gold rush of the Spanish colonization; the municipality of Hormigueros can be divided in three areas: the northern mountainous region that covers one fourth of the town, with hills of relative height. Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017 triggered landslides in Hormigueros with the significant amount of rain that fell; the climate conditions of Hormigueros are humid. The average temperature is 72 to 79 °F. Like all municipalities of Puerto Rico, Hormigueros is subdivided into barrios.
These residential areas are located outside Hormigueros downtown: Buenaventura San Romualdo Norte San Romualdo Sur Valle Hermoso Norte Valle Hermoso Sur Despite its small size, Hormigueros still has several few attractions for visitors. Some of them are: Birán Recreational Farm Central Eureka Basilica Menor de la Virgen de MonserrateThe economy of Hormigueros is still developing. In the 1980s and'90s Allergan, Inc. had a subsidiary established in town boosting the economic development of Hormigueros. However, after Allergan left no other private industry has opened operations in Hormigueros. On the other hand, Hormigueros does provide abundant land and accessibility for an economic development and expansion. Not far away there are two regional airports: Eugenio María de Hostos Airport at Mayagüez and Mercedita Airport at Ponce. In addition, there is Rafael Hernández International Airport at Aguadilla. All three airports lie within 30 miles approximately. Hormigueros is one of the least populated municipalities of Puerto Rico due to its small size.
The population, according to the 2000 census, was 16,614 with a population density of 1,510.3 people per square mile. Since the
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, values, reason and language. Such questions are posed as problems to be studied or resolved; the term was coined by Pythagoras. Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will? "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize.
In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology and economics. Other investigations related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics, ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of science. Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science and politics. Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy is classified in the 2000s as a book of physics. In the first part of the first book of his Academics, Cicero introduced the division of philosophy into logic and ethics. Metaphysical philosophy was the study of existence, God, logic and other abstract objects; this division has changed.
Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy still includes value theory. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. Colin McGinn and others claim. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality". A broad and impartial conception of philosophy finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales and Pythagoras who practiced a "love of wisdom" and were termed physiologoi.
Socrates was a influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient, Medieval philosophy, Modern philosophy; the Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato, who founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle, founding the Peripatetic school, who were both influential in Western tradition. Other traditions include Cynicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics, the nature of the well-lived life, the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason. With the rise of the Roman empire, Greek philosophy was increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca. Medieval philosophy is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the ris
María de las Mercedes Barbudo
María de las Mercedes Barbudo was a Puerto Rican political activist, the first woman Independentista in the island, a "Freedom Fighter". At the time, the Puerto Rican independence movement had ties with the Venezuelan rebels led by Simón Bolívar. Barbudo was one of four siblings born in San Juan, the capital of Puerto Rico, to a Spanish father, Domingo Barbudo, Puerto Rican mother, Belén Coronado, her father was an officer in the Spanish Army. The benefits of being the daughter of a military officer was that she could afford to obtain an education and to buy books, she was one of the few women in the island who learned to read because at the time, the only people who had access to libraries and who could afford books were either appointed Spanish government officials or wealthy landowners. The poor depended on oral story telling, in what are traditionally known in Puerto Rico as Coplas and Décimas. Well educated, Barbudo became interested in social activism; as a young woman, Barbudo founded a sewing goods store in San Juan, specialising in the sale of buttons and clothes.
She became successful as a personal loan provider. She dealt commercially with Joaquín Power y Morgan, an immigrant who came to Puerto Rico as a representative of the Compañía de Asiento de Negros, which regulated the slave trade on the island. Barbudo moved in prominent circles, which included notable citizens such as Captain Ramón Power y Giralt, Bishop Juan Alejo de Arizmendi and the artist José Campeche, she had a liberal mind and as such would hold meetings with intellectuals in her house. They discussed the political and economic situation of Puerto Rico and the Spanish Empire in general, proposed solutions to improve the well-being of the people. Simón Bolívar and Brigadier General Antonio Valero de Bernabé, known as "The Liberator from Puerto Rico", dreamed of creating a unified Latin America, including Puerto Rico and Cuba. Barbudo was inspired by Bolívar, he wanted to promote individual rights. She befriended and wrote to many Venezuelan revolutionists, among them José María Rojas, with whom she corresponded.
She received magazines and newspapers from Venezuela which upheld the ideals of Bolívar. The Spanish authorities in Puerto Rico under Governor Miguel de la Torre were suspicious of the correspondence between Barbudo and the Venezuelan rebel factions. Secret agents of the Spanish Government intercepted some of her mail, delivering it to Governor de la Torre, he had her mail confiscated. The Government believed that the correspondence served as propaganda of the Bolívarian ideals and that it would serve to motivate Puerto Ricans to seek their independence. Governor Miguel de la Torre ordered her arrest on the charge that she planned to overthrow the Spanish Government in Puerto Rico. Barbudo was held without bail at the Castillo de San Cristóbal, since the island did not have a prison for women. Among the evidence which the Spanish authorities presented against her was a letter dated October 1, 1824, from Rojas in which he told her that the Venezuelan rebels had lost their principal contact with the Puerto Rican independence movement in the Danish island of Saint Thomas and therefore the secret communication which existed between the Venezuelan rebels and the leaders of the Puerto Rican independence movement was in danger of being discovered.
On October 22, 1824, Barbudo appeared at a hearing before a magistrate. The Government presented as evidence against her various letters which included five letters from Rojas, two issues of the newspaper El Observador Caraqueño; when asked if she recognized the correspondence, she answered in the affirmative and refused to answer any more questions. The government presented as evidence various anti-monarchy propaganda pamphlets to be distributed throughout the island. Barbudo was found guilty. Governor de la Torre consulted with the prosecutor Francisco Marcos Santaella as to what should be done with Barbudo. Santaella suggested that she be sent to Cuba. On October 23, 1824, de la Torre ordered that Barbudo be held under house arrest at the Castillo de San Cristóbal under the custody of Captain Pedro de Loyzaga; the following day Barbudo wrote to the governor, asking to be able to arrange her financial and her personal obligations before being exiled to Cuba. The Governor denied her request and on October 28 she was placed aboard the ship El Marinero.
In Cuba, she was held in an institution. With the help of revolutionary factions, Barbudo went to Saint Thomas Island, she arrived at La Guaira in Venezuela where her friend José María Rojas met her. They went to Caracas. Barbudo established a close relationship with the members of Bolívar's cabinet which included José María Vargas, he was elected as the fourth president of Venezuela. She worked with the cabinet. Barbudo never had any children and did not return to Puerto Rico, she died on February 17, 1849. She was buried in the Cathedral of Caracas next to Simón Bolívar. Interment in the Cathedral was an honor reserved only for the church hierarchy and the rich. In 1996, a documentary was made about her titled Camino sin retorno, el destierro de María de las Mercedes Barbudo (Road of no return