Danjong of Joseon
Danjong of Joseon was the sixth king of the Joseon Dynasty. He was forced to abdicate by his uncle, who became Sejo of Joseon, exiled to Yeongwol County, where he was put to death and his remains are buried; the day after his birth, Queen Hyeondeok, died in childbirth. King Danjong succeeded his father, Munjong of Joseon, at the age of 12. Since he was too young to rule, the government of the kingdom fell to the premier, Hwangbo In, his vice-premier, General Kim Jong-seo, with his sister, Princess Gyeonghye acting as his guardian. In 1453, this government was overthrown in a coup led by the king's uncle, Sejo of Joseon, who persuaded a number of scholars and officials who had served in the court of Sejong the Great to support his claim to the throne. Hwangbo In and Kim Jong-seo were murdered in front of the gate of Gyeongbokgung; the following year, six officials of the court attempted to restore him to power, but their plot was discovered and they were executed. Perceiving that he would present a continuing threat to his rule, Sejo accepted the advice of the court and ordered that Danjong be disposed of.
In 1457, he was put to death at his place of exile. Danjong had been stripped of his title at the time he was exiled, was afterwards referred to as "Prince Nosan". In the reign of King Sukjong, scholars at his court proposed that his title be restored, in 1698, the demoted Prince Nosan was posthumously restored, receiving the posthumous name of "Danjong", thereafter was referred to as King Danjong. Father: King Munjong of Joseon Grandfather: King Sejong of Joseon Grandmother: Queen Soheon of the Cheongsong Shim clan Mother: Queen Hyeondeok of the Andong Kwon clan Grandfather: Kwon Jeon Grandmother: Lady Choi of the Haeju Choi clan Sister: Princess Gyeonghye Consorts and their Respective Issue:Queen Jeongsun of the Yeosan Song clan Consort Suk-Ui of the Sangsan Kim clan Consort Suk-Ui of the Andong Kwon clan King Danjong Gongeui Onmun Sunjeong Anjang Gyungsun Donhyo the Great of Korea 단종공의온문순정안장경순돈효대왕 端宗恭懿溫文純定安莊景順敦孝大王 Portrayed by Lee Min-woo in the 1983 MBC TV series 500 Years of Joseon:Tree with deep roots.
Portrayed by Jung Tae-woo in the 1998-2000 KBS TV series King and Queen. Portrayed by Noh Tae-yeob in the 2011 KBS2 TV series The Princess' Man. Portrayed by Chae Sang-woo in the 2011 JTBC TV series Insu, The Queen Mother and the 2013 film The Face Reader. List of Korean monarchs Joseon Dynasty politics List of Korea-related topics
Jeongjo of Joseon
Jeongjo of Joseon was the 22nd ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea. He made various attempts to improve the nation of Korea, he was succeeded by his son King Sunjo. Some say Jeongjo is one of the most successful and visionary rulers of the Joseon Dynasty ushering it into a Golden AgeTemplate:Https://www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctt1s17p7t. Born as Yi San, he was the son of Crown Prince Lady Hyegyeong, his only elder brother Crown Prince Uiso died in childhood, he was secure of throne successions. His mother Lady Hyegyeong's collection of memoirs serves as a significant source of historical information on the political happenings during the reigns of King Yeongjo, King Jeongjo, King Sunjo. In 1762, his father, Crown Prince Sado, was publicly executed by King Yeongjo, Sado's father and Yi San's grandfather, after long time conflicts and Sado's years of mental illness. Crown Prince Sado opposed the ruling party Noron party. Eight years Yi San asked to visit Sado's living quarter but his Grandfather King Yeongjo refused.
So he refused to attend Crown Prince Sado's funeral. In February 21, 1764, Yi San became the adoptive son of Crown Prince Hyojang by the order of King Yeongjo. Crown Prince Hyojang was the elder half-brother of Crown Prince Sado. Crown Prince Hyojang though, had died during his childhood. King Yeongjo made Yi San a part of Hyojang's family because he was concerned that Yi San, Sado's son and successor. Would be opposed. Noron would pose a problem, say that Yi San was the Son of a prisoner or Son of a psycho and thus would become ineligible to succeed the throne, rendered King Yeongjo worried for an extended period. After 1762 to 1777, some members of Noron attempted to deport Jeongjo for his relation to Crown Prince Sado's title, thus succeeding the thrones, there was access to Prince Eunjeon and Prince Euneon, Prince Eunshin, they were his half-brothers. His grand uncle Hong In-han and Chung Hu-kyom, adopted; when he was the Crown Prince, King Jeongjo met Hong Guk-yeong, a controversial politician who first supported Jeongjo's accession and toiled to improve the king's power, but ended up being expelled because of his desire for power.
Another helper was Kim Jong-su, he was one member of Noron but he was principled. In 1775, one year before King Yeongjo's death, King Yeongjo was appointed regent for him Yeongjo gave o military power for him. Jeongjo spent much of his reign trying to clear his father's name, he moved the court to the city of Suwon to be closer to his father's grave. He built Hwaseong Fortress to guard the tomb, it is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The era before his rule was in disorder as his father was killed by royal decree of his own father, King Jeongjo's grandfather. King Yeongjo's ultimate decision to execute Crown Prince Sado was influenced by other politicians who were against the Crown Prince. After King Yeongjo's death and on the day that Jeongjo became the King of Joseon, he sat on his throne in the throne room and looked at everyone and said, "I am the son of the late Crown Prince Sado..." This was a bold statement that sent shivers down the spines of all the politicians who were complicit in his father's death.
During his accession, he issued a royal decree that his mother, Lady Hyegyeong, be a Dowager Queen since his father, her husband, was supposed to be the King before him. Thus, she became the widow of Crown Prince Sado. From on, King Jeongjo experienced many turbulent periods, but overcame them with the aid of Hong Guk-yeong, Kim Chong-su. In 1776, Hong Sang-beom, Hong Kye-neung and other some member of Noron was attempted of a military coup d'etat and kill him, but there plans was exposed early; some assassins were secretly in royal palace but Jeongjo repulsed assassins and arrested a suspect. Jeongjo executed Hong Sang-beom, Hong Kye-neung, other some member of Norons, but put to death Prince Eunjeon, Hong In-han, Chung Hu-kyom. In 1785 he erected Changyongyeong, this is the King's royal bodyguards. Before In 1782, Jeongjo selected by competitive examination some officers, who were organized into the unit of Changyongyeong. Before this time was the Naekeunwe, royal bodyguards of Joseon dynasties created by Taejong of Joseon in 1407.
But Jeongjo mistrusted the Naekeumwi, so he created Changyonegyeong. King Jeongjo led the new renaissance of the Joseon Dynasty, but was stopped by continuing the policy of Yeongjo's Tangpyeong rule, he tried to control the politics of the whole nation to further national progress. He made various reforms throughout his reign, notably establishing a royal library; the primary purpose of Kyujanggak was to improve the cultural and political stance of Joseon and to recruit gifted officers to help run the nation. Jeongjo spearheaded bold new social initiatives, including opening government positions to those who were barred because of their social status, he had philosophy, Neo-Confucianism. One of the King's gentlemen, Kim Jong-su, imprinted onto the king and in tandem became a great father and a great teacher for him, he read various books. Jeongjo had the support of the many Silhak scholars who supported Jeongjo's regal power, including Scholars Jeong Yak-yong, Pak Ji-won, Pak Je-ga and Yu Deuk-gong.
His reign saw the further growth
Jungjong of Joseon
Jungjong of Joseon, born Yi Yeok or Lee Yeok, ruled during the 16th century in what is now Korea. He succeeded his half-brother, because of the latter's tyrannical misrule, which culminated in a coup placing Jungjong on the throne. On the day Yeonsangun was deposed, soldiers belonging to the coup leaders surrounded the house of his half-brother Grand Prince Jinseong, he was about to kill himself, thinking that Yeonsangun was going to kill him. Jungjong worked hard to wipe out the remnants of the Yeonsangun era by reopening the Seonggyungwan, royal university, Office of Censors, which criticizes inappropriate actions of the king. However, during the early days of his reign, Jungjong could not exert regal authority because those who put him on the throne exercised immense power; when the three main leaders of coup died of old age and natural causes eight years Jungjong began to assert his authority and carried out a large-scale reformation of the government with help of Jo Gwang-jo and other Sarim scholars.
Jo Gwang-jo strengthened local autonomy by establishing a self-governing system called Hyang'yak, promoted Confucian writings by translating them into Korean hangul and distributing them pursued a land reform that would distribute land more between the rich and poor, introduced a supplementary system for recruiting talents to the government. He believed that any talented people, including slaves, should be appointed as officials regardless of social status; as Inspector General, he enforced the laws so that no official dared to receive a bribe or exploit the local populace during this time according to Annals of the Joseon Dynasty. However, the reforms faced much opposition from conservative nobles who led the coup in 1506 that placed Jungjong in power. After four years of reformist agenda, Jungjong abruptly abandoned Jo Gwang-jo's programs because he either lost confidence in Jo's programs or feared that Jo was becoming too powerful. While Jungjong and Jo Gwang-jo shared the reformist agenda, Jungjong was chiefly interested in solidifying royal authority whereas the latter was more concerned with neo-Confucian ideology, according to which those who rule must be a virtuous example to the rest.
In November 1519, when conservative officials slandered Jo Gwang-jo to be disloyal by writing "Jo will become the king" with honey on leaves so that caterpillars left behind the same phrase as if in supernatural manifestation, Jungjong executed Jo Gwang-jo on charge of factionalism and exiled many of his followers, abruptly abandoning his reforms. This incident is known as Gimyo massacre of scholars. After Jo Gwang-jo's fall, King Jungjong never had the chance to rule on his own, his reign was marked by tumultuous struggle among various conservative factions, each of them backed by one of the King's queens or concubines. In 1524 the conservative factions collided with each other, one faction deposing the corrupt official Kim Anro. Kim Anro's followers took their revenge in 1527 by intriguing against Consort Park, one of the King's concubines, which led to her execution along with her son Prince Bokseong. Kim Anro came back to power and took revenge on his enemies until he was removed from government and executed by the new queen's brothers, Yun Wonro and Yun Wonhyeong.
However, Yun Im, ally of Kim Anro, was able to keep his nephew as crown prince since the new queen, Queen Munjeong, did not have a son until later. Injong would be declared the crown prince, his uncle Yun Im competed for power with the Queen Munjeong's brothers, Yun Won-hyeong and Yun Won-ro. Many officials and scholars gathered around the two centers of power and each group developed into separate political factions. Yun Im's faction became known as ‘Greater Yun’ and the Yun brothers' faction as ‘Lesser Yun’, their conflict led to the Fourth Literati Purge of 1545 after Jungjong's death. As the dynasty weakened as a consequence of the continual internal conflict, foreign powers driven away by earlier monarchs returned with much greater effect. Wokou pirates and privateers plundered southern coastal regions, while the Jurchens attacked the northern frontier numerous times, bleeding the army dry. Jungjong was a good and able administrator during the reform period led by Jo Gwang-jo. However, historians judge that he was a fundamentally weak king due to circumstances of his ascension to throne, too swayed by both Jo Gwang-jo and conservative ministers who placed him on the throne.
Sometimes he was seen as a tragic figure who never wanted to be a king but was forced to become one and depose his loving queen under the pressure of the coup leaders, who killed her father during the coup. More some historians have suggested that Jungjong was not manipulated by his ministers and in-laws, but rather used them to get rid of one another to strengthen regal authority albeit not so successfully. In either case, his reign was marred by much confusion, violence and court intrigues, he has been criticized for allowing the Third Literati Purge of 1519 and executing Jo Gwang-jo and others on framed charges. In the early days of reform, Jungjong encouraged the publishing of many books, he tried to improve self-government of local areas and succeeded in reforming the civil service examination. In the latter days of his reign, he realized the importance of defense and encouraged military service. Father: King Seongjong of Joseon (20 August 1457 – 20 January
House of Yi
The House of Yi or Korean Imperial Household called the Yi Dynasty or known as Yi clan of Jeonju, is the household of Joseon and the Korean Empire, consisting of the descendants of Yi Seonggye, the founder of Joseon, known by his posthumous name, Taejo. All his descendants are members of the Yi clan of Jeonju, including the imperial family of the Korean Empire. After the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910, in which the Empire of Japan annexed the Korean Peninsula, some members of the Yi clan of Jeonju were mediatised into the Imperial House of Japan and the Japanese peerage by the Japanese government until 1947, just before the Constitution of Japan was promulgated. Under the 11th Article of the Constitution of South Korea, the Korean government does not acknowledge any form of privileged caste since its promulgation in 1948, they continue to attract occasional media attention in South Korea. This happened most with the July 2005 funeral of Yi Gu, former head of the royal household. Since the death of Yi Gu, Prince Imperial Hoeun in 2005, the succession of the title for the head of the Yi clan has been disputed.
The Imperial Grandsons Association, run by members of the family and the city of Jeonju, home of the Yi Dynasty, considers Prince Yi Seok as the head of the family. Another organization formed by Yi Won in 2012. Yi Hae-won, second daughter of the Prince Yi Kang, made a counter-claim as the "Empress of Korea" in a private ceremony organized by her followers in a hotel room. In the 19th century tensions mounted between China and Japan, culminating in the First Sino-Japanese War. Much of this war was fought on the Korean Peninsula. Japan, after the Meiji Restoration, acquired Western military technology, forced Joseon to sign the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876 after the Ganghwa Island incident, it established a strong economic presence on the peninsula, heralding the beginning of Japanese imperial expansion in East Asia. The Chinese defeat in the 1894 war led to the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which guaranteed Korea's independence from China; the treaty granted Japan direct control over Korean politics. The Joseon court in 1894, pressured by encroachment from larger powers, felt the need to reinforce national integrity and declared the Korean Empire.
King Gojong assumed the title of Emperor in order to assert Korea's independence by putting himself on the same level as the Chinese Emperors. In addition, other foreign powers were approached for military technology Russia, in order to fend off the Japanese. Technically, 1894 marks the end of the Joseon period. For example, the 1895 assassination of the emperor's consort, Queen Min orchestrated by Japanese general Miura Gorō because the Korean empress was effective in keeping Japan at bay. In 1910, the Japanese annexation of the Korean peninsula ended rule by the House of Yi; the collapse of the Russian navy in the historic battle of Port Arthur, led to a great weakening of Korea's umbrella of protection. The combined effect on China of the opium wars in the south and Japanese naval strikes in the north led the Japanese to see Korea as a strategic foothold leading into northern China, just as Macau and Hong Kong had been Portuguese and English trade enclaves in southern China. In a complicated series of manoeuvres and counter-manoeuvres, Japan pushed back the Russian fleet in 1905.
Both the fleets of China and Russia had given Korea sufficient protection to prevent a direct invasion, but this ambuscade of the Russian fleet gave Japan free rein over north China, Korea was left at the mercy of the new regional naval power Japan. Korea became a protectorate of Japan in 1895 when Japan forced Emperor Gojong to abdicate and Japanese assassinated his consort. Japan annexed the country in 1910, Korea became a colony of Imperial Japan. During the colonial rule, the members of Yi family were mediatised into the royal family or made Korean nobles. Emperor Gojong had nine sons and four daughters, but only three princes, as well as one princess: the second son, Crown Prince Cheok; the second son, became Emperor Sunjong, the last monarch of the Korean Empire. Since Emperor Sunjong died without issue, his younger brother, Prince Eun became the crown prince, his elder brother, Prince Kang, should have taken the position, but was passed over because Eun's mother, Princess Sunheon, had a higher status in the court than Kang's mother, Lady Chang.
After Emperor Sunjong died in 1926, Crown Prince Eun was called "King Yi of Korea", a nominal title because the country had lost its sovereignty to Japan. Crown Prince Eun married Japanese noblewoman Princess Masako Nashimoto, known as Yi Bangja, a member of the Miyake cadet family; some Koreans accused Japan that Princess Bangja, once one of three candidates considered to for the bride of the Japanese emperor, was instead designated as Eun's wife because a medical test indicated she could be barren. As a result, some media claimed the arranged marriage was Japan's imperialist conspiracy to terminate the Korean imperial lineage. However, Princess Bangja gave birth to Yi Jin in 1921 and Yi Gu in 1931. After Korea's liberation in 1945, President Syngman Rhee suppressed the imperial family in order to prevent the restoration of the monarchy as he feared that its return would challenge his emerging authority as the new republic's founding father. Rhee seized an
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea
Seong Sammun was a scholar-official of early Joseon who rose to prominence in the court of King Sejong the Great. He was executed after being implicated in a plot to dethrone King Sejo and restore his predecessor King Danjong, is known as one of the sayuksin with reference to this plot. Seong Sammun was born in Hongseong, South Chungcheong province to a yangban family of the Changnyeong Seong lineage, he passed the lower examination at the regular triennial administration in 1438. He soon gained the favor of King Sejong, was appointed to the Hall of Worthies. From 1442 to 1446, he cooperated with other members of that body to compose the Hunmin Jeongeum, in which the hangul alphabet was first presented to the world; the level of his involvement in the creation of the Korean alphabet Hangul is disputed, although he and other scholars were sent on trips to consult with a Ming Chinese phoneticist several times because one of the first uses the new alphabet was put to was to transcribe the sounds of hanja, or Sino-Korean characters.
In 1447, Seong achieved the highest score on the higher literary examination. In 1455, Prince Suyang forced the young King Danjong, his nephew, to abdicate, taking the throne instead as King Sejo. Following secret orders from his father Seong Seung, Seong Sammun along with Bak Jungrim, Bak Paengnyeon and others plotted to assassinate the new king and restore King Danjong to the throne; the plot was exposed and the plotters all arrested. Seong Sammun and his father were executed along with other plotters. Before his execution, Seong Sammun condemned the king as a pretender; the sayuksin and the saengyuksin, who refused to accept King Sejo as the legitimate king, were praised by generations for holding fast to the Confucian value of staying loyal to the true king. He made several poems before his execution; the following is his death poem. 擊鼓催人命 -둥둥 북소리는 내 생명을 재촉하고, 回頭日欲斜 -머리를 돌여 보니 해는 서산으로 넘어 가려고 하는구나 黃泉無一店 -황천으로 가는 길에는 주막조차 없다는데, 今夜宿誰家 -오늘밤은 뉘 집에서 잠을 자고 갈거나 As the sound of drum calls for my life, I turn my head where the sun is about to set.
In the afterlife, there is not a single inn This night, at whose house shall I rest? Another poem in prison written in sijo format Another poem Portrayed by Hyun Woo in the 2011 SBS TV series Deep Rooted Tree. Joseon Dynasty politics History of Korea List of Korea-related topics List of Joseon Dynasty people Shrine of Seong Sam-mun in Hongseong County Biography 신숙주가 본 ‘죽마고우’ 성삼문 from Dong-a Ilbo
Joseon dynasty was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for five centuries. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897, it was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul; the kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the rivers of Amnok and Tuman through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty. During its reign, Joseon encouraged the entrenchment of Chinese Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society. Neo-Confucianism was installed as the new dynasty's state ideology. Buddhism was accordingly discouraged and faced persecutions by the dynasty. Joseon consolidated its effective rule over the territory of current Korea and saw the height of classical Korean culture, trade and science and technology. However, the dynasty was weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when the Japanese invasions of Korea in the 1590s and the first and second Manchu invasions nearly overran the Korean Peninsula, leading to an harsh isolationist policy, for which the country became known as the "hermit kingdom" in Western literature.
After the end of invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. However, whatever power the kingdom recovered during its isolation further waned as the 18th century came to a close, faced with internal strife, power struggles, international pressure and rebellions at home, the Joseon dynasty declined in the late 19th century; the Joseon period has left a substantial legacy to modern Korea. By the late 14th century, the nearly 500-year-old Goryeo established in 918 was tottering, its foundations collapsing from years of war and de facto occupation from the disintegrating Mongol Empire. Following the emergence of the Ming dynasty, the royal court in Goryeo split into two conflicting factions: the group led by General Yi and the camp led by General Choe. Goryeo claimed to be the successor of the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo; when a Ming messenger came to Goryeo in 1388, the 14th year of U of Goryeo, to demand that Goguryeo's former northern territory be handed over to Ming China, General Choe seized the chance to argue for an attack on the Liaodong Peninsula.
Yi was chosen to lead the attack. He killed King U and his son after a failed restoration and forcibly placed a royal named Yi on the throne. In 1392, Yi eliminated Jeong Mong-ju respected leader of a group loyal to Goryeo dynasty, dethroned King Gongyang, exiling him to Wonju, before he ascended the throne; the Goryeo Dynasty had come to an end after 500 years of rule. In the beginning of his reign, Yi Seonggye, now ruler of Korea, intended to continue use of the name Goryeo for the country he ruled and change the royal line of descent to his own, thus maintaining the façade of continuing the 500-year-old Goryeo tradition. However, after numerous threats of mutiny from the drastically weakened but still influential Gwonmun nobles, who continued to swear allegiance to the remnants of the Goryeo and now the demoted Wang clan, the consensus in the reformed court was that a new dynastic title was needed to signify the change. In naming the new dynasty, Taejo contemplated two possibilities - "Hwaryeong" and "Joseon".
After much internal deliberation, as well as endorsement by the neighboring Ming dynasty's emperor, Taejo declared the name of the kingdom to be Joseon, a tribute to the ancient Korean state of Gojoseon. He moved the capital to Hanyang from Kaesong; when the new dynasty was promulgated and brought into existence, Taejo brought up the issue of which son would be his successor. Although Yi Bangwon, Taejo's fifth son by Queen Sineui, had contributed most to assisting his father's rise to power, the prime minister Jeong Do-jeon and Nam Eun used their influence on King Taejo to name his eighth son Grand Prince Uian as crown prince in 1392; this conflict arose because Jeong Dojeon, who shaped and laid down ideological and legal foundations of the new dynasty more than anyone else, saw Joseon as a kingdom led by ministers appointed by the king while Yi Bangwon wanted to establish the absolute monarchy ruled directly by the king. With Taejo's support, Jeong Dojeon kept limiting the royal family's power by prohibiting political involvement of princes and attempting to abolish their private armies.
Both sides were getting ready to strike first. After the sudden death of Queen Sindeok, while King Taejo was still in mourning for his second wife, Yi Bangwon struck first by raiding the palace and killed Jeong Dojeon and his supporters as well as Queen Sindeok's two sons including the crown prince in 1398; this incident became known as the First Strife of Princes. Aghast at the fact that his sons were willing to kill each other for the crown, psychologically exhausted from the death of