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Seismic wave

Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the Earth's layers, are a result of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, magma movement, large landslides and large man-made explosions that give out low-frequency acoustic energy. Many other natural and anthropogenic sources create low-amplitude waves referred to as ambient vibrations. Seismic waves are studied by geophysicists called seismologists. Seismic wave fields are recorded by hydrophone, or accelerometer; the propagation velocity of seismic waves depends on density and elasticity of the medium as well as the type of wave. Velocity tends to increase with depth through Earth's crust and mantle, but drops going from the mantle to the outer core. Earthquakes create distinct types of waves with different velocities. In geophysics the refraction or reflection of seismic waves is used for research into the structure of the Earth's interior, man-made vibrations are generated to investigate shallow, subsurface structures. Among the many types of seismic waves, one can make a broad distinction between body waves, which travel through the Earth, surface waves, which travel at the Earth's surface.

Other modes of wave propagation exist. Body waves travel through the interior of the Earth. Surface waves travel across the surface. Surface waves decay more with distance than body waves, which travel in three dimensions. Particle motion of surface waves is larger than that of body waves, so surface waves tend to cause more damage. Body waves travel through the interior of the Earth along paths controlled by the material properties in terms of density and modulus; the density and modulus, in turn, vary according to temperature and material phase. This effect resembles the refraction of light waves. Two types of particle motion result in two types of body waves: Primary and Secondary waves. Primary waves are compressional waves. P-waves are pressure waves that travel faster than other waves through the earth to arrive at seismograph stations first, hence the name "Primary"; these waves can travel through any type of material, including fluids, can travel nearly 1.7 times faster than the S-waves. In air, they take the form of sound waves, hence they travel at the speed of sound.

Typical speeds are 1450 m/s in water and about 5000 m/s in granite. Secondary waves are shear waves. Following an earthquake event, S-waves arrive at seismograph stations after the faster-moving P-waves and displace the ground perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Depending on the propagational direction, the wave can take on different surface characteristics. S-waves can travel only through solids. S-waves are slower than P-waves, speeds are around 60% of that of P-waves in any given material. Shear waves can't travel through any liquid medium, so the absence of S-wave in earth's outer core suggests a liquid state. Seismic surface waves travel along the Earth's surface, they can be classified as a form of mechanical surface waves. They are called surface waves, they travel more than seismic body waves. In large earthquakes, surface waves can have an amplitude of several centimeters. Rayleigh waves called ground roll, are surface waves that travel as ripples with motions that are similar to those of waves on the surface of water.

The existence of these waves was predicted by John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh, in 1885. They are slower than body waves 90% of the velocity of S waves for typical homogeneous elastic media. In a layered medium the velocity of the Rayleigh waves depends on their wavelength. See Lamb waves. Love waves are horizontally polarized shear waves, existing only in the presence of a semi-infinite medium overlain by an upper layer of finite thickness, they are named after A. E. H. Love, a British mathematician who created a mathematical model of the waves in 1911, they travel faster than Rayleigh waves, about 90% of the S wave velocity, have the largest amplitude. A Stoneley wave is a type of boundary wave that propagates along a solid-fluid boundary or, under specific conditions along a solid-solid boundary. Amplitudes of Stoneley waves have their maximum values at the boundary between the two contacting media and decay exponentially towards the depth of each of them; these waves can be generated along the walls of a fluid-filled borehole, being an important source of coherent noise in VSPs and making up the low frequency component of the source in sonic logging.

The equation for Stoneley waves was first given by Dr. Robert Stoneley, Emeritus Professor of Seismology, Cambridge. Free oscillations of the Earth are standing waves, the result of interference between two surface waves traveling in opposite directions. Interference of Rayleigh waves results in spheroidal oscillation S while interference of Love waves gives toroidal oscillation T; the modes of oscillations are specified by thre

Musica Orbis

Musica Orbis was a Philadelphia, USA, based electric chamber music quintet performing between 1972 and 1979. Instrumentation included voices, flute, cello and electric bass, marimba, synthesizer, pump organ, knee harp, wooden recorder, hand percussion, Fender Rhodes, piano. Musica Orbis was founded in late spring 1972 by singer/songwriter Kitty Brazelton and Tom Stephenson on the Swarthmore College campus. Susan Gelletly and Caroline "Caille" Colburn joined, followed by David Clark, James J. Kelly and William Pastuszek Jr.. The group debuted as a septet on April 1973 in Bond Hall on the Swarthmore College campus. Before their official debut, they opened for jazz-rock Good God and Blue Öyster Cult in Clothier Hall, Swarthmore College in March of 1973. In fall 1973 Musica Orbis reduced from septet to quintet with Brazelton, Colburn and Stephenson remaining. In the winter of 1974–1975, the quintet accompanied the Group Motion Multimedia Dance Theater and performed at Wilma Project, the Painted Bride, The Bijou, Annenberg Center on the Penn campus.

The Irvin R. Glazer Theater Collection, Philadelphia Athenaeum, shows a photo of the old Bandbox Theatre with a marquee: "CONCERT BY MUSICA ORBIS/NEW YEARS DAY FIVE PM"; the song "William" was composed in 1975 for Musica Orbis by Kitty Brazelton. Musica Orbis organized a dawn concert on the Delaware River on June 14, 1976; the band began to play in New York and Boston, drawing reviews in Billboard, The New York Times, Boston Phoenix and elsewhere. Cambridge's The Real Paper featured Musica Orbis as Band of the Month in April 1976. Writer Mike Baron, Mather House Music Society, Harvard University, hosted the band's sold out May 1st appearance at Sanders Theater in Harvard Square, Cambridge. Musica Orbis played in the Chapel at St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church, off-off-Broadway Cubiculo Theatre and the downtown club CBGB. In 1977 Musica Orbis released its LP "To the Listeners" on its own label, Longdivity; the original record had a fold-out jacket and, if bought directly from the group, the LP was accompanied by a signed certificate.

Because the LP sold 5000 copies independently, "To the Listeners" was picked up for distribution by Rounder Records. LPs manufactured by Rounder have outer cover art only, no color. During 1977 and 1978, after the LP's release, the band was booked on four national tours with concert dates in 25 states, as well as TV appearances and radio broadcasts, they traveled in caravan with a mobile home, cook/road manager and lights. Original member keyboardist Susan Gelletly left in 1977 and was replaced by pianist Bob Loiselle and guitarist Bill Mauchly added to create a sextet. After a season of farewell concerts, Musica Orbis disbanded in 1979. Goings On About Town: Nightlife, The New Yorker, September 27 1976. May 8–10, 1970, The Second Fret Coffeehouse, Philadelphia, PA Irvin R. Glazer, "Philadelphia Theatres, A-Z: A Comprehensive, Descriptive Record of 813 Theatres Constructed Since 1724." New York: Greenwood Press, 1986, p. 64. Robert Palmer, "Later Influences Enrich Jazz of New Orleans Band", New York Times, April 13, 1976.

Mike Baron, "Band of the Month," The Real Paper, Boston's weekly newspaper, April 28, 1976 Vol. 5, No. 17

Hashknife Hartley

Hashknife Hartley is an American old-time radio Western program. It was broadcast on the Mutual Broadcasting System from July 2, 1950, until December 30, 1951. Hashknife Hartley began as a summer replacement series. Paired with Hopalong Cassidy in the following half-hour, the substitution gave Mutual a one-hour Western block on Sunday afternoons. In September 1950, the block was extended to 90 minutes when Bobby Benson and the B-Bar-B Riders was added in the half-hour before Hashknife Hartley; the program featured the adventures of Hashknife Hartley and Sleepy Stevens, characters created by W. C. Tuttle, who served as narrator. Hartley was a western detective, Stevens was his sidekick; the word "hashknife" has two meanings in the context of western adventures. A hashknife was a tool that camp cooks used to slice beef cubes in preparation for making corned beef hash; that implement was the basis for a cattle brand, designed to foil rustlers by making it difficult to superimpose a new brand over the existing brand.

The Vandevert family, which developed the brand, became known as "the Hashknife Outfit", in turn that group inspired the printed stories and the radio program. Frank Martin in the title role and Barton Yarborough as Stevens had the only two regular roles in the series. Don McCall was the announcer. Tom Hargis was the director. Writers Fred Luke and Burt Kennedy adapted Tuttle's stories into scripts. Hashknife Hartley episodes from Old Time Radio Researchers Group Library

INS Sardar Patel

INS Sardar Patel is a Forward Operating Base of the Indian Navy in Porbandar and the Headquarters of the Naval Officer-in-Charge. It provides the logistic support to the Indian Navy units deployed in the Northern Arabian Sea, including along the International Maritime Boundary Line with Pakistan. INS Sardar Patel is the second naval base in Gujarat after INS Dwarka, near Okha; the name Sardar Patel has been chosen to signify the role of India’s Iron Man Vallabhai Patel, the first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister of India. The base was commissioned on 9 May 2015 by the Chief Minister of Gujarat; the commissioning ceremony was attended by Admiral RK Dhowan, Chief of the Naval Staff, Vice Admiral SPS Cheema, Flag Officer Commanding–in–Chief, Western Naval Command, senior naval officers and other dignitaries of the state government. Cmde BR Prakash, VSM, the Naval Officer-in-Charge is the first Commanding Officer of INS Sardar Patel. After the 26/11 terror attack on Mumbai, the Indian Navy was entrusted the responsibility of a lead agency to coordinate coastal and offshore security requirements and augment naval presence in sensitive areas.

Gujarat is a front line maritime state of India with the longest coastline of 880 nautical miles, besides sharing 532 km of land border with Pakistan. Over the preceding decade, there has been a significant growth in the maritime infrastructure along the coast of Gujarat. Many ports have come up along the coastline, which collectively handle 300 million tons of cargo annually, constituting 30 per cent of the total cargo handled in the ports of India. In addition, there are 12 single point moorings in the Gulf of Kutch, through which about 120 million tons of crude oil is supplied to various refineries on the coast and in the hinterland, constituting 71 per cent of the oil import into the country; the creation of considerable infrastructure along the coastline makes them vulnerable from sea, not only during hostilities but during peacetime. The commissioning of INS Sardar Patel at Porbandar enables the Navy to augment its infrastructure and organisational effectiveness in Gujarat, it will improve synergy with other maritime agencies.

INAS 310, "Cobras", operating Dornier Do 228 aircraft in electronic warfare roles Indian navyList of Indian Navy bases List of active Indian Navy shipsIntegrated commands and unitsArmed Forces Special Operations Division Defence Cyber Agency Integrated Defence Staff Integrated Space Cell Indian Nuclear Command Authority Indian Armed Forces Special Forces of IndiaOther listsStrategic Forces Command List of Indian Air Force stations List of Indian Navy bases India's overseas military bases

Alice Glaser

Alice Glaser was an American writer and an editor at Esquire magazine. Alice Glaser was raised on the daughter of Hilda Glaser and Lewis Glaser, she attended Woodmere High School, graduating in 1946. She completed her undergraduate studies at Radcliffe College in 1950, with a senior thesis on Joseph Conrad. From 1958, Glaser worked at Esquire magazine as associate editor under Harold Hayes. In that position, she was in contact with prominent authors and potential authors, such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Diane Arbus. She wrote articles for the magazine. One of her contributions in 1963, "Back on the Open Road for Boys", described the week she spent in India with Allen Ginsberg. Other articles by Glaser included an interview with "the last of the Seneca chiefs" in 1964, "Hair!", an exploration of teen girls' beauty culture. She wrote book reviews for the Chicago Tribune. In 1961, her dystopian story "The Tunnel Ahead" was published in The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction; the story has been much-anthologized, was adapted for an award-winning short film, The Tunnel by André Øvredal.

Glaser died in 1970 after a fall a suicide, at age 41, in New York. Alice Glaser at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Alice Glaser on IMDb

Tom Weilandt

Tom Weilandt is a German footballer who plays as a midfielder for 2. Bundesliga side VfL Bochum. Weilandt started playing football with local Rostock clubs SV LSG Elmenhorst. In 2003, he joined the youth ranks of Hansa Rostock where he became German under 19 champion in 2010. In the following year he made it to the club's first team squad, making his debut in a 3. Liga match versus SV Wehen Wiesbaden on 30 April 2011. In 2009, Weilandt earned two caps for the Germany under 18 team. Tom Weilandt is the son of former East Germany international Hilmar Weilandt, his nickname "Hille" is derived from his father's first name. As of 1 July 2018 1 2013–14 and 2017–18 include the 2. Bundesliga/Bundesliga promotion/relegation playoffs. Tom Weilandt at Soccerway Tom Weilandt at fussballdaten.de