click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Selawik, Alaska

Selawik is a city in Northwest Arctic Borough, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 829, up from 772 in 2000. Selawik comes from "siilvik". Selawik is located at 66°35′49″N 160°0′49″W. Selawik is located at the mouth of the Selawik River where it empties into Selawik Lake, about 112 km southeast of Kotzebue. Selawik is near the Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, a breeding and resting area for migratory waterfowl. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.4 square miles, of which, 2.5 square miles of it is land and 0.9 square miles of it is water. Selawik first appeared on the 1880 U. S. Census as the unincorporated Inuit village of "Selawigamute." All 100 residents were Inuit. It did not appear again on the census until that time as Selawik, it has appeared on every successive census to date. It formally incorporated in 1963; as of the census of 2000, there were 772 people, 172 households, 147 families residing in the city. The population density was 306.1 people per square mile.

There were 188 housing units at an average density of 74.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 3.24% White, 0.13% Black or African American, 94.82% Native American, 0.78% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 0.91% from two or more races. 0.13% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 172 households out of which 68.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 29.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 14.5% were non-families. 12.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.49 and the average family size was 4.78. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 48.1% under the age of 18, 12.7% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 10.6% from 45 to 64, 5.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 19 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $25,625, the median income for a family was $27,639. Males had a median income of $50,278 versus $40,417 for females; the per capita income for the city was $8,170. About 34.6% of families and 34.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.2% of those under age 18 and 22.7% of those age 65 or over. A Lt. Lavrenty Zagoskin of the Imperial Russian Navy first reported the village in the 1840s as "Chilivik." In his census study in 1880, Ivan Petrof counted 100 "Selawigamute" people. Around 1908, the village site had church; the village now has expanded across the Selawik River onto three banks, linked by bridges. The Davis-Ramoth Memorial School, operated by the Northwest Arctic Borough School District, serves the community; as of 2017 it had about 270 students, with Alaska Natives making up the majority

Jim Buntine

Gladys Selby "Jim" Buntine was the Australian Chief Commissioner of Girl Guides from 1962 until 1968. Spurling was born at Victoria, she attended Merton Hall from 1913 until 1917 and a finishing school at Vallois, France. Spurling married Dr Arnold Buntine on 17 May 1926; the couple were known as Arnold and Jim and they had two sons. Her husband was a schoolmaster who became a headmaster and as he rose professionally she became an "ideal Headmaster’s wife". From the early 1930s, Jim Buntine became involved in the Girl Guides movement in Western Australia. After moving to back to the eastern states, she became a member of the Victorian State council and in Sydney from 1962 until 1968 she was chief commissioner for Australia. Buntine attended world guiding events in Denmark, Malaya and India and, in 1967, she escorted the world chief guide on an Australian tour. Two decades after her husband's death Buntine died at Kilsyth Retirement Village, Victoria. Member of the Order of the British Empire in recognition of service to the welfare of youth Officer of the Order of the British Empire in recognition of service as Chief Commissioner of the Girl Guides Association Silver Fish Award awarded for outstanding service to Girl guiding combined with service to world Guiding

Cha Cha Malone

Chase Vincent Malone, more known as Cha Cha Malone, is an American singer, music producer, songwriter and member of b-boy crew Art of Movement, from Seattle, Washington. Malone is known for his work with Korean-American singer and fellow AOMG member, Jay Park, which began in 2010 with online hits "Bestie" and "Speechless", has produced nine tracks for his multi-platinum and award-winning works, Take A Deeper Look and New Breed. In 2011, Malone released an EP, through iTunes and Bandcamp. Aside from collaborations with Park, Malone has produced and worked with many other artists in South Korea, including Red Velvet, Cho Seungyoun, Kara, Dok2, The Quiett, Brian Joo, U-KISS, Nu'est, One, B1A4 and Baekhyun. Malone's distinctive producer tag, the phrase'I need a cha cha beat boy', is associated with Jay Park's music. Malone was born in Washington, to a Filipino mother and an African-American father, he was raised by his mother and his grandmother played a huge role in his life. Malone's first passion was art and illustration, from a young age this became his creative outlet.

At age 7, Malone began playing the piano by ear, was influenced by his mother, who used to write songs and sing in a band. Malone used to write rap verses in third grade, was first introduced to the use of modern technology in beat making when he stumbled upon an early version of FL Studio on a friend's computer in 2000, has participated in online beat battles at Rocbattle. At age 12, in middle school, Malone entered the world of b-boying with friends at Seattle-based b-boy crew, Art of Movement, in 2006 he appeared in Season 6 episode 19 of MTV's Made. Malone graduated from The Art Institute of Seattle in 2009, earning a B. F. A. in Media Arts and Animation, was interested in working in the field of concept art and visual development. Malone found he was always making time to create music during his studies when classes were long and homework was draining. In 2009, Malone sent friend and fellow Art of Movement member, Jay Park, who had returned to Seattle from South Korea, a folder of beats to see if he was interested in collaborating.

Since Malone and Park formed a strong partnership into the producing music and writing songs. In October 2010, the pair's first works were released online. 2011 saw further successful collaborations between Malone and Park, in which Malone produced four of the seven tracks, including the title track, "Abandoned", on Park's EP, Take A Deeper Look, which went on to win a Golden Disk Award. In 2011, Malone produced and wrote his own EP, with title track, "I Still", a self-inspired and heart-capturing track which Malone calls one of his favourites. Malone hosted Myx TV's Top 10 countdown for a week in 2011. Malone released "Single Life", which featured Park, as a free download in September 2011. In 2012, Malone began working with an increasing number of K-pop artists and groups alongside Park, became a member of production team, Iconic Sounds LLC, who have worked on albums such as The Boys by Girls' Generation, Only One by BoA. February 2012 saw the release of Park's first studio album, New Breed, in which Malone produced five tracks.

The album went multi-platinum with 100,000+ physical sales in South Korea, peaking at number 1 on the Gaon Album Chart and on international iTunes R&B/Soul charts. Malone and Park produced and wrote "Can't Stop", released in Korean and English, which featured Park, for Brian Joo's 2012 EP, ReBorn Part 1. Malone and Park worked together on "4U" for U-KISS' sixth EP, DoraDora, on new K-pop girl group Tiny-G's song "Polaris" through South Korea television show, MBC's Music & Lyrics, which starred Jay Park and Lee Si-young. Malone produced three tracks for Park's 2012 mixtape, Fresh Air: Breathe It, including the title track "BODY2BODY", featured and wrote the track "Hopeless Love". In October 2012, Malone produced "One Love" for South Korean boy band B1A4's 2012 debut Japanese album, 1. 2012 saw Malone working with American Idol contestant and fellow Seattleite, Mackenzie Thoms. Extended playsBreakthrough Singles"Speechless" "I Still" "Single Life" Art of Movement Jay Park discography Official website Iconic Sounds Official Website Cha Cha Malone on Twitter Cha Cha Malone on Facebook Cha Cha Malone's channel on YouTube Cha Cha Malone discography at MusicBrainz MTV Made Season 6 Episode 19

Colpophyllia

Colpophyllia is a genus of stony corals in the family Mussidae. It is monotypic with a single species, Colpophyllia natans known as boulder brain coral or large-grooved brain coral, it inhabits the tops of reefs, to a maximum depth of fifty metres. It is characterised by large, domed colonies, which may be up to two metres across, by the meandering network of ridges and valleys on its surface; the ridges are brown with a single groove, the valleys may be tan, green, or white and are uniform in width 2 centimetres. The polyps only extend their tentacles at night. Individual colonies of Colpophyllia natans are large and broadly domed, with curvature increasing with the size, therefore age, of the colony, they grow up to two metres in diameter and morphologically earn the epithet "boulder". Colony shape may be flat-topped discs when younger; as a type of brain coral, the surface of the skeleton is a network of winding, curving valleys and ridges that resemble the familiar folding architecture of the mammal cerebrum.

The colour of the ridges and valleys vary among colonies, with the ridges being various shades of brown, the valleys either whitish, green, or tan. The ridge tops are indented with a single thin groove. Ridges and valleys may be up to 2 centimetres wide, this breadth distinguishes it from the narrower Diploria, which may otherwise be similar in appearance; the polyps only extend their tentacles at night. The robust shape and slow growth of the boulder brain coral allows it more to survive conditions to which smaller and more fragile corals, such as the plate-like lettuce coral, succumb. C. natans and the sympatric and named boulder star coral are less to be smothered by algal bloom, have weathered reef-wrecking Hurricane Allen off the coast of Jamaica in 1980. Corals in the Caribbean are susceptible to bleaching caused by high water temperatures and solar radiation. A nine-month study conducted in 2005 compared the mortality of C. natans from bleaching to that of Porites porites, which has a finger-like morphology.

Although the severity of bleaching between the two species was similar, 56% of the P. porites colonies studied died from the bleaching, compared to only 8% mortality for bleach-affected C. natans. However, bleaching induced widespread incidence of the coral syndrome White Plague Type II, resulting in bleaching-related mortality of 42% among C. natans over 9 months, nearly as high as that for P. porites. Boulder brain corals inhabit coral reefs in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, with most occurrences off the coasts of Belize, eastern Yucatán Peninsula, southern Florida, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands and Cuba, it is identifiable in fossil records at least since the early Pliocene. C. Natans is considered one of the dominant reef-building corals of the Caribbean region and is a familiar species of the shallower reef ledges and slopes, it can be found down to a depth of fifty metres, but is more established closer to the surface. Colpophyllia natans is a hermaphroditic broadcast spawner, releasing large numbers of gametes synchronously to aid fertilisation.

Each individual polyp spawns both eggs and sperm, having the reproductive capabilities of both the male and female sexes. Following fertilisation, the zygote becomes a microscopic larva called a planula, upon swimming to suitable substrate, will anchor and establish a new colony; this method of sexual reproduction has a high rate of failure in several of its stages and few new colonies grow. C. Natans is susceptible to more coral diseases than most other corals in its habitat. A total of seven diseases are known to afflict C. natans, it is one of only twenty-two coral species worldwide in which this count is higher than three. It is one of the Caribbean corals most afflicted by black band disease, along with Montastraea spp. suffers from yellow-band disease. A aggressive form of white plague known as WPL III has so far been documented attacking only large colonies of C. natans and Montastraea annularis. Other hosted diseases include white plague types I and II, dark spot, skeletal anomalies, such as tumours and galls.

Another pathogen, so far unidentified, killed in one year, between 2001 and 2002 half of the corals present in Bird Key Reef of the Dry Tortugas. Despite this susceptibility to disease, the boulder brain coral is long-lived, with specimens capable of living for more than two hundred years; the first description of Colpophyllia natans as a species was published by the Dutch physician and naturalist Maarten Houttuyn. Basing his work on Linnaeus, between the years 1761 and 1785 Houttuyn published a 37-volume natural history series, titled Natuurlyke historie, of Uitvoerige beschryving der dieren, planten, en mineraalen, volgens het samenstel van den Heer Linnæus. Met naauwkeurige afbeeldingen. Volumes 17 and 18, the final volumes of the zoology section, were published in 1772 and focused on polyps, wherein C. natans is described. Houttuyn gave the species name as Madrepora natans, included in the genus Colpophyllia, by Henri Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime, 1848, his cousin Frans Houttuyn, a printer and bookseller, printed the series and is sometimes mistakenly credited for the work and erroneously named as Houttuyn's father.

A synonym of C. natans is Meandrina gyrosa, attributed to Lamarck, 1816. There is dispute over. Media related to Colpophyllia at Wikimedia Commons Data re

Cave popcorn

Cave popcorn, or coralloids, are small nodes of calcite, aragonite or gypsum that form on surfaces in caves limestone caves. They are a common type of speleothem; the individual nodules of cave popcorn range in size from 5 to 20 mm and may be decorated by other speleothems aragonite needles or frostwork. The nodules tend to grow in the sides of other speleothems; these clusters may terminate in either an upward or downward direction, forming a stratographic layer. When they terminate in a downward direction, they may appear as flat bottomed formations known as trays. Individual nodes of popcorn can assume a variety of shapes from round to flattened ear or button like shapes; the color of cave popcorn is white, but various other colors are possible depending on the composition. Cave popcorn can form by precipitation. Water seeping through limestone walls or splashing onto them leaves deposits when CO2 loss causes its minerals to precipitate; when formed in this way, the resultant nodules have the characteristics of small balls of flowstone.

Cave popcorn can form by evaporation in which case it is chalky and white like edible popcorn. In the right conditions, evaporative cave popcorn may grow on the windward side of the surface to which it is attached or appear on the edges of projecting surfaces. Popcorn can occur on concrete structures outside the cave environment. Calthemite coralloids occur in "artificial caves" such as mines or railway or vehicle tunnels were there is a source of lime, mortar or cement from which the calcium ions can be leached. Coralloids can form by a number of different methods in caves. Due to solution evaporation, deposition of calcium carbonate occurs; the resulting coralloids are chalky with a cauliflower appearance. The Virtual Cave's page on cave popcorn The Virtual Cave's page on coralloids Underground Adventures Kids page on popcorn National Park Service page on popcorn

Mic Sokoli

Mic Sokoli was an Albanian nationalist figure and guerrilla fighter. Mic Sokoli was born in the village of Fang near Bujan in the Tropoja district of the north, he was a noted guerrilla leader during the years of the League of Prizren and took part in the fighting in Yakova against Mehmet Ali Pasha. He fought in the Battle of Novšiće against the Montenegrins. Mic Sokoli is remembered in particular for an act that has entered the chronicles of Albanian legend as a deed of exemplary heroism: at the battle of Slivova against Ottoman forces in April 1881, he died when he pressed his body against the mouth of a Turkish cannon; the stories of Sokoli's braveness in battles have been noted in many traditional Albanian folk songs. He is a People's Hero of Albania. Sefë Kosharja