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Seismology

Seismology is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies. The field includes studies of earthquake environmental effects such as tsunamis as well as diverse seismic sources such as volcanic, oceanic and artificial processes such as explosions. A related field that uses geology to infer information regarding past earthquakes is paleoseismology. A recording of earth motion as a function of time is called a seismogram. A seismologist is a scientist. Scholarly interest in earthquakes can be traced back to antiquity. Early speculations on the natural causes of earthquakes were included in the writings of Thales of Miletus, Anaximenes of Miletus and Zhang Heng. In 132 CE, Zhang Heng of China's Han dynasty designed the first known seismoscope. In the 17th century, Athanasius Kircher argued that earthquakes were caused by the movement of fire within a system of channels inside the Earth. Martin Lister and Nicolas Lemery proposed that earthquakes were caused by chemical explosions within the earth.

The Lisbon earthquake of 1755, coinciding with the general flowering of science in Europe, set in motion intensified scientific attempts to understand the behaviour and causation of earthquakes. The earliest responses include work by John Michell. Michell determined that earthquakes originate within the Earth and were waves of movement caused by "shifting masses of rock miles below the surface". From 1857, Robert Mallet laid the foundation of instrumental seismology and carried out seismological experiments using explosives, he is responsible for coining the word "seismology". In 1897, Emil Wiechert's theoretical calculations led him to conclude that the Earth's interior consists of a mantle of silicates, surrounding a core of iron. In 1906 Richard Dixon Oldham identified the separate arrival of P-waves, S-waves and surface waves on seismograms and found the first clear evidence that the Earth has a central core. In 1910, after studying the April 1906 San Francisco earthquake, Harry Fielding Reid put forward the "elastic rebound theory" which remains the foundation for modern tectonic studies.

The development of this theory depended on the considerable progress of earlier independent streams of work on the behaviour of elastic materials and in mathematics. In 1926, Harold Jeffreys was the first to claim, based on his study of earthquake waves, that below the mantle, the core of the Earth is liquid. In 1937, Inge Lehmann determined that within the earth's liquid outer core there is a solid inner core. By the 1960s, earth science had developed to the point where a comprehensive theory of the causation of seismic events had come together in the now well-established theory of plate tectonics. Seismic waves are elastic waves that propagate in fluid materials, they can be divided into body waves. There are pressure waves or primary waves and shear or secondary waves. P-waves are longitudinal waves that involve compression and expansion in the direction that the wave is moving and are always the first waves to appear on a seismogram as they are the fastest moving waves through solids. S-waves are transverse waves.

S-waves are slower than P-waves. Therefore, they appear than P-waves on a seismogram. Fluids cannot support perpendicular motion, so S-waves only travel in solids. Surface waves are the result of P- and S-waves interacting with the surface of the Earth; these waves are dispersive. The two main surface wave types are Rayleigh waves, which have both compressional and shear motions, Love waves, which are purely shear. Rayleigh waves result from the interaction of P-waves and vertically polarized S-waves with the surface and can exist in any solid medium. Love waves are formed by horizontally polarized S-waves interacting with the surface, can only exist if there is a change in the elastic properties with depth in a solid medium, always the case in seismological applications. Surface waves travel more than P-waves and S-waves because they are the result of these waves traveling along indirect paths to interact with Earth's surface; because they travel along the surface of the Earth, their energy decays less than body waves, thus the shaking caused by surface waves is stronger than that of body waves.

The primary surface waves are the largest signals on earthquake seismograms. Surface waves are excited when their source is close to the surface, as in a shallow earthquake or a near surface explosion, are much weaker for deep earthquake sources. Both body and surface waves are traveling waves; this ringing is a mixture of normal modes with discrete frequencies and periods of an hour or shorter. Motion caused by a large earthquake can be observed for up to a month after the event; the first observations of normal modes were made in the 1960s as the advent of higher fidelity instruments coincided with two of the largest earthquakes of the 20th century – the 1960 Valdivia earthquake and the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Since the normal modes of the Earth have given us some of the strongest constraints on the deep structure of

Ohio Supreme Court elections

The U. S. state of Ohio has a Supreme Court of seven members. See also: List of Justices of the Ohio Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Ohio Supreme Court Six-year term beginning Jan. 1: 1945, 1951, 1957, 1963, 1969, 1975, 1981, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2005, etc. Elections scheduled: 1944, 1950, 1956, 1962, 1968, 1974, 1980, 1986, 1992, 1998, 2004, etc. BOLD TYPE indicates winning candidate Six-year term beginning Jan. 1: 1945, 1951, 1957, 1963, 1969, 1975, 1981, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2005, etc. Elections scheduled: 1944, 1950, 1956, 1962, 1968, 1974, 1980, 1986, 1992, 1998, 2004, etc. BOLD TYPE indicates winning candidate Six-year term beginning Jan. 2: 1945, 1951, 1957, 1963, 1969, 1975, 1981, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2005, etc. Elections scheduled: 1944, 1950, 1956, 1962, 1968, 1974, 1980, 1986, 1992, 1998, 2004, etc. BOLD TYPE indicates winning candidate Six-year term beginning Jan. 1: 1941, 1947, 1953, 1959, 1965, 1971, 1977, 1983, 1989, 1995, 2001, etc. Elections scheduled: 1940, 1946, 1952, 1958, 1964, 1970, 1976, 1982, 1988, 1994, 2000, etc.

BOLD TYPE indicates winning candidate Six-year term beginning Jan. 2: 1941, 1947, 1953, 1959, 1965, 1971, 1977, 1983, 1989, 1995, 2001, etc. Elections scheduled: 1940, 1946, 1952, 1958, 1964, 1970, 1976, 1982, 1988, 1994, 2000, etc. BOLD TYPE indicates winning candidate Six-year term beginning Jan. 1: 1943, 1949, 1955, 1961, 1967, 1973, 1979, 1985, 1991, 1997, 2003, etc. Elections scheduled: 1942, 1948, 1954, 1960, 1966, 1972, 1978, 1984, 1990, 1996, 2002, etc. BOLD TYPE indicates winning candidate Six-year term beginning Jan. 2: 1943, 1949, 1955, 1961, 1967, 1973, 1979, 1985, 1991, 1997, 2003, etc. Elections scheduled: 1942, 1948, 1954, 1960, 1966, 1972, 1978, 1984, 1990, 1996, 2002, etc. BOLD TYPE indicates winning candidate Under the first constitution, joint sessions of the legislature elected judges to seven-year terms. Elections were in January, with judges seated in February; the state had four judges through this period. Under the second constitution, five judges were elected to five-year terms, with one seat elected each autumn.

The first election was autumn of 1851, with the top five candidates assigned terms by lot. Chief Justice was not chosen by other means. Change of law added a sixth judge for the 1892 election, with term starting February 1893, terms were increased to six years. No elections were held in 1906 or 1907, when the state transitioned to electing two judges each in numbered years and terms of sitting judges were extended to fit the new schedule. Candidates for first election, October 1851: Five-year term beginning February: 1857, 1862, 1867, 1872, 1877, 1882, 1887, 1892, 1897 Elections scheduled: 1856, 1861, 1866, 1871, 1876, 1881, 1886, 1891, 1896 BOLD TYPE indicates winning candidate Five-year term beginning February: 1856, 1861, 1866, 1871, 1876, 1881, 1886, 1891, 1896 Elections scheduled: 1855, 1860, 1865, 1870, 1875, 1880, 1885, 1890, 1895 BOLD TYPE indicates winning candidate Five-year term beginning February: 1855, 1860, 1865, 1870, 1875, 1880, 1885, 1890, 1895 Elections scheduled: 1854, 1859, 1864, 1869, 1874, 1879, 1884, 1889, 1894 BOLD TYPE indicates winning candidate Five-year term beginning February: 1854, 1859, 1864, 1869, 1874, 1879, 1884, 1889, 1894 Elections scheduled: 1853, 1858, 1863, 1868, 1873, 1878, 1883, 1888, 1893 BOLD TYPE indicates winning candidate Five-year term beginning February: 1853, 1858, 1863, 1868, 1873, 1878, 1883, 1888, 1893 Elections scheduled: 1852, 1857, 1862, 1867, 1872, 1877, 1882, 1887, 1892 BOLD TYPE indicates winning candidate Five-year term beginning February: 1893, six-year terms beginning 1898, 1904 Elections scheduled: 1892, 1897, 1903 BOLD TYPE indicates winning candidate Election Results from Ohio Secretary of State Bell, William, Jr..

Annual report of the Secretary of State to the Governor and General Assembly for the year 1875... Ohio Secretary of State. Smith, Joseph P, ed.. History of the Republican Party in Ohio. 1. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. Gilkey, Elliott Howard, ed.. The Ohio Hundred Year Book: a Handbook of the Public Men and Public Institutions of Ohio... State of Ohio. Powell, Thomas Edward, ed.. The Democratic party of the state of Ohio: a comprehensive history. 1. The Ohio Publishing Company

Fort Shirley

Fort Shirley was a fort erected by the Province of Pennsylvania during the French and Indian War. During the mid-1750s, the mountainous ridges and valleys of south central Pennsylvania were an important theater for colliding European and Native American cultures; the "no man's land" of the time, these unsettled forests were located between colonial Philadelphia to the east and the Ohio Country to the west The area, located in the southeastern part of modern-day Huntingdon County lay along new trade routes through the mountains. Before the construction of Fort Shirley, a small trading post built by George Croghan was located along one of the routes. Croghan, an Irish immigrant referred to as the "King of the Traders," made his home in the fertile fields along Aughwick Creek, just north of the modern-day Shirleysburg, it was here that a well-populated settlement, Aughwick Old Town, sprang up adjacent to George Croghan's homestead and trading post. Because of Croghan's presence, the location became an important council place between Natives and the provincial government of Pennsylvania.

Aughwick was chosen as a prime location to keep a safe distance from the French at Fort Duquesne, who put a price on his head, as well as the authorities back east, that would arrest him for bankruptcy since his trading activity was interrupted by the start of the Seven Years' War. In 1754, Washington suffered a defeat and Natives Americans loyal to British, including tribal leader and acquaintance of George Washington, Queen Aliquippa and the Half King sought safety at Aughwick under the care of George Croghan. In 1755, after General Edward Braddock' s defeat George Croghan and followers, including Native Americans, return to Aughwick and in summer months fortify the trading post. In 1756 Armstrong uses the site Fort Shirley, as a staging area to attack Kittanning. In September 1755, Croghan fortified the post after General Edward Braddock's defeat at the Battle of the Monongahela; this was done in order to protect his stores and the 200 Iroquois that had fled there after George Washington's defeat at Fort Necessity.

A few months the post was taken over by Pennsylvania. The post became a small fort that would protect villagers against attacking Natives, would be a launching point for militia expeditions. Shirley along with Forts Granville and Patterson formed a defensive chain that stretched from the lower Juniata River and Aughwick Creek valleys. Croghan's fort was strengthened by provincial troops and named Fort Shirley early in 1756 by the British under Hugh Mercer. After Braddock's defeat, the forts in the Juniata Valley came under attack by several Native tribes, as well as French troops; the worst of these attacks came at Fort Granville on August 3, 1756 when Louis Coulon de Villiers succeeded in taking the outpost, in the process killed the lieutenant in charge of the fort. Fort Shirley served as Colonel John Armstrong's advanced post for the raid on Kittanning in the fall of 1756. Located in Southern Huntingdon County, Aughwick Creek is a tributary of the Juniata River, providing a travel route through the rugged mountains of Pennsylvania's Ridge and Valley Province.

The land north of present-day Shirleysburg occupies prime agricultural ground on the eastern bank of the Aughwick, where the floodplain is wide along the bend in the creek. A small tributary stream, named Fort Run, joins Aughwick Creek at the northern end of a farmed corn field; the story of Fort Shirley cannot be told without elaborating on the life of its "high profile" founder, George Croghan, who had his eye on this land as early as 1747 during his expeditions as a trader. He built a trading post here in 1753 after moving from the Cumberland Valley. Weiser writes: "This famous valley heretofore referred to as Aughwick, is described as being in the extreme southern part of Huntingdon County, one of a series of valleys through whose entire length ran the celebrated path from Kittanning to Philadelphia, being the great western highway for footmen and packhorses"; the Evans Map, dated 1749, guided trade and travel from Philadelphia and Lancaster to the central mountains of Pennsylvania. Of specific interest is the westward route labeled "new trail" that ends just past Black Log.

Croghan's homestead was off the map to the west. Always pushing the envelope of the western frontier, Croghan states in a letter written to Sir William Johnson dated September 10, 1755: "I Live 30 Miles back of all Inhabitance on ye fronteers…". By 1755, Croghan was "hiding out" in the back country of the province, since he lost many assets provisioning Braddock's expedition, in addition to his losses in the Ohio Country during the previous year. An early map of south-central Pennsylvania was produced by John Armstrong in 1755, showed the proposed chain of forts to protect the western frontier. Darlington's 1882 map was copied from Armstrong's map on file at the Public Record Office in London. Croghan was commissioned by the Provincial governor to manage the establishment of this line of forts in 1755, used his existing fort for the defensive location at Aughwick; the European concept of lines of forts was no doubt influenced by local topography, in that their presence facilitated the movement of goods and people through travel arteries and provided fortified refuges in times of hostility.

A similar situation is documented in colonial Massachusetts, wherein a chain of frontier forts traversed a straight-line distance of 38 miles over the rough terrain of the northern Ber

Elias Mallin

Elias Mallin is an American musician, who played drums for metal/post-hardcore band Opiate for the Masses from 1999 until 2005, a band which he had formed with fellow students of the New School for the Arts and Academics. He was one of the founding members of My Darling Murder, a metal band formed with friends Andy Gerold and Tim Kelleher. My Darling Murder broke up in 2006, according to a statement released by the band itself, in the fall of that year, Mallin joined Kill Hannah on the road as their touring drummer, he has since mid-2007 been featured in interviews, photo shoots, press as a full member of Kill Hannah. Although a full-time member in Kill Hannah, Mallin has been performing as the live drummer for Kesha since her Spring 2010 appearance on Saturday Night Live, he performed as the hired gun in Hollywood Undead from late 2009–2010 before joining Kesha forever. Mallin and Kelleher reformed My Darling Murder, with singer Jared Woosely, they recorded an EP with producer Sean Beavan in early 2011.

The Ep was never released. In 2012 Mallin joined platinum selling rock band Filter for a short stint along with super group Fear and the Nervous System. Elias returned to Kesha in late 2012. After Kesha's tour cycle for the Warrior album ended Mallin joined platinum selling pop duo MKTO in February 2014 while recording drums for the new Hollywood Undead album record. In 2015 and 2016 he continued playing with Kesha and MKTO while playing/touring with Andrew Watt, Hayley Kiyoko, others. In 2017 Mallin plays for Noah Cyrus and Julia Michaels and is expected to continue touring with Kesha. Mallin plays a Tama kit, he has stated. On the road with Ke$ha, Elias uses a hybrid kit consisting of his Tama drums and Roland trigger pads. While on tour with Kill Hannah, Hollywood Undead, My Darling Murder, any other act just a 5 piece Tama B/B kit is used. Elias sponsors Tama drums, Paiste cymbals, Vic Firth drum sticks, Evans drum heads. Elias experimented with many drumming styles, including fusion, afro Cuban, metal.

He has cited Tool and drummer Danny Carey as strong influences on his playing style amongst Dave Elitch, Steve Gadd, Chris Coleman. Elias has performed on Saturday Night Live, MTV EMAs, X Factor, American Idol, Conan O'Brien, "MTV Movie Awards", "Radio Disney Music Awards", Jimmy Kimmel Live!, Carson Daly, MTV Japanese VMAs, The Today Show, "The Tonight Show with Jimmy Fallon", "The Billboard Awards", "Late Night With Jimmy Fallon", "Good Morning America", "The View", "Live With Kelly And Michael", "Kid's Choice Awards", "MTV World Stage", Steven's Untitled Rock Show on FUSE, amongst many other award shows, late night television, specialty shows for MTV2, FUSE, MTVU and other national and international television programs. My Darling Murder Kill Hannah Kesha Hollywood Undead 2013 Audio Interview with Elias Mallin from the podcast I'd Hit That

Walter Waring (died 1780)

Walter Waring, was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1755 and 1780. Waring was the son of Robert Waring of Shropshire, he was educated at Shrewsbury School and was admitted at St. John’s College, Cambridge on 8 April 1745, aged 18. In 1755 Waring was returned as Member of Parliament for Bishops Castle through his residence at Owlbury, he is not known to have made any speech during this Parliament. He married Hannah Ranby, daughter of John Ranby, serjeant surgeon to King George II on 18 July 1758. In 1759, he vacated his seat and arranged for Henry Grenville to take his place, in order, it seems, to raise money. Subsequently, his father in law encouraged him to stand at Bishops Castle again in 1763. Lord Clive offered to pay his expenses if he stood down as he was bound to lose, in due course he did lose to Clive’s nephew. In 1768 Waring unsuccessfully contested Coventry, he inherited the estate at Groton, Suffolk from his cousin Thomas Waring in 1769. The estate was considerable, in 1773 he was returned unopposed as Member of Parliament for Coventry.

He contested Coventry in the 1774 British general election but appears to have made little or no contribution in parliament. Waring was buried at Groton. Portrait of Hannah, Daughter of John Ranby Snr c.1748–50 by William Hogarth

Foxwood School, Seacroft

Foxwood School was a Comprehensive school in Seacroft, West Yorkshire, England. It opened in 1956 and closed 40 years in 1996. Foxwood School was the first comprehensive school in Leeds and opened on 4 September 1956 under the Headship of Mr M R Rowlands, it was built as part of the development of the Seacroft Housing Estate which, with a population of about 18,000, is one of the largest council estates in the country. The history of Foxwood is inextricably linked to that of the estate; the school occupied the buildings which became Parklands Girls High School for 2 years, before moving, in 1958, into the completed building on a 32-acre site at the east end of South Parkway, on Brooklands View. The plan was to take 300 boys a year; the school was opened on 5 February 1959 by the Rt Hon. Hugh Gaitskell, MP for Leeds South. Foxwood continued to grow and by 1962 a sixth form had been established and in 1963 the target of 1500 pupils had been reached; the comprehensive system always had its critics but during the 1960s the school demonstrated considerable academic and artistic success.

Pupils gained places at Oxford and Cambridge and other leading Universities, the school produced international football and rugby league players and many of the boys played in local bands. In addition to the usual academic subjects "technical and commercial courses and advanced courses in music and art" were provided. Foxwood changed from an all boys’ school to a mixed one in 1971, during the Headship of Bob Spooner but " the intake of boys was always going to be in excess of girls due to the close proximity of Parklands Girls School, situated within Foxwood’s catchment area". In 1973 Leeds undertook a massive reorganisation of the education system by establishing a first and high school pattern of education which came into force the following year. Foxwood became a high school; the school had difficult challenges in the 1970s in addition to restructuring. Many of the children came from deprived backgrounds and Foxwood was described in a brief biography of one of its teachers, the future MP, Colin Burgon, as “a deprived secondary school in the Seacroft area of East Leeds.”

Bob Spooner was a leading light in the world of education and was known for appointing radical teachers who used innovative teaching methods. He engage with the children. According to Colin Richardson, another teacher at the time, these methods "worked because we got good results with the pupils." During the 1980s falling pupil numbers across the city meant that all Leeds high schools developed surplus places, so in 1986 another plan of major restructuring was launched, middle schools were due to be eliminated with the organisation reverting to the old style pattern of primary and secondary system of education. Under this plan Foxwood was to become a tertiary college for higher education. In 1989 the overall development plan was rejected by the LEA; the school was to remain open but a decision was taken to rename it and give it a fresh image. On 31 August 1992 Foxwood School closed and was renamed East Leeds High School. Two heads dominated the foundation and development of Foxwood and ran the school for more than thirty years.

Matthew Rowlands. He was appointed head teacher, he had been deputy head of Caludon Castle School in Coventry and helped establish the ethos and organisation of the school in its early years. Bob Spooner, he helped develop the school through the 1970s, 1980s, introduced many of the innovations detailed below. After his retirement he wrote several books about his teaching experiences including Lay Stone on Stone: Story of a Comprehensive School, a history of Foxwood School. Foxwood was an innovative school throughout its history; these innovations included: – 1956 First comprehensive school in Leeds. 1964 First Leeds comprehensive school entrant to Oxford. 1965 First school in Leeds to set up its own outdoor centre. 1969 First comprehensive school to abolish corporal punishment. 1969 Staged the first amateur production of Oliver! 1973 One of the first comprehensive schools to abandon school uniform and invite pupils "to dress suitably according to their personal taste." 1978 Mounted its own adventure expedition to remote parts of the Atlas Mountains.

1978 One of the first schools to establish BEC courses. 1981 Set up the Foxwood Steel Band. The school was built with comprehensive facilities for sport – extensive playing fields, cross country and cycling courses, many tennis courts and 3 gyms. Foxwood had "an enviable sporting reputation at local and international level" producing full internationals in football, rugby union and rugby league. Geoff Wraith was the first of many sport's professionals from the school when he signed for Hunslet in 1961 while still at school. In addition to producing outstanding individuals, the school produced successful teams; the major schools football competition in Leeds was the U15 School Cup and, during the school's lifetime, Foxwood won the cup more than any other school. In the early 1970s the school won the football cup competitions in every age-group; as well as the traditional school team sports, Foxwood introduced pupils to a wide variety of other sports. These included Basketball, Boxing, Cyclo-cross, Rock Climbing and Table Tennis.

The Basketball teams had considerable success with, on one occasion, supplying all the players for the Leeds Schools’ Team and in 1970 providing the winning U13 Cup team from a single class. The school formed a cycling club in 1962 and took up Cyclo-cross in 1965. By the followin