Selby is a town and civil parish in North Yorkshire, England, 14 miles south of York on the River Ouse, with a population at the 2011 census of 14,731. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Selby once had a large shipbuilding industry, was an important port on the Selby Canal which brought trade from Leeds. Selby Town F. C. play in the Northern Counties East Football League. The town's origins date from the establishment of a Viking settlement on the banks of the River Ouse. Archaeological investigations in Selby have revealed extensive remains, including waterlogged deposits in the core of the town dating from the Roman period onwards, it is believed that Selby originated as a settlement called Seletun, referred to in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of AD 779. The place-name'Selby' is first attested in a Yorkshire charter circa 1030, where it appears as Seleby, it appears as Selbi circa 1050. The name is thought to be a Scandinavian form of Seletun, meaning'sallow tree settlement'; the town of Selby, a sizeable town on the main route north from the Midlands, is the traditional birthplace of King Henry I, fourth son of William the Conqueror, in 1068/69.

King Henry I is reputed to have been born there in either 1068 or 1069. A notable feature of the abbey is the 14th-century Washington Window, featuring the heraldic arms of the ancestors of George Washington, the first president of the United States; the design is cited as an influence for the Stars and Stripes flag. It is said that the abbey was founded when Benedict saw three swans on a lake in Selby, he saw it as a sign of the Father and Holy Ghost, and, why the official crest of Selby Abbey is three swans. Selby Abbey was closed in 1539 as part of the Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII and the majority of the buildings have since been demolished; the central nave of the abbey church survived and in 1618 it became the parish church of Selby. There was a important battle in the English Civil War, named the Battle of Selby. There are many other historical sites, like the cholera burial ground on the north side of the abbey, the market cross and the local school, Selby High School.

The Market Place has existed since the early 14th century when the market was moved away from the monastery churchyard. The Crescent which curves eastwards from James Street was planned in the early 19th century by a local man, John Audus, after seeing Lansdown Crescent in Bath, Somerset. Selby is expanding to become a larger town. New houses and shops are being built on the present town's outskirts with the expansion of the town stretching as far as the bypass, although this has resulted in the loss of some trade from the town centre. Meanwhile, the riverfront area is being revamped with fashionable flats. Selby was a centre for shipbuilding, with vessels launched into the river; this required the more unusual technique of launching the vessels side-on into the river due to lack of space for a more conventional stern first or bow first launch. One famous vessel of the Cochrane and Son's shipyard of the town is the preserved trawler Ross Tiger at Grimsby's National Fishing Heritage Centre. Cochrane launched their last vessel into the Ouse in 1998, a historical occasion which people around the area went to see.

Once Cochrane had closed, the massive cranes still stood over the skyline of Selby until 2001, when strong winds blew them down. Most of the shipyard buildings are still standing and the site along with interviews with former employees and archive film was featured in a 2013 video production'Cochranes of Selby'; the site of the shipyard is home to many small businesses who work in the same buildings that were once used to build the Selby ships. At the lowest level of governance is Selby Town Council; the town is divided into three electoral wards, north and west, each represented by six councillors. These eighteen councillors are responsible for burial grounds, play areas and some street lighting. Elections to the town council are held every four years and the most recent elections were held in May 2007. At district level the town is part of the Selby District Council area; the town is represented by seven councillors on the District Council, two each for the west and south wards and three for the north ward.

On the North Yorkshire County Council the town is part of the Selby Barlby county division which elects two representatives to the county council. In the United Kingdom Parliament Selby formed part of the Selby constituency until the 2010 general election when it became part of the new seat of Selby and Ainsty, it is represented by Nigel Adams. Selby lies on the tidal River Ouse in a natural area of Yorkshire known as the Humberhead Levels; the main roads which cross at Selby are the A63 from Leeds to Hull and the A19 from Doncaster to York, though the A19 and A63 no longer meet in Selby itself since the opening of the Selby Bypass in 2004. The River Ouse is navigable upstream as far as York so the old toll bridge by which the A63 crossed the river at Selby had to allow for this. For many years the swing bridge in Selby was a notorious local bottleneck but since the opening of the Selby bypass congestion in the town has been relieved; the importance of Selby as a market town has declined in recent decades and its short lived prominence as the centre of the Selby Coalfield has waned.

Selby is a commuter town with proximity to both Leeds. Its popularity as a tourist destination, due to Selby Abbey, has led to

Optimal stimulation level

Optimal Stimulation Level The optimal stimulation level means the amount of stimulation of individuals seeking in life. In theories which consider human actions will be affected by motivational tendencies, the concept that for achieving a favorable stimulation level, social practices stimulated by pure desire plays a significant role; the medium levels of stimulation, called the optimum stimulation level, are the most common one to be chosen, due to individual difference, the determination of the optimal stimulation level vary between each person. People may explore surroundings for reaching they satisfy stimulation, meaning that individuals who have a high optimum stimulation level are more to be attracted in exploratory. Therefore, the relationship between human needs for motivation and their tendency of exploration indicates that the optimum stimulation level has a decisive influence in behaviors. With the most well-pleasing intermediate stimulation level, an inverted U-shaped function exists between stimulation acquired from the environment, human stimulated a response.

People who have high optimum stimulation level attract by stimulation and others avoid stimulation. The OSL, which has an unusually productive influence on variety searching, cognitive reactions of consumers, information seeking, innovative behaviors, risk decision making, play a significant role in exploratory buyers' behaviors. Based on several experiments, the interactions between OSL and individual behavior investigate. There are three classifications about the inquiry of tendencies for consumer reaction, including behaviors engaged by curiosity, variety searching, assumption of risk and innovative practices. Curiosity can categorize as particular interest stimulated behavior and diverse curiosity encouraged the practice; the first mentioned of two displays an in-depth analysis for a single incentive because this stimulation evokes curiousness of consumer. However, the diverse curiosity, which can be initiated by an assortment of sources, refers to the response for boredom, meaning that it does not react to a particular stimulus.

For changing pace, people will shift purchasing behavior for familiar objects such as stores to access stimulation — this action named as variety seeking. Acquiring from purchasing behavior, the suboptimal level of stimulation leads customers to feel tedious after they simplify their decision procedure; as a result, they tend to enhance the complexity of the buying process. A positive relationship exists between risk undertaking behavior. According to the idea of an opportunity of loss, a majority of conceptions of risk-taking built; this point of view is similar to the leading theory among consumer behavior. A supposition used during the discussion about buyers’ behaviors means that consumers actions display a mechanical operation which operates to prevent imbalances due to an unexpected stimulus input caused. However, because the apparent propensity to search for new expending experiences, the hypothesis which refers to buyers seek to reduce stimulation to the minimum is hard to identify; the conception of OSL provides an adequate point of view.

The innate character of this concept is that people struggle to stay the OSL. An optimum stimulation level provided with internal stability but the difference between each person. Based on the tendency of buyers for perception seeking, the property of the adoption decision-making process has a difference between both developed retail facilities and innovative products. Hypothesis confirms that high sensory seekers are more sensitive to realize the new alternatives, think over more options, making less rejection decision with cognitive assessment, will attempt and take more innovations. High-sensitivity seekers incline to have a reasonable expectation for goods and equipment through the evaluation stage entering the practical experiments, but consciousness and the model, adopted seem to depend on the essence of innovation. For leisure consumers, whether to buy products or enjoy services, shopping is a comfortable way to spend time, they want to buy in beautiful surroundings, engaging, full of surprises, surreal and safe to evoke an enjoyable shopping experience.

Other words, casual consumers trend to shop in an environment, considered containing emotional stimulation, the emotion caused by stimulation is pleasing. Several functions have a relation with OSL: 1; the inverted UB-shaped function: the OSL does not create influence 2. The butterfly curve function: the OSL produces effects, which are similar to the zero influence, with moderate deviations. 3. The inverted UB-shaped function: the OSL create maximum effects The researcher considers that the favorable wake level of t stimulation containing two majority elements: the first is a crucial component named novelty, the second is called conflict, a negative feature; the novelty component refers to the joint effects of the number of increases in individuals' ideal attributes such as the level of surprise. The sum of these two different independent variables represents the entire preference for stimulation. Colors, including three main parts, which are tint and saturation, are crucial in advertising because it influences human attitudes for advertising.

Assuming effects o

Kelly Crowley

Kelly Crowley is an American Paralympic swimmer and cyclist. Crowley is 17-time Disability Swimming National Champion, she is a two-time Paralympic swimming Gold medalist which she earned for the participation in 2004 Summer Paralympics in Athens, Greece. On in 2006 she joined cycling and by 2007 won Bronze medal for Para Cycling; the same year she became a champion in Time Trial World Championship. Three years she received another bronze medal this time for Individual Road Race in Quebec, Canada. In 2012 she was awarded bronze one more time for the same participation as previous years; the same year she got 2nd two times in UCI Para-cycling World Cup in Italy. Crowley was born with a right arm, she was raised up in California. In 1999 she graduated from Santa Clara University, she is a coach for USA Swimming and is a founder of Victory Sport Project. Her other jobs include Motivational speaker for such corporations as Levi Strauss and The Hartford on which she promotes disability-awareness and mental and physical health speeches.

In 2017 Kelly Crowley and Katie Holloway had launched a podcast called Inside Para Sport and had had Muffy Davis as a guest speaker on one of the 5 episodes. Results for Kelly Crowley from the International Paralympic Committee