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Selangor

Selangor known by its Arabic honorific Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity", is one of the 13 states of Malaysia. It is on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and is bordered by Perak to the north, Pahang to the east, Negeri Sembilan to the south and the Strait of Malacca to the west. Selangor surrounds the federal territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya, both of which were part of it; the state capital of Selangor is Shah Alam and its royal capital is Klang. Petaling Jaya and Subang Jaya received city status in 2019, respectively. Selangor is one of four Malaysian states; the state of Selangor has the largest economy in Malaysia in terms of gross domestic product, with RM 239.968 billion in 2015, comprising 22.6% of the country's GDP. It is the most developed state in Malaysia; the origin of the name Selangor is uncertain. A common suggestion is that the name refers to the Malay word langau, a large fly or blowfly, found in the marshes along the Selangor River in the state's north-west. According to local lore, a warrior who escaped from Malacca after the Portuguese conquest, took a break from his journey north and rested under a tree here.

However, he was disturbed by whereupon he decided to explore the area. When he found the place to be his liking and chose to settle there, he named the place "satu langau" meaning "a large blowfly". Another suggestion is that the name may have originate from a kind of tree found in Kuala Selangor and along Selangor River named mentangau. In the absence of a firm etymological explanation, alternative theories abound. One theory claims the state's name is derived from the term Salang Ur where ur means "town" or "village" in Tamil, meaning village of the salang people, it has been proposed that the name is derived from a combination of salang and jemur, indicating that it was once a place where traitors were stabbed left to roast in the sun. Tho most important settlement of the area in the ancient period may have been Klang. Ancient artefacts including Bronze Age axes and bronze bell dating from the 2nd century BC, iron tools called "tulang mawas" have been found in or near Klang; the Mao Kun map dating to the Ming dynasty and used by the Admiral Zheng He during his voyages of expedition between 1405 and 1433 refers to places in Selangor such as the Klang River estuary and a hilly area.

The Malay Annals indicates that the Selangor area was under the control of the Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th century. According to the Malay Annals, Tun Perak was appointed the chief of Klang during the reign of Muzaffar Shah; the son of Mansur Shah and Hang Li Po named Paduka Sri Cina was made raja of Jeram near Langat, which may be due to the presence of Chinese miners there. After the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese in 1511, the area came under the control of Johor Sultanate and was governed by Sri Agar Diraja, son of the Bendahara family of Johor. In the 17th century, Johor was involved in a war against Jambi, the Sultan of Johor engaged the help of Bugis mercenaries from Sulawesi to fight against Jambi. After Johor won in 1679, the Bugis started to gain power in the region. Many Bugis began to migrate and settled along the coast of Selangor such as the estuaries of Selangor and Klang rivers; some Minangkabaus may have settled in Selangor by the 17th century earlier. The Bugis and the Minangkabaus from Sumatra struggled for control of Johor.

In order to establish a power base, the Bugis led by Raja Salehuddin founded the present hereditary Selangor Sultanate with its capital at Kuala Selangor in 1766. Selangor is unique as the only state on the Malay Peninsula, founded by the Bugis. In the 19th century, the economy of Selangor boomed due to the exploitation of its tin reserves. In 1854, the Sultan of Selangor granted Raja Abdullah control of Klang, passing over Raja Mahdi, the son of the chief who ruled Klang, which led to the Selangor Civil War fought between 1867 and 1874; the war between the Malay factions was partly a struggle for control of the revenues from tin. Tin mining had attracted a large influx of Chinese migrant labourers, Chinese clans allied with Selangor chiefs joined the civil war; the conflicts between Malay and Chinese factions in Perak and Selangor, as well as concerns over piracy that affected coastal trade, led to increasing British involvement in the affairs of the Malay states. In 1874, Sultan Abdul Samad of Selangor accepted a British Resident in a system that allowed the British to govern while the Sultan remained the apparent ruler.

Klang was the capital of the British colonial administration for Selangor from 1875 until 1880 when it was moved to Kuala Lumpur. Under the stability imposed by the British, Selangor again prospered. In 1896 through the coordination of the Resident Frank Swettenham, Selangor united with Negeri Sembilan and Pahang to form the Federated Malay States, with Kuala Lumpur its capital; the Federated Malay States evolved into the Federation of Malaya in 1948, which became independent in 1957 and was renamed Malaysia i

Jérémy Marie

Jérémy Marie is a French traveler and the author of the travel book Mon tour du monde en 1980 jours, that describes his world tour by hitchhiking that he accomplished between 8 October 2007 and 12 March 2013. Jérémy Marie grew up in the suburbs of Rouen in France until 2004, when he decided to go to live for one year in Llandrindod Wells in Wales in order to learn the English language; when he came back in 2005, he traveled around Europe by hitchhiking, going from France to the Baltic states. In 2006, he did a tour of France by hitchhiking, before to begin his world tour in 2007. 8 October 2007, Jérémy Marie started his world tour by hitchhiking from Caen in Lower Normandy. His itinerary took him first across Europe and the Balkans on the way to Turkey, he decided to continue his journey through the Middle East and towards Africa, that he crossed on its eastern side all the way to South Africa. In January 2008, he left the city of Cape Town as a crew member on a delivering catamaran and sailed across the Atlantic Ocean all the way to Panama City, that he reached in March 2008.

He went back on the road on the way to North America, crossing Central America, the United States up to Alaska went down to South America all the way to Ushuaia. In March 2010, he boarded in Cartagena, Colombia the sailing boat Khamsin as a crew member and crossed the Pacific Ocean to Auckland in New Zealand; this journey that Jérémy Marie claimed to have done by "boat-hitchhiking" took him during four months to the Galápagos Islands, the Marquesas Islands, to Tahiti, Niue, to Nuku'alofa in Tonga and to New Zealand. From Auckland, he kept hitchhiking this time by Container ship to Brisbane in Australia from Darwin, Northern Territory he hitchhiked a plane to Bali in Indonesia, he travelled around Southeast Asia, Central Asia and Europe again to complete his world tour where he started it, in Caen 12 March 2013. During his world tour by hitchhiking, Jérémy Marie traveled 180,700 kilometers, using 1752 different vehicles and entering 71 countries and territories ·. During a part of his journey, he communicated with the students of the Primary school Le Clos Herbert in Caen in order to share the information that he was collecting on the road.

While he traveled in Bali, Jérémy Marie met his Indonesian wife Herdiwati Sidabutar, with whom he lives today ·. Mon tour du monde en 1980 jours, City Éditions Official Website of the world tour by hitchhiking of Jérémy Marie

Mercedes Baptista

Mercedes Baptista was a Brazilian ballet dancer and choreographer, the first black woman to join Theatro Municipal do Rio de Janeiro's corps de ballet. Baptista was responsible for the creation of the Afro-Brazilian ballet, inspired by the candomblé terreiros, elaborating a codification and vocabulary proper for these dances. Mercedes Batista was born in Campos dos Goytacazes. From a humble background, she moved to Rio de Janeiro, where she had several jobs, but it was as box office clerk in a movie theater that she had the dream to work in the arts She attended a municipal school at Tijuca neighborhood, Colégio Municipal Homem de Mello, she began her ballet studies with the dancer Eros Volúsia a teacher at the Serviço Nacional de Teatro. On March 18, 1948, in a difficult selection test, she was approved to join the ballroom of the Municipal Theater, being the first black woman to obtain it and, along with Raul Soares who attended this contest, one of the two black people there. Despite this, she suffered constant discrimination, to the point of not being able to work.

The problems came after that. I got myself excluded of everything and if I put a doormat covering my face, they would not let me step on the scene. I only once crossed the stage wearing pointed sneakers, still in the background. " - to which she sought to circumvent, as she said on another occasion: "Everything was always difficult, but who would assume or make it clear that part of my difficulties was because I was not white? They would never tell me this, or say that the problem was racial, but I knew it was, so I always struggled every time to try to perfect myself. " She the went to join the Teatro Experimental do Negro as a dancer as collaborator and as a choreographer. Invited by choreographer and anthropologist Katherine Dunham, creator of the first all-African-American modern dance company, Baptista went to that country where she took classes in modern dance and took part in the civil rights movement. Back in Brazil, she founded the Ballet Folclórico Mercedes Baptista, dedicated to the formation of black dancers, who researched and incorporated Afro-Brazilian culture into their work and movements, gaining prominence in the artistic scene and touring throughout Europe and Latin America.

In 1963 she elaborated the choreography of the samba school Acadêmicos do Salgueiro, pioneered in its comissão de frente elements of classical dance." Suffering from diabetes and heart problems, Mercedes died at the age of 93 in the retirement home where she lived in the Copacabana neighborhood, her body was cremated at the Memorial do Carmo. Baptista was honored by Rio samba schools Acadêmicos do Cubango, in 2008, Unidos de Vila Isabel, in 2009, she was the subject of a documentary film in 2007, Balé de Pé no Chão – A dança afro de Mercedes Baptista, directed by Lílian Sola Santiago and Marianna Monteiro. In 2016 a sculpture of her was erected at Rio's port zone, sculpted by Mario Pitanguy. Mercedes Baptista: a criação da identidade negra na dança, Paulo Melgaço, Fundação Cultural Palmares, 2007