The Seikilos epitaph is the oldest surviving complete musical composition, including musical notation, from anywhere in the world. The epitaph has been variously dated, but seems to be either from the 1st or the 2nd century AD; the song, the melody of, recorded, alongside its lyrics, in the ancient Greek musical notation, was found engraved on a tombstone from the Hellenistic town Tralles near present-day Aydın, not far from Ephesus. It is a Hellenistic Ionic song in either Iastian tonos. While older music with notation exists, all of it is in fragments; the following is the Greek text found on the tombstone, along with a transliteration of the words which are sung to the melody, a somewhat free English translation thereof. Another possible partial reconstruction could be Σεικίλος ΕὐτέρSeikílos Eutér meaning "Seikilos of Euterpes", i.e. "Seikilos, son of Euterpes". The tombstone has an inscription on it, which reads in Greek:Εἰκὼν ἤ λίθος εἰμί. τίθησί με Σεικίλος ἔνθα μνήμης ἀθανάτου σῆμα πολυχρόνιον.eikṑn ḗ líthos eimí. títhēsí me Seikílos éntha mnḗmēs athanátou sêma polukhrónion.
A free translation of this reads: "I am an image. Seikilos placed me here as a long-lasting sign of deathless remembrance." The inscription above each line of the lyrics, consists of letters and signs indicating the melody of the song: The following is an approximate translation of the tune into modern musical notation: Although the transcription of the melody is unproblematic, there is some disagreement about the nature of the melodic material itself. There are no modulations, the notation is in the diatonic genus, but while it is described by Thomas J. Mathiesen and Jon Solomon on the one hand as being in the diatonic Iastian tonos, Mathiesen says it would "fit perfectly" within Ptolemy's Phrygian tonos, according to Jon Solomon, the arrangement of the tones "is that of the Phrygian species" according to Cleonides; the overall note series is alternatively described by Egert Pöhlmann and Martin Litchfield West as corresponding "to a segment from the Ionian scale". R. P. Winnington-Ingram says "The scale employed is the diatonic octave from e to e.
The tonic seems to be a. This piece is … Phrygic with its tonic in the same relative position as that of the Doric." Yet Claude Palisca explains that the difficulty lies in the fact that "the harmoniai had no finals, dominants, or internal relationships that would establish a hierarchy of tensions and points of rest, although the mese may have had a gravitational function". Although the epitaph's melody is "clearly structured around a single octave, … the melody emphasizes the mese by position … rather than the mese by function". Moreover, Charles Cosgrove, building on West, shows that although the notes correspond to the Phrygian octave species, analyzing the song on the assumption that its orientation notes are the standing notes of a set of disjunct tetrachords forming the Phrygian octave species does not sufficiently illumine the melody's tonal structure; the song's pitch centers are, in Greek notational nomenclature, C and Z, which correspond to G and D if the scale is mapped on the white keys of the piano.
These two pitches are mese and nete diezeugmenon of the octave species, but the two other standing notes of that scale's tetrachords do not come into play in significant ways as pitch centers, whether individually or together in intervals forming fourths. The melody is dominated by thirds; this instance of hypate derives its suitability as a final by virtue of being "the same," through octave equivalency, as nete diezeugmenon, the pitch center Z. The find has been variously dated. One authority states that on grounds of paleography the inscription can be "securely dated to the first century C. E.", while on the same basis another is certain it dates from the second century AD, makes comparisons to dated inscriptions of 127/8 and 149/50 AD. The Epitaph was discovered in 1883 by Sir W. M. Ramsay in a small town near Aydın. According to one source the stele was lost and rediscovered in Smyrna in 1922, at about the end of the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922. According to another source the stele, having first been discovered during the building of the railway next to Aydin, had first remained at the possession of the building firm's director Edward Purser, where Ramsay found and published about it.
Zgromadzenie Przyjaciół Konstytucji Rządowej was the first modern Polish political party, formed in May 1791, shortly after the adoption of the Constitution of May 3, 1791, by the efforts of the Patriotic Party. The purpose of the Friends of the Constitution was to defend the reformed political system and to introduce further reforms; the party's leading members included Hugo Kołłątaj, Ignacy Potocki, Tadeusz Mostowski, Michał Ossowski and Józef Weyssenhof. The Friends of the Constitution published Gazeta Narodowa i Obca. In the name "Zgromadzenie Przyjaciół Konstytucji Rządowej", the expression "zgromadzenie" may be rendered in English as "gathering", "assembly" or "congress"; the Friends of the Constitution had their own charter and organizational discipline and have been described as the first modern political party in Poland. Since many of the party's members participated in the Sejm's deliberations, the Friends of the Constitution have been described as the first Polish parliamentary caucus.
Members were active outside the Sejm and enjoyed support among many segments of society, from szlachta salons to more radical, Jacobin-influenced bourgeois circles. The first meeting of the Friends of the Constitution took place on 21 May 1791, their charter declared their support for the May 3 Constitution, their aim of perfecting the Constitution and the polity that it served. The party numbered at least 213 members whose names are known to history, including those of 126 deputies and 14 senators. Most of the members were of the szlachta; the charter stipulated. Decisions were taken by majority vote. Many members had connections with the Patriotic Party. Prominent members included: Deputy Chancellor of the Crown Hugo Kołłątaj, Prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski, Prince Józef Poniatowski, Marcin Badeni, Franciszek Barss, Joachim Chreptowicz, Jan August Cichocki, Ignacy Dembiński, Ignacy Działyński, Ksawery Działyński, Antoni Dzieduszycki, Augustyn Gorzeński, Paweł Jerzy Grabowski, Ludwik Szymon Gutakowski, Janusz Stanisław Iliński, Michał Kochanowski, Stanisław Kublicki, Jan Paweł Łuszczewski, Antoni Madaliński, Józef Andrzej Mikorski, Mikołaj Morawski, Tadeusz Mostowski, Adam Naruszewicz, Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz, Józef Kajetan Ossoliński, Tomasz Adam Ostrowski, Scipione Piattoli, Grzegorz Piramowicz, Ignacy Potocki, Stanisław Kostka Potocki, Józef Ignacy Rybiński, Walenty Sobolewski, Stanisław Sołtan, Stanisław Sołtyk, Michał Strasz, Józef Weyssenhoff, Mikołaj Wolski, Ignacy Wyssogota Zakrzewski.
The founding members of the Friends of the Constitution included King Stanisław August Poniatowski's Italian secretary, Scipione Piattoli, who appears in the above list of prominent members. Notable absentees included the King himself and Stanisław Małachowski, the Marshal of the Great Sejm, both of whom preferred to maintain a semblance of political neutrality; the party's meetings were held at the Radziwiłł Palace — now the Presidential Palace — on Warsaw's Krakowskie Przedmieście, a few minutes' walk from the Royal Castle. The Friends of the Constitution were active until the Commonwealth's defeat in the War in Defense of the Constitution and the demise of the May 3 Constitution. History of Poland Adam Skałkowski, "Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Konstytucji 3 maja", in Pamiętnik Biblioteki Kórnickiej, 1930
Am Grabe, WAB 2, is an elegy composed by Anton Bruckner in 1861, for men's voices a capella. Am Grabe is a revised a cappella setting of the elegy Vor Arneths Grab, WAB 53; the elegy was performed on the funeral of Josephine Hafferl on 11 February 1861. The original manuscript is stored in the archive of the Liedertafel Frohsinn; the song, edited first by Wöß, Universal Edition, in 1924, is put in Band XXIII/2, No. 13 of the Gesamtausgabe. In addition, an autograph slight revision of the song has been found on an undated copy of the manuscript; the 21-bar-long, a cappella setting discarded the fourth strophe of Marinelli's text. The voice score of the first two strophes is similar to that of Vor Arneths Grab; the score of the third strophe is 5 bars longer. From bar 15 the score ends at bars 19-21 alike bars 26-28 of the original setting. A score with another text by Gottfried Grote has been issued by Schott Music in 1961. There is an arrangement by Jeff Reynolds for 4-part trombone ensemble. There is only one recording of the full setting of Am Grabe: Łukasz Borowicz, Anton Bruckner: Requiem, RIAS Kammerchor Berlin, Akademie für Alte Musik Berlin – CD: Accentus ACC30474, 2019 - revised version.
NB: On CD LIVA 027, only the first two strophes were recorded. August Göllerich, Anton Bruckner. Ein Lebens- und Schaffens-Bild, c. 1922 – posthumous edited by Max Auer by G. Bosse, Regensburg, 1932 Anton Bruckner – Sämtliche Werke, Band XXIII/2: Weltliche Chorwerke, Musikwissenschaftlicher Verlag der Internationalen Bruckner-Gesellschaft, Angela Pachovsky and Anton Reinthaler, Vienna, 1989 Cornelis van Zwol, Anton Bruckner 1824–1896 – Leven en werken, uitg. Thoth, Netherlands, 2012. ISBN 978-90-6868-590-9 Crawford Howie, Anton Bruckner - A documentary biography, online revised edition Am Grabe, WAB 2: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Free scores for Am Grabe, WAB 2 in the Choral Public Domain Library Am Grabe f-Moll, WAB 2 Critical discography by Hans Roelofs A live performance of Am Grabe by the Wagner Society Male Choir of Japan, 11 December 1988, can be heard on YouTube: Am Grabe, WAB 2 - with Gottfried Grote's text