History of manga
The history of manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 12th century, it is believed they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading style. The word first came into common usage in the late 18th century. Manga is a Japanese term that can be translated as "comic", their views differ in the relative importance they attribute to the role of cultural and historical events following World War II versus the role of pre-war and pre-Meiji Japanese culture and art. One view represented by other writers such as Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, Adam L. Kern, stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions, including pre-war and pre-Meiji culture and art; the other view, emphasizes events occurring during and after the Allied occupation of Japan, stresses that manga was shaped by United States cultural influences, including US comics brought to Japan by the GIs and by images and themes from US television and cartoons. According to Sharon Kinsella, the booming Japanese publishing industry helped create a consumer-oriented society in which publishing giants like Kodansha could shape popular taste.
Manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 13th centuries. During the Edo period, another book of drawings, Toba Ehon, embedded the concept of manga; the word first came into common usage in the late 18th century with the publication of such works as Santō Kyōden's picturebook Shiji no yukikai, in the early 19th century with such works as Aikawa Minwa's Manga hyakujo and the celebrated Hokusai Manga books containing assorted drawings from the sketchbooks of the famous ukiyo-e artist Hokusai who lived from 1760–1849. Rakuten Kitazawa first used the word "manga" in the modern sense. Writers stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions as central to the history of manga, they include Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, Adam L. Kern, Eric Peter Nash. Schodt points to the existence in the 13th century of illustrated picture scrolls like Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga that told stories in sequential images with humor and wit. Schodt stresses continuities of aesthetic style and vision between ukiyo-e and shunga woodblock prints and modern manga.
While there are disputes over whether Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga or Shigisan-engi was the first manga, both scrolls date back to about the same time period. However others like Isao Takahata, Studio Ghibli co-founder and director, contends there is no linkage with the scrolls and modern manga. Schodt and Nash see a significant role for kamishibai, a form of street theater where itinerant artists displayed pictures in a light box while narrating the story to audiences in the street. Torrance has pointed to similarities between modern manga and the Osaka popular novel between the 1890s and 1940, argues that the development of widespread literacy in Meiji and post-Meiji Japan helped create audiences for stories told in words and pictures. Kinko Ito roots manga in aesthetic continuity with pre-Meiji art, but she sees its post-WWII history as driven in part by consumer enthusiasm for the rich imagery and narrative of the newly developing manga tradition. Ito describes how this tradition has produced new genres and markets, e.g. for girls' manga in the late 1960s and for Ladies Comics in the 1980s.
Kern has suggested that kibyoshi, picture books from the late 18th century, may have been the world's first comic books. These graphical narratives share with modern manga humorous and romantic themes. Although Kern does not believe that kibyoshi were a direct forerunner of manga, for Kern the existence of kibyoshi nonetheless points to a Japanese willingness to mix words and pictures in a popular story-telling medium; the first recorded use of the term "manga" to mean "whimsical or impromptu pictures" comes from this tradition in 1798, Kern points out, predates Katsushika Hokusai's better known Hokusai Manga usage by several decades. Inoue sees manga as being a mixture of image- and word-centered elements, each pre-dating the Allied occupation of Japan. In his view, Japanese image-centered or "pictocentric" art derives from Japan's long history of engagement with Chinese graphic art, whereas word-centered or "logocentric" art, like the novel, was stimulated by social and economic needs of Meiji and pre-war Japanese nationalism for a populace unified by a common written language.
Both fuse in what Inoue sees as a symbiosis in manga. The roots of the wide-eyed look associated with manga dates back to shōjo magazine illustrations during the late 19th to early 20th centuries; the most important illustrators associated with this style at the time were Yumeji Takehisa and Jun'ichi Nakahara, influenced by his work as a doll creator drew female characters with big eyes in the early 20th century. This had a significant influence on early manga shōjo manga, evident in the work of influential manga artists such as Makoto Takahashi and Riyoko Ikeda. However, other writers such as Takashi Murakami have stressed events after WWII, but Murakami sees Japan's surrender and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as having created long-lasting scars on the Japanese artistic psyche, which, in this view, lost its virile confidence in itself and sought solace in harmless and cute images. However, Takayumi Tatsumi sees a special role for a transpacific economic and cultural transnationalism that created a postmodern and shared international youth culture of cartoo
Clamp (manga artists)
Clamp is an all-female Japanese manga artist group that formed in the mid-1980s. It consists of leader Nanase Ohkawa, three artists whose roles shift for each series: Mokona, Tsubaki Nekoi, Satsuki Igarashi. 100 million Clamp tankōbon copies have been sold worldwide as of October 2007. Beginning as an eleven-member dōjinshi circle in the mid-1980s, they began creating original work in 1987. By the time they debuted with RG Veda in 1989, the group was reduced to seven members. In 1993, three more members left, leaving the four members who are still part of the group. In 2006, the members decided to change their names. Clamp began in the mid-1980s as an eleven-member dōjinshi circle named Clamp Cluster; this included O-Kyon, Sei Nanao, Tamayo Akiyama, Leeza Sei, Sōshi Hishika, Kazue Nakamori, Shinya Ōmi. Three of Clamp's artists—Mokona, Tsubaki Nekoi, Satsuki Igarashi—first began drawing manga when they were teenagers, inspired by friends; the three artists were good friends in the same school. They befriended Nanase Ohkawa through one of her friends who had bought comics from Mokona.
The original group of twelve members began to meet at every event held in Osaka and Kobe, which occurred once a month. Before they began creating original work, the group produced dōjinshi of Captain Tsubasa, yaoi dōjinshi of Saint Seiya. However, in 1987 the group began creating original work, their first collaborative work was entitled "Clamp", which they continued to work on until shortly after their debut. The group debuted as professional manga artists when they decided to print the manga RG Veda, which they had first started as a fan comic. After seeing the comic digest of the manga series that Clamp had published, an editor for Shinshokan's Wings manga magazine asked the group to work for them, they submitted an sixty-page story as a sample, but the work was rejected. Ohkawa lambasted the draft, stating that "everything was bad" and attributing the quality to the group's lack of experience, since they had never before completed a story as a cohesive group; the group was given another chance at publication should they submit a new story that Shinshokan liked.
During the time before their official debut, the group moved to Tokyo and rented a small, two-bedroom apartment. Ohkawa stated that she thought she was "gonna die there". Nekoi stated that "the only private space had was under desk." By the group's professional debut in 1989 with the manga RG Veda, serialized in Shinshokan's Wings magazine, its members had gone down to seven. During the production of the manga RG Veda, O-Kyon had left the group. In June 1990, Sei Nanao left the group, Sōshi Hishika, Kazue Nakamori, Shinya Omi left in March 1993. In October 1992, Tamayo Akiyama and Leeza Sei left the group. RG Veda was planned to be a single story rather than a series, although because of good reader response and higher-than-expected sales for its first volume Shinshokan permitted the group to create more volumes, however after each chapter of the manga was released, Shinshokan threatened that it would cease serialization should its popularity fall. In July 1989, Genki Comics began serializing Man of Many Faces.
It began serializing Duklyon: Clamp School Defenders in August 1991, which became the work that the three artists Mokona and Igarashi enjoyed working on most. In March 1990, Wings began serializing Tokyo Babylon. In December 1990, Monthly Asuka ran Clamp School Detectives, in May 1992, it began serializing X. Clamp was serialized by many other magazines and publishers including Kobunsha publishing Shirahime-Syo: Snow Goddess Tales on June 10, 1992. In 1993, Clamp released two different manga: in March, Miyuki-chan in Wonderland, which began serializing in Newtype, in November, Magic Knight Rayearth, serialized in Nakayoshi. Nakayoshi began to serialize Cardcaptor Sakura in May 1996. Kadokawa Shoten published The One I Love on July 17, 1995. Wish first began serializing in Asuka Comics DX in October 1996. In December 1998, Suki: A Like Story began first serializing in Asuka Comics DX, in January 1999, Angelic Layer first began serializing in Monthly Shōnen Ace. In 2001, Young Magazine began serializing Clamp's Chobits which completed its run in 2002.
Although their previous works are targeted at a female audience, Chobits marked the first time Clamp wrote for an older teen male audience. Clamp began writing the two works that tell separate parts of the same overarching plot, xxxHolic serialized in Young Magazine beginning in 2003 followed by Tsubasa: Reservoir Chronicle serialized in the Weekly Shōnen Magazine beginning in the same year. Tsubasa marked the first time Clamp had tried writing for a younger male audience, although their first work published in the Shōnen genre was Angelic LayerIn 2004, Clamp's 15th anniversary as a manga artist group, the members changed their names from Nanase Ohkawa, Mokona Apapa, Mick Nekoi, Satsuki Igarashi to Ageha Ohkawa, Tsubaki Nekoi and Satsuki Igarashi
Yuri known by the wasei-eigo construction Girls' Love, is a Japanese jargon term for content and a genre involving lesbian relationships in light novels, anime, video games and related Japanese media. Yuri focuses on the sexual orientation or the romantic orientation aspects of the relationship, or both, the latter of, sometimes called shōjo-ai by Western fandom; the themes yuri deals with have their roots in the Japanese lesbian fiction of the early twentieth century, with pieces such as Yaneura no Nishojo by Nobuko Yoshiya. It is not until the 1970s that lesbian-themed works began to appear in manga, by the hand of artists such as Ryoko Yamagishi and Riyoko Ikeda; the 1990s brought new trends in manga and anime, as well as in dōjinshi productions, along with more acceptance for this kind of content. In 2003, the first manga magazine dedicated to yuri, Yuri Shimai, was launched, this was followed by its revival Comic Yuri Hime, launched after the former was discontinued in 2004; as a genre, yuri content could target either a female audience.
Although yuri originated in female-targeted works, today it is featured in male-targeted ones as well. Yuri manga from male-targeted magazines include titles such as Kannazuki no Miko and Strawberry Panic!, as well as those from Comic Yuri Hime's male-targeted sister magazine, Comic Yuri Hime S, launched in 2007. The word yuri means "lily", is a common Japanese feminine name. In 1976, Bungaku Itō, editor of Barazoku, a magazine geared towards gay men, first used the term yurizoku in reference to female readers in the title of a column of letters called Yurizoku no heya, it is unclear. Not all women whose letters appeared in this short-lived column were lesbians, but some were and an association developed. For example, the tanbi magazine Allan began running a Yuri Tsūshin personal ad column in July 1983 for "lesbiennes" to communicate. Along the way, many dōjinshi circles incorporated the name "Yuri" or "Yuriko" into lesbian-themed hentai dōjinshi, the "zoku" or "tribe" portion of this word was subsequently dropped.
Since the meaning has drifted from its pornographic connotation to describe the portrayal of intimate love, sex, or the intimate emotional connections between women. As of 2009, the term yuri is used in Japan to mean the depiction of attraction between women in manga and related entertainment media, as well as the genre of stories dealing with this content; the wasei-eigo construction "Girls Love" spelled "Girl's Love" or "Girls' Love", or abbreviated as "GL", is used with this meaning. Yuri is a form of fanspeak amongst fans, but its usage by authors and publishers has increased since 2005; the term "Girls Love", on the other hand, is used by the publishers. In North America, yuri has been used to denote only the most explicit end of the spectrum, deemed as a variety of hentai. Following the pattern of shōnen-ai, a term in use in North America to describe content involving non-sexual relationships between men, Western fans coined the term shōjo-ai to describe yuri without explicit sex. In Japan, the term shōjo-ai is not used with this meaning, instead tends to denote pedophilia, with a similar meaning to the term lolicon.
The Western use of yuri has broadened in the 2000s. American publishing companies such as ALC Publishing and Seven Seas Entertainment have adopted the Japanese usage of the term to classify their yuri manga publications. Among the first Japanese authors to produce works about love between women was Nobuko Yoshiya, a novelist active in the Taishō and Shōwa periods of Japan. Yoshiya was a pioneer in Japanese lesbian literature, including the early twentieth century Class S genre; these kinds of stories depict lesbian attachments as intense yet platonic relationships, destined to be curtailed by graduation from school, marriage, or death. The root of this genre is in part the contemporary belief that same-sex love was a transitory and normal part of female development leading into heterosexuality and motherhood. Class S stories in particular tell of strong emotional bonds between schoolgirls, a mutual crush between an upperclassman and an underclassman. Around the 1970s, yuri began to appear in shōjo manga, presenting some of the characteristics found in the lesbian literature of the early twentieth century.
This early yuri features an older looking, more sophisticated woman, a younger, more awkward admirer. The two deal with some sort of unfortunate schism between their families, when rumors of their lesbian relationship spread, they are received as a scandal; the outcome is a tragedy, with the more sophisticated girl somehow dying at the end. In general, the yuri manga of this time could not avoid a tragic ending. Ryoko Yamagishi's Shiroi Heya no Futari, the first manga involving a lesbian relationship, is a prime example, as it was "prototypical" for many yuri stories of the 1970s and 1980s, it is in the 1970s that shōjo manga began to deal with transsexualism and transvestism, sometimes depicting female characters as manly looking, inspired by the women playing male roles in the Takarazuka Revue. These traits are most prominent in Riyoko Ikeda's works, including The Rose of Versailles, Oniisam
Shōjo, shojo, or shoujo manga is manga aimed at a teenage female target-demographic readership. The name romanizes the Japanese 少女, literally'young woman'. Shōjo manga covers many subjects in a variety of narrative styles, from historical drama to science fiction with a focus on romantic relationships or emotions. Speaking, however, shōjo manga does not comprise a style or genre, but rather indicates a target demographic. Japanese magazines for girls, known as shōjo magazines, first appeared in 1903 with the founding of Shōjo kai and continued with others such as Shōjo Sekai and the long-running Shōjo no tomo; the roots of the wide-eyed look associated with shōjo manga dates back to shōjo magazine illustrations during the early 20th century. The most important illustrators associated with this style at the time were Yumeji Takehisa and Jun'ichi Nakahara, influenced by his work as a doll creator drew female characters with big eyes in the early 20th century; this had a significant influence on early shōjo manga, evident in the work of influential manga artists such as Macoto Takahashi and Riyoko Ikeda.
Simple, single-page manga began to appear in these magazines by 1910, by the 1930s more sophisticated humor-strips had become an essential feature of most girls' magazines. The most popular manga, Katsuji Matsumoto's Kurukuru Kurumi-chan, debuted on the pages of Shōjo no tomo in 1938; as World War II progressed, however, "comics regarded as frivolous, began to disappear". Postwar shōjo manga, such as Shosuke Kurakane's popular Anmitsu Hime followed the pre-war pattern of simple humor-strips, but Osamu Tezuka's postwar revolution, introducing intense drama and serious themes to children's manga, spread to shōjo manga after the enormous success of his seminal Ribon no kishi. Sally the Witch —being the first magical girl genre anime—may be the first shōjo anime as well; until the mid-1960s, men vastly outnumbered the women amongst the artists working on shōjo manga. Many male manga artists, such as Tetsuya Chiba, functioned as rookies, waiting for an opportunity to move over to shōnen manga. Chiba asked his wife about girls' feelings for research for his manga.
At this time, conventional job opportunities for Japanese women did not include becoming a manga artist. Adapting Tezuka's dynamic style to shōjo manga proved challenging. According to Matt Thorn: While some chose to create longer humor-strips, others turned to popular girls' novels of the day as a model for melodramatic shōjo manga; these manga featured sweet, innocent pre-teen heroines, torn from the safety of family and tossed from one perilous circumstance to another, until rescued and re-united with their families. These early shōjo manga invariably had pre-adolescent girls as both heroines and readers. Unless they used a fantastic setting or a backdrop of a distant time or place, romantic love for the heroine remained taboo, but the average age of the readership rose, its interests changed. In the mid-1960s one of the few female artists in the field, Yoshiko Nishitani, began to draw stories featuring contemporary Japanese teenagers in love; this signaled a dramatic transformation of the genre.
This may have been due to the baby boomers becoming teens, the industry trying to keep them as readers. Between 1950 and 1969 large audiences for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls; these romantic comedy shoujo manga were inspired by American TV dramas of the time. The success of the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, the gold medal won by the Japan women's national volleyball team, influenced a series of sports shoujo manga, such as Attack No. 1. In May 1967, shoujo manga began being published in tankōbon format. Between 1969 and 1971, a flood of young female manga artists transformed the genre again. Some, including Hagio Moto, Yumiko Oshima, Keiko Takemiya, became known as the hana no nijū yon nen gumi; this loosely defined group experimented with content and form, inventing such new subgenres as shōnen-ai, earning the long-maligned shōjo manga unprecedented critical praise. Other female artists of the same generation, such as Riyoko Ikeda, Yukari Ichijo, Sumika Yamamoto, garnered unprecedented popular support with such hits as Berusaiyu no bara and Eesu wo nerae!.
During that era, women's roles in Japanese society were changing, women were being elected to the National Diet, publishers responded by employing more female talent. Since the mid-1970s, women have created the vast majority of shōjo manga. From 1975 shōjo manga continued to develop stylistically while branching out into different but overlapping subgenres. Meiji University Professor Yukari Fujimoto writes that during the 1990s, shoujo manga became concerned with self-fulfillment, she intimates that the 1990–1991 Gulf War influenced the development of female characters "who fight to protect the destiny of a community", such as Red River, Magic Knight Rayearth, Sailor Moon. Fujimoto opines that the shōjo manga of the 1990s depi
History of anime
The history of anime can be traced back to the start of the 20th century, with the earliest verifiable films dating from 1917. The first generation of animators in the late 1910s included Ōten Shimokawa, Jun'ichi Kōuchi and Seitaro Kitayama referred to as the "fathers" of anime. Propaganda films, such as Momotarō no Umiwashi and Momotarō: Umi no Shinpei, the latter being the first anime feature film, were made during World War II. During the 1970s, anime developed further, with the inspiration of Disney animators, separating itself from its Western roots, developing distinct genres such as mecha and its super robot subgenre. Typical shows from this period include Astro Boy, Lupin III and Mazinger Z. During this period several filmmakers became famous Hayao Miyazaki and Mamoru Oshii. In the 1980s, anime became mainstream in Japan, experiencing a boom in production with the rise in popularity of anime like Gundam, Dragon Ball, genres such as real robot, space opera and cyberpunk. Space Battleship Yamato and The Super Dimension Fortress Macross achieved worldwide success after being adapted as Star Blazers and Robotech.
The film Akira set records in 1988 for the production costs of an anime film and went on to become an international success. In 2004, the same creators produced Steamboy, which took over as the most expensive anime film. Spirited Away shared the first prize at the 2002 Berlin Film Festival and won the 2003 Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, while Innocence: Ghost in the Shell was featured at the 2004 Cannes Film Festival. According to Natsuki Matsumoto, the first animated film produced in Japan may have stemmed from as early as 1907. Known as Katsudō Shashin, from its depiction of a boy in a sailor suit drawing the characters for katsudō shashin, the film was first found in 2005, it consists of fifty frames stencilled directly onto a strip of celluloid. This claim has not been verified though and predates the first known showing of animated films in Japan; the date and first film publicly displayed is another source of contention: while no Japanese-produced animation is definitively known to date before 1917, the possibility exists that other films entered Japan and that no known records have surfaced to prove a showing prior to 1912.
Film titles have surfaced over the years. The first foreign animation is known to have been found in Japan in 1910, but it is not clear if the film was shown in a cinema or publicly displayed at all. Yasushi Watanabe found a film known as Fushigi no Bōrudo in the records of the Yoshizawa Shōten company; the description matches James Blackton's Humorous Phases of Funny Faces, though academic consensus on whether or not this is a true animated film is disputed. According to Kyokko Yoshiyama, the first animated film called Nippāru no Henkei was shown in Japan at the Asakusa Teikokukan in Tokyo sometime in 1911. Yoshiyama did not refer to the film as "animation" though; the first confirmed animated film shown in Japan was Les Exploits de Feu Follet by Émile Cohl on April 15, 1912. While speculation and other "trick films" have been found in Japan, it is the first recorded account of a public showing of a two-dimensional animated film in Japanese cinema. During this time, German animations marketed for home release were distributed in Japan.
Few complete animations made during the beginnings of Japanese animation have survived. The reasons vary. After the clips had been run, reels were sold to smaller cinemas in the country and disassembled and sold as strips or single frames; the first anime, produced in Japan was made sometime in 1917, but there it is disputed which title was the first to get that honour. It has been confirmed that Dekobō Shingachō: Meian no Shippai was made sometime during February 1917. At least two unconfirmed titles were reported to have been made the previous month; the first anime short-films were made by three leading figures in the industry. Ōten Shimokawa was a political cartoonist who worked for the magazine Tokyo Puck. He was hired by Tenkatsu to do an animation for them. Due to medical reasons, he was only able to do five movies, including Imokawa Mukuzo Genkanban no Maki, before he returned to his previous work as a cartoonist. Another prominent animator in this period was Jun'ichi Kōuchi, he was a caricaturist and painter, who had studied watercolour painting.
In 1912, he entered the cartoonist sector and was hired for an animation by Kobayashi Shokai in 1916. He is viewed as the most technically advanced Japanese animator of the 1910s, his works include around 15 movies. The third was Seitaro Kitayama, an early animator who made animations on his own and was not hired by larger corporations, he founded his own animation studio, the Kitayama Eiga Seisakujo, closed due to lack of commercial success. He utilized the chalkboard technique, paper animation and without pre-printed backgrounds; the works of these two latter pioneers include Namakura Gatana and a 1918 film Urashima Tarō which were believed to have been discovered together at an antique market in 2007. However, this Urashima Tarō was proved to most be a different film of the same story than the 1918 one by Kitayama, which, as of October 2017, remains undiscovered. Yasuji Murata, Hakuzan Kimura, Sanae Yamamoto and Noburō Ōfuji were students of Kitayama Seitaro and worked at his film studio. Kenzō Masaoka, another important animator, worked at a smaller animation
Shōji Kawamori is a Japanese anime creator and producer, visual artist, mecha designer. Shoji Kawamori was born in Toyama, Japan in 1960. In his youth he attended Keio University in the late seventies and in the same years as Macross screenwriter Hiroshi Ōnogi and character designer Haruhiko Mikimoto, where they became friends and founded a Mobile Suit Gundam fan club called "Gunsight One", a name the group would use years during the development of the fictional world of the Macross series. Shoji Kawamori used the alias Eiji Kurokawa early in his anime career when he started as a teenage intern at Studio Nue and worked as assistant artist and animator there during the late seventies and early eighties. On his career Kawamori created or co-created the concepts which served as basis for several anime series such as The Super Dimension Fortress Macross, The Vision of Escaflowne, Earth Maiden Arjuna, Genesis of Aquarion, Macross 7, Macross Frontier, Macross Delta, his projects are noted to contain strong themes of love, spirituality or mysticism, ecological concern.
Kawamori is executive director at the animation studio Satelight. Shoji Kawamori is a visual artist and a mecha designer — projects featuring his designs range from 1983's Crusher Joe to 2005's Eureka Seven; each and every variable fighter from the official Macross series continuity has been designed by him. In 2001, he brought his mecha design talent to real-life projects when he designed a variant of the Sony AIBO robotic dog, the ERS-220. Kawamori helped to design various toys for the Takara toyline Diaclone in the early 1980s, many of which were incorporated into Hasbro's Transformers toyline. Quite a few of them became iconic Transformers: Generation 1 toy designs. Among them the first Optimus Prime toy design, Bluestreak, Smokescreen and Ratchet. Over 20 years he returned to Transformers by designing both the Hybrid Style Convoy and the Masterpiece version of Starscream for Takara; the Super Dimension Fortress Macross - Original Series Concept Creator, Production Supervisor, Mechanical Designer Macross: Do You Remember Love?
- Movie Concept Creator, Mechanical Designer, Series Script Supervisor, Movie Story The Super Dimension Fortress Macross: Flash Back 2012 - Executive Director, Mechanical Designer Macross Plus - Creator, Executive Director, Mechanical Design Macross 7 - Creator, Supervisor, Mechanical Designer Macross Dynamite 7 - Creator, Series Script Supervisor, Mechanical Designer, Ending Photography Macross Zero - Creator, Writer, Mechanical Designer Macross Frontier - Creator, Supervising Director, Story Composition, Mechanical Designer Macross FB 7: Ore no Uta o Kike! - Original Creator, Valkyrie Design Macross Delta - Creator, Main Director, Valkyrie Mechanical DesignerNote: Macross II is the only animated Macross project in which Kawamori had no involvement. Space Battleship Yamato series - Spaceship Mechanical Design Future GPX Cyber Formula - Machine Design Future GPX Cyber Formula SIN - Machine Design The Vision of Escaflowne - Original Creator, Series Script Supervisor Spring and Chaos - Director, Screenplay Earth Maiden Arjuna - Original Creator, Series Script Supervisor The Family's Defensive Alliance - Original Creator, Series Planner Genesis of Aquarion - Original Creator, Series Script Supervisor, Aquarion Design Genesis of Aquarion - Director, Series Composition, Original Creator Aquarion Evol - Original Creator, Series Script Supervisor, Aquarion Design Patlabor: The Movie - Mechanical Design Patlabor 2: The Movie - Mechanical Design WXIII: Patlabor the Movie 3 - Mechanical Design Eureka Seven - Main Mechanic Design Eureka Seven: AO - Nirvash Design Engage Planet Kiss Dum - Main Mechanical Design Kishin Taisen Gigantic Formula - Mechanical designer Mobile Suit Gundam 0083: Stardust Memory - Designed the RX-78GP01 "Zephyranthes" and the RX-78GP02A "Physalis" Gundams Ulysses 31 - Mechanical Design Dangaioh - Mechanical Design, key animation Ghost in the Shell - Mechanical Design Basquash!
- Original Concept, Project Director Outlaw Star - Designed the ship XGP15A-II Tōshō Daimos - Guest Mechanical Designer Gordian Warrior - Guest Mechanical Designer Golden Warrior Gold Lightan - Guest Mechanical Designer Anyamaru Tantei Kiruminzuu - Original Creator AKB0048 - Original Creator, Mechanical Design Ani*Kuri15 - Director Cowboy Bebop - Script, Stage Setting Cooperation Glass Fleet - Mechanical Design M3: Sono Kuroki Hagane - Mechanical Design Nobunaga the Fool - Original Creator Last Hope - Original Creator, Director Noein - Storyboard RahXephon - Storyboard Techno Police 21C - Action Choreography Assistance and Mechanical Design The Ultraman - Mechanical Design The Vision of Escaflowne - Writer Gunhed - Mechanical Design Ace Combat Assault Horizon - Guest Designer Armored Core - Mechanic Designer Armored Core: Project Phantasma - Mechanic Designer Armored Core: Master of Arena - Mechanic Designer Armored Core 2 - Mechanic Concept Designer Armored Core 2: Another Age - Mechanic Concept Designer Armored Core 3 - Mechanic Concept Designer Silent Line: Armored Core - Guest Designer Armored Core: Nexus - Mechanic Concept Designer Armored Core: For Answer - Mechanic Concept Designer Eureka Seven vol. 1: The New Wave - Main Mechanical Designer Eureka Seven vol. 2: The New Vision - Main Mechanical Designer Omega Boost - Mechanical Design Advisor, Mechanical/Costume Designer, Opening/Ending Movie Director Tech Romancer - Mechanical Design, Original Co
Yaoi known as boys' love or BL, is a genre of fictional media originating in Japan that features homoerotic relationships between male characters. It is created by women for women and is distinct from homoerotic media marketed to gay male audiences, such as bara, but it attracts male readers, it spans a wide range of media, including manga, drama CDs, novels and fan production. Boys love and its abbreviation BL are the generic terms for this kind of media in Japan and have, in recent years, become more used in English as well. However, yaoi remains more prevalent in English. A defining characteristic of yaoi is the practice of pairing characters in relationships according to the roles of seme, the sexual top or active pursuer, uke, the sexual bottom or passive pursuant. Common themes in yaoi include forbidden relationships, depictions of rape and humor. Yaoi and BL stories cover a diverse range of genres such as high school love comedy, period drama, science fiction and fantasy, detective fiction and include sub-genres such as omegaverse and shotacon.
Yaoi finds its origins in commercial publishing. As James Welker has summarized, the term yaoi dates back to dōjinshi culture of the late 1970s to early 1980s where, as a portmanteau of "yamanashi ochinashi iminashi", it was a self-deprecating way to refer to amateur fan works that parodied mainstream manga and anime by depicting the male characters from popular series in vaguely or explicitly sexual situations; the use of yaoi to refer to parody dōjinshi is still predominant in Japan. In commercial publishing, the genre can be traced back to shōnen'ai, a genre of beautiful boy manga that began to appear in shōjo manga magazines in the early 1970s. From the 1970s to 1980s, other terms such as tanbi and June emerged to refer to specific developments in the genre. In the early 1990s, these terms were eclipsed with the commercialization of male-male homoerotic media under the label of boys love. Yaoi has a robust global presence. Yaoi works are available across the continents in various languages both through international licensing and distribution and through circulation by fans.
Yaoi works and fandom have been studied and discussed by scholars and journalists worldwide. The genre known as Boy's Love, BL, or yaoi derives from two sources. Female authors writing for shōjo manga magazines in the early 1970s published stories featuring platonic relationships between young boys, which were known as tanbi or shōnen ai. In the late 1970s going into the 1980s, women and girls in the dōjinshi markets of Japan started to produce sexualized parodies of popular shōnen anime and manga stories in which the male characters were recast as gay lovers. By the end of the 1970s, magazines devoted to the nascent genre started to appear, in the 1990s the term boys' love or BL would be invented and would become the dominant term used for the genre in Japan. Although yaoi derives from girl's and women's manga and still targets the shōjo and josei demographics, it is considered a separate category. Keiko Takemiya's manga serial Kaze to Ki no Uta, first published in 1976, was groundbreaking in its depictions of "openly sexual relationships" between men, spurring the development of the boys' love genre in shōjo manga, as well as the development of sexually explicit amateur comics.
Another noted female manga author, Kaoru Kurimoto, wrote shōnen ai mono stories in the late 1970s that have been described as "the precursors of yaoi". The term yaoi is an acronym created in the late 1970s by Yasuko Sakata and Akiko Hatsu from the words Yama nashi, ochi nashi, imi nashi "No peak, no fall, no meaning"; this phrase was first used as a "euphemism for the content" and refers to how yaoi, as opposed to the "difficult to understand" shōnen-ai being produced by the Year 24 Group female manga authors, focused on "the yummy parts". The phrase parodies a classical style of plot structure. Kubota Mitsuyoshi says that Osamu Tezuka used yama nashi, ochi nashi, imi nashi to dismiss poor quality manga, this was appropriated by the early yaoi authors; as of 1998, the term yaoi was considered "common knowledge to manga fans". A joking alternative yaoi acronym among fujoshi is oshiri ga itai. In the 1980s, the genre was presented in an anime format for the first time, including the works Patalliro! which showed a romance between two supporting characters, an adaptation of Kaze to Ki no Uta and Earthian, released in the original video animation format.
Prior to the popularization of the term yaoi, material in the nascent genre was called juné, a name derived from Juné, a magazine that published male/male tanbi romances which took its name from the homoerotic stories of the French writer Jean Genet. In China, the term danmei is used, derived from tanbi; the term bishōnen manga was used in the 1970s, but fell from favor in the 1990s when manga in this genre began to feature a broader range of protagonists beyond the traditional adolescent boys. In Japan, the term juné would die out in favor of boys' love, which remains the most common name in Japan. Mizoguchi suggests that publishers wishing to get a foothold in the juné market coined "boys' love" to disassociate the genre from the publisher of Juné. While yaoi has become an umbrella term in the West for women's manga or Japanese-influenced comics with male-male relationships, it is the term preferentially used by American manga publishers for works of t