Xiaomi Corporation is a Chinese electronics company headquartered in Beijing. Xiaomi makes and invests in smartphones, mobile apps and related consumer electronics. Xiaomi released its first smartphone in August 2011 and gained market share in China to become the country's largest smartphone company in 2014. At the start of second quarter of 2018, Xiaomi was the world's fourth-largest smartphone manufacturer, leading in both the largest market and the second-largest market, India. Xiaomi developed a wider range of consumer electronics, including a smart home device ecosystem. Xiaomi has 15,000 employees in China, Malaysia, Singapore and is expanding to other countries including Indonesia, the Philippines, South Africa. According to Forbes magazine, Lei Jun, the founder and CEO, has an estimated net worth of US$12.5 billion. He is 118th in the world. Xiaomi is the world's 4th most valuable technology start-up after receiving US$1.1 billion funding from investors, making Xiaomi's valuation more than US$46 billion.
Xiaomi was founded in 2010. Xiaomi's logo "MI" is short for Mobile Internet since Xiaomi was founded to be a mobile-first technology company. Xiaomi has a total of 15,222 full-time employees. Most are based in Beijing, Mainland China, while the others are split between India, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Xiaomi produces many products. Notably, it produces smartphones. Observers suggest that part of Xiaomi's rapid success rests on its ability to differentiate itself within the Android universe; the company has increased its range of products. As well as mobile phones, Xiaomi has started selling wearables, mobile accessories, appliances such as television and speakers. In 2018 it was selling tablets and smart-home devices. Xiaomi operates on a vertically-integrated model that enables the company to sell hardware at cost or below in order to attract users and earn money by selling content. Hugo Barra, a former Google executive who served Xiaomi's vice president from 2014 to 2017, characterized the organization as "an Internet and a software company much more than a hardware company".
Xiaomi keeps its prices low or close to "bill-of-material" by keeping most of its products in the market longer, eighteen months rather than the six-month norm followed by many smartphone companies. This strategy allows Xiaomi to take advantage of price reductions in the prices of key components of its products, it enables the company to sell hardware with specifications comparable to high-end devices at a fraction of the cost. The company's version of the Android operating system, the MIUI skin, with its design, app marketplace, functionalities, has established a community of users who form a crucial part of Xiaomi's customer base and contribute to the company's drive for market awareness; this ecosystem is a massive source of revenue as indicated in 2015, when sales from the platform reached $750 million. The company focuses on the world's second-largest smartphone market. Xiaomi announced on May 2, 2018, the launch of Mi Music and Mi Video to offer "value-added internet services" in India.
On March 22, 2017, Xiaomi announced that it planned to set up a second manufacturing unit in India in partnership with contract manufacturer Foxconn. On August 7, 2018, Xiaomi announced on its blog that Holitech Technology Co. Ltd. Xiaomi's top supplier, would invest up to $200 million over the next three years to set up a major new plant in India. Xiaomi started to sell more simple goods such as sunglasses, pillows, glass lunchboxes, filters, backpacks, screwdrivers and etc. In 2019, researchers at Check Point found a security breach in Xiaomi phone apps; the security flaw was reported preinstalled. On 9 April, 2019 Xiaomi announced on its official verified Facebook page that its products will launch On April 24, 2019 in Nigeria. On Xiaomi verified Facebook page it wrote. Xiaomi is officially coming to Nigeria on April 24. Extraordinary things are about to happen soon. Want to join? MIUI Redmi Xiaomi Smart Home YI Technology Official website
Dean L. Kamen is an American engineer and businessman, he is known for his invention of the Segway, as well as founding FIRST with Woodie Flowers. Born to a Jewish family in Long Island, New York, he attended Worcester Polytechnic Institute, but dropped out before graduating after five years of private advanced research for the insulin pump AutoSyringe, he is the son of an illustrator for Mad, Weird Science and other EC Comics publications. Kamen is best known for inventing the product that became known as the Segway PT, an electric, self-balancing human transporter with a computer-controlled gyroscopic stabilization and control system; the device is controlled by moving body weight. The machine's development was the object of much speculation and hype after segments of a book quoting Steve Jobs and other notable IT visionaries espousing its society-revolutionizing potential were leaked in December 2001. Kamen was a successful and wealthy inventor, after inventing the first drug infusion pump and starting a company, AutoSyringe, to market and manufacture the pump.
His company DEKA holds patents for the technology used in a portable dialysis machines, an insulin pump, an all-terrain electric wheelchair known as the iBOT, using many of the same gyroscopic balancing technologies that made their way into the Segway. Kamen has worked extensively on a project involving Stirling engine designs, attempting to create two machines, he hopes. Kamen has a patent issued on his water purifier, U. S. Patent 7,340,879, other patents pending. In 2014, the film SlingShot was released, detailing Kamen's quest to use his vapor compression distiller to fix the world's water crisis. Kamen is the co-inventor of a compressed air device that would launch a human into the air in order to launch SWAT teams or other emergency workers to the roofs of tall, inaccessible buildings. In 2009 Kamen claimed. Kamen and DEKA developed the DEKA Arm System or "Luke", a prosthetic arm replacement that offers its user much more fine motor control than traditional prosthetic limbs, it was approved for use by the U.
S. Food and Drug Administration in May 2014, DEKA is looking for partners to mass-produce the prosthesis. In 1989, Kamen founded FIRST, a program for students to get people interested in science, technology and mathematics. One competition started and run by FIRST is FIRST Robotics Competition. In 2017, the organization chose to host two international competitions, one in St. Louis and another in Houston, each a week apart. From 2018 to 2020, it will be held in Michigan instead of St. Louis, Missouri. FIRST has many robotics programs for students in grades K-12, including FLL JR. for younger elementary school students, FLL for older elementary school and middle school students, FTC for middle and high school students, FRC for high school students. In 2017, FIRST held its first annual Global counterpart of the FRC - FGC in Washington DC. Kamen says that the FIRST competition is the invention he is most proud of, predicts that the 1 million students who have taken part in the contests so far will be responsible for some significant technological advances in years to come.
During his career Kamen has won numerous awards. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1997 for his biomedical devices and for making engineering more popular among high school students. In 1999 he was awarded the 5th Annual Heinz Award in Technology, the Economy and Employment, in 2000 received the National Medal of Technology from President Clinton for inventions that have advanced medical care worldwide. In April 2002, Kamen was awarded the Lemelson-MIT Prize for inventors, for his invention of the Segway and of an infusion pump for diabetics. In 2003 his "Project Slingshot," a cheap portable water purification system, was named a runner-up for "coolest invention of 2003" by Time magazine. In 2005 he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his invention of the AutoSyringe. In 2006 Kamen was awarded the "Global Humanitarian Action Award" by the United Nations. In 2007 he received the ASME Medal, the highest award from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, in 2008 he was the recipient of the IRI Achievement Award from the Industrial Research Institute, in 2011 Kamen was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Mechanical Engineering of the Franklin Institute.
Kamen received an honorary "Doctor of Engineering" degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute May 17, 1996, a "Doctor of Engineering" degree from Kettering University in 2001, an honorary "Doctor of Science" degree from Clarkson University on May 13, 2001, an honorary "Doctor of Science" degree from the University of Arizona on May 16, 2009, an honorary doctorate from the Wentworth Institute of Technology when he spoke at the college's centennial celebration in 2004, other honorary doctorates from North Carolina State University in 2005, Bates College in 2007, the Georgia Institute of Technology in 2008, the Illinois Institute of Technology in 2008 and Plymouth State University in May 2008. In 2015, Kamen received an honorary "Doctor of Engineering and Technology" degree from Yale University.. In 2017, Kamen was honored with an institutional honorary degree from Université de Sherbro
Segs4Vets, a continuing program which began in 2005, is a grass-roots effort sustained and administered by volunteers in the United States that provide Segway PT vehicles to disabled United States military personnel. The program which made its first presentation in September 2005 to three recipients who had sustained injuries in Operation Iraqi Freedom, was conceived and implemented with the assistance of Gen. Ralph "Ed" Eberhart, USAF, President of the Armed Forces Benefits Association. Following its first presentation, the Segs4Vets program began the process of seeking a waiver which would allow the presentation of Segway's to active-duty military personnel, injured and permanently disabled while serving in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. In August 2006, the Segs4Vets program became the only recipient of a blanket waiver from the United States military allowing a donation in excess of $1000 to active-duty military personnel; the Segs4Vets program provides successful candidates with a universally designed mobility device which aims to draw attention away from their disability.
The Segway is a tool that aims to help many of the mobility issues facing our disabled veterans, in a manner, psychologically uplifting and physically beneficial. Since 2005, the organization has provided over 1200 Segways to wounded veterans. In May 2006, Colonel William J. O'Brien, USMC, the Director of the Department of the Navy's Severely Injured Marines and Sailors Initiative, a pilot program enacted under Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy H. C. Barney Barnum, to facilitate the full integration of injured service members into the Marine Corps and Navy, or to assist in their transition into the private sector, became aware of the Segs4Vets program. In July 2006, the small staff of the SIMS program, Colonel O'Brien, HMC Christine Jensen, USN, Joseph Wade began collaborating with the Segs4Vets program to encourage it to serve more OEF & OIF injured; the results of this collaboration resulted in the first major Segs4Vets presentation ceremony on December 7, 2006 during a SIMS luncheon at the Army Navy Country Club in Arlington, Virginia.
In May 2007, the SIMS program concluded its work having identified gaps in coverage for the injured and recommended solutions for those deficiencies. However, that first Segs4Vets presentation ceremony set a standard for future Segs4Vets ceremonies held twice annually in Washington DC, San Antonio, TX and San Diego, CA. Colonel O'Brien, HMC Jensen, Joe Wade, now retired Secretary Barnum continue to play an active role in the Segs4Vets program. In 2006, the program began setting up training and assessment programs at military medical centers which provided rehabilitative care for OEF and OIF injured; these centers include Walter Reed Army Medical Center in February 2006, National Naval Medical Center in May 2006, Brooke Army Medical Center in November 2006 and the Naval Medical Center San Diego in November 2008. Sergeant Kortney Clemons, USA, 2008 Secretary of the Army Public Service Award for distinguished public service in providing outstanding support to our Nation’s Veterans 2010 Spirit of Hope Award presented by the Office of the Secretary of Defense 2016 Congressional Medal of Honor Society's Distinguished Citizen Award presented to Jerry Kerr for embodying the characteristics of the Medal of Honor Society Independent Charities of America Seal of Excellence Member of the Military Family and Veterans Service Organization of America Jerry Kerr, President / Co-Founder General Hal Hornburg, USAF Vice-President Lt. Col. Al Kisler, USA Vice-President Alan Maccini, Vice-President Aly Gaines, Executive Assistant Lori Hampel, Program Administrator Zach Reeves, Program Operations Mike McWilliams, Director of IT General Ed Eberhart, USAF Colonel Barney Barnum, USMC Captain Patti Ireland, USN Commander Mark Heniser, USN Colonel David Bell, USA Major Ed Dauksz, USMC HMC Christine Jensen, USN Christine Black John Brauch Rep Burks Matt Dailida Jeré Fabick David Ferleger Kelley Gaines Robert Giambrone Michael Hall David Herbstreit Cynthia Hornburg Mike Kelly Sally Kisler Chris Kreutz Patrick Meeker Tommy Miller Scott Nelson Howard Richards Mary Savage Dick Segar George Steese David Strassman Marianne Zuk Sergeant Kortney Clemons, USA, Sergeant Pete Sutherland, USA, Captain Steven Fleming, USA, Corporal Christopher Stout, USA, Lance Corporal Mike Hodge, USMC, Staff Sergeant John Hyland, USA, Staff Sergeant Armando Mejia, USA, Staff Sergeant Guillermo "TJ" Tejada, USMC Sergeant William Essary, USA, Official website of Segs4Vets Wounded Vietnamese-American Soldier Receives Segway Wounded Vets Increase Mobility with Segways Monster Cable and Segs4Vets Segs4Vets program brings mobility, healing Segs4Vets Program Honors Wounded Warriors Segs4Vets offers Segways to disabled veterans Segs4Vets Program Honors Wounded Warriors Soldier's journey from Iraq to Scott AFB shows heroism, determination Wounded servicemembers get new Segways Fifty-one more wounded warriors are given Segways Owner of Segway Donates 1,000 Segways for Wounded Warriors Before His Death
An inverted pendulum is a pendulum that has its center of mass above its pivot point. It without additional help will fall over, it can be suspended stably in this inverted position by using a control system to monitor the angle of the pole and move the pivot point horizontally back under the center of mass when it starts to fall over, keeping it balanced. The inverted pendulum is a classic problem in dynamics and control theory and is used as a benchmark for testing control strategies, it is implemented with the pivot point mounted on a cart that can move horizontally under control of an electronic servo system as shown in the photo. Most applications limit the pendulum to 1 degree of freedom by affixing the pole to an axis of rotation. Whereas a normal pendulum is stable when hanging downwards, an inverted pendulum is inherently unstable, must be balanced in order to remain upright. A simple demonstration of moving the pivot point in a feedback system is achieved by balancing an upturned broomstick on the end of one's finger.
A second type of inverted pendulum is a tiltmeter for tall structures, which consists of a wire anchored to the bottom of the foundation and attached to a float in a pool of oil at the top of the structure that has devices for measuring movement of the neutral position of the float away from its original position. A pendulum with its bob hanging directly below the support pivot is at a stable equilibrium point. A pendulum with its bob in an inverted position, supported on a rigid rod directly above the pivot, 180° from its stable equilibrium position, is at an unstable equilibrium point. At this point again there is no torque on the pendulum, but the slightest displacement away from this position will cause a gravitation torque on the pendulum which will accelerate it away from equilibrium, it will fall over. In order to stabilize a pendulum in this inverted position, a feedback control system can be used, which monitors the pendulum's angle and moves the position of the pivot point sideways when the pendulum starts to fall over, to keep it balanced.
The inverted pendulum is a classic problem in dynamics and control theory and is used as a benchmark for testing control algorithms. Variations on this problem include multiple links, allowing the motion of the cart to be commanded while maintaining the pendulum, balancing the cart-pendulum system on a see-saw; the inverted pendulum is related to rocket or missile guidance, where the center of gravity is located behind the center of drag causing aerodynamic instability. The understanding of a similar problem can be shown by simple robotics in the form of a balancing cart. Balancing an upturned broomstick on the end of one's finger is a simple demonstration, the problem is solved by self-balancing personal transporters such as the Segway PT, the self-balancing hoverboard and the self-balancing unicycle. Another way that an inverted pendulum may be stabilized, without any feedback or control mechanism, is by oscillating the pivot up and down; this is called Kapitza's pendulum. If the oscillation is sufficiently strong the inverted pendulum can recover from perturbations in a strikingly counterintuitive manner.
If the driving point moves in simple harmonic motion, the pendulum's motion is described by the Mathieu equation. The equations of motion of inverted pendulums are dependent on what constraints are placed on the motion of the pendulum. Inverted pendulums can be created in various configurations resulting in a number of Equations of Motion describing the behavior of the pendulum. In a configuration where the pivot point of the pendulum is fixed in space, the equation of motion is similar to that for an uninverted pendulum; the equation of motion below assumes no friction or any other resistance to movement, a rigid massless rod, the restriction to 2-dimensional movement. Θ ¨ − g ℓ sin θ = 0 Where θ ¨ is the angular acceleration of the pendulum, g is the standard gravity on the surface of the Earth, ℓ is the length of the pendulum, θ is the angular displacement measured from the equilibrium position. When added to both sides, it will have the same sign as the angular acceleration term: θ ¨ = g ℓ sin θ Thus, the inverted pendulum will accelerate away from the vertical unstable equilibrium in the direction displaced, the acceleration is inversely proportional to the length.
Tall pendulums fall more than short ones. Derivation using torque and moment of inertia: The pendulum is assumed to consist of a point mass, of mass m, affixed to the end of a massless rigid rod, of length
A twistgrip is a handle that can be twisted to operate a control. It is found as a motorcycle's right handlebar grip to control the throttle, but is sometimes found elsewhere, such as on a bicycle as a gearshift, in helicopters; the first use of the twist grip throttle control was on the Roper steam velocipede of 1867-69. Rather than a sleeve that rotated around the handlebar, Sylvester H. Roper's steam motorcycle's entire handlebar rotated, with a dual mode operation; when rotated forward it opened the throttle, when rotated backwards it applied the spoon brake. Motorcycle Consumer News design columnist Glynn Kerr said that pioneering this technology was a point in favor of the Roper's precedence as the first motorcycle, in response to Cycle World Technical Editor Kevin Cameron's position that the 1885 Daimler Reitwagen was more deserving because it used the more successful technology, internal combustion rather than steam; the design drawings of the Reitwagen depicted a twist grip speed control applying the brake when turned one way, but when turned the other way, it would have tensioned the belt drive's idler pulley, applying power to the rear wheel in the manner of a clutch.
The actual working model, did not have the twist grip, belt drive, or brakes. Glenn Curtiss, unlikely to have been aware of the prior uses of the twist grip, used it in his 1904 motorcycle land-speed record machine, is sometimes credited as the inventor of the device. Indian claimed in their advertisements for their 1904 models, to have invented the twist grip. Whether Curtiss, Gottlieb Daimler, or Roper, were the true inventors, the 1904 Indian would be the earliest use of the device on a production motorcycle. Motorcycle throttles are spring-loaded to cut the engine power back to idling when the twistgrip is released; some motorcycle throttle twistgrips had a screw that could be screwed in to make the twistgrip stay still when released, but a ruling from Brussels forbad that on safety grounds
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, animal foods & feed and veterinary products; as of 2017, 3/4th of the FDA budget is paid by people who consume pharmaceutical products, due to the Prescription Drug User Fee Act. The FDA was empowered by the United States Congress to enforce the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, which serves as the primary focus for the Agency; these include regulating lasers, cellular phones and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction. The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Human Services. Scott Gottlieb, M. D. is the current commissioner, who took over in May 2017. The FDA has its headquarters in Maryland; the agency has 223 field offices and 13 laboratories located throughout the 50 states, the United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico. In 2008, the FDA began to post employees to foreign countries, including China, Costa Rica, Chile and the United Kingdom. In recent years, the agency began undertaking a large-scale effort to consolidate its 25 operations in the Washington metropolitan area, moving from its main headquarters in Rockville and several fragmented office buildings to the former site of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in the White Oak area of Silver Spring, Maryland; the site was renamed from the White Oak Naval Surface Warfare Center to the Federal Research Center at White Oak. The first building, the Life Sciences Laboratory, was dedicated and opened with 104 employees on the campus in December 2003. Only one original building from the naval facility was kept.
All other buildings are new construction. The project is slated to be completed by 2021, assuming future Congressional funding While most of the Centers are located in the Washington, D. C. area as part of the Headquarters divisions, two offices – the Office of Regulatory Affairs and the Office of Criminal Investigations – are field offices with a workforce spread across the country. The Office of Regulatory Affairs is considered the "eyes and ears" of the agency, conducting the vast majority of the FDA's work in the field. Consumer Safety Officers, more called Investigators, are the individuals who inspect production and warehousing facilities, investigate complaints, illnesses, or outbreaks, review documentation in the case of medical devices, biological products, other items where it may be difficult to conduct a physical examination or take a physical sample of the product; the Office of Regulatory Affairs is divided into five regions, which are further divided into 20 districts. Districts are based on the geographic divisions of the federal court system.
Each district comprises a main district office and a number of Resident Posts, which are FDA remote offices that serve a particular geographic area. ORA includes the Agency's network of regulatory laboratories, which analyze any physical samples taken. Though samples are food-related, some laboratories are equipped to analyze drugs and radiation-emitting devices; the Office of Criminal Investigations was established in 1991 to investigate criminal cases. Unlike ORA Investigators, OCI Special Agents are armed, don't focus on technical aspects of the regulated industries. OCI agents pursue and develop cases where individuals and companies have committed criminal actions, such as fraudulent claims, or knowingly and willfully shipping known adulterated goods in interstate commerce. In many cases, OCI pursues cases involving Title 18 violations, in addition to prohibited acts as defined in Chapter III of the FD&C Act. OCI Special Agents come from other criminal investigations backgrounds, work with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Assistant Attorney General, Interpol.
OCI receives cases from a variety of sources—including ORA, local agencies, the FBI—and works with ORA Investigators to help develop the technical and science-based aspects of a case. OCI is a smaller branch; the FDA works with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture, Drug Enforcement Administration and Border Protection, Consumer Product Safety Commission. Local and state government agencies work with the FDA to provide regulatory inspections and enforcement action; the FDA regulates more than US$2.4 trillion worth of consumer goods, about 25% of consumer expenditures in the United States. This includes $466 billion in food sales, $275 billion in drugs, $60 billion in cosmetics and $18 billion in vitamin supplements. Much of these expenditures are for goods imported into the United States; the FDA's federal budget request for fiscal year 2012 totaled $4.36 billion, while the proposed 2014 budget is $4.7 billion. About $2 billion of this budget is generated by user fees.
Pharmaceutical firms pay th