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Selective breeding

Selective breeding is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding to selectively develop particular phenotypic traits by choosing which animal or plant males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together. Domesticated animals are known as breeds bred by a professional breeder, while domesticated plants are known as varieties, cultivars, or breeds. Two purebred animals of different breeds produce a crossbreed, crossbred plants are called hybrids. Flowers and fruit-trees may be bred by amateurs and commercial or non-commercial professionals: major crops are the provenance of the professionals. In animal breeding, techniques such as inbreeding and outcrossing are utilized. In plant breeding, similar methods are used. Charles Darwin discussed how selective breeding had been successful in producing change over time in his 1859 book, On the Origin of Species, its first chapter discusses selective breeding and domestication of such animals as pigeons, cats and dogs.

Darwin used artificial selection as a springboard to introduce and support the theory of natural selection. The deliberate exploitation of selective breeding to produce desired results has become common in agriculture and experimental biology. Selective breeding can be unintentional. For example, in some grains, an increase in seed size may have resulted from certain ploughing practices rather than from the intentional selection of larger seeds. Most there has been an interdependence between natural and artificial factors that have resulted in plant domestication. Selective breeding of both plants and animals has been practiced since early prehistory. Selective breeding was practiced by the Romans. Treatises as much as 2,000 years old give advice on selecting animals for different purposes, these ancient works cite still older authorities, such as Mago the Carthaginian; the notion of selective breeding was expressed by the Persian Muslim polymath Abu Rayhan Biruni in the 11th century. He noted the idea in his book titled India.

The agriculturist selects his corn, letting grow as much as he requires, tearing out the remainder. The forester leaves those branches which he perceives to be excellent, whilst he cuts away all others; the bees kill those of their kind who only do not work in their beehive. Selective breeding was established as a scientific practice by Robert Bakewell during the British Agricultural Revolution in the 18th century. Arguably, his most important breeding program was with sheep. Using native stock, he was able to select for large, yet fine-boned sheep, with long, lustrous wool; the Lincoln Longwool was improved by Bakewell, in turn the Lincoln was used to develop the subsequent breed, named the New Leicester. It had a square, meaty body with straight top lines; these sheep were exported including to Australia and North America, have contributed to numerous modern breeds, despite the fact that they fell out of favor as market preferences in meat and textiles changed. Bloodlines of these original New Leicesters survive today as the English Leicester, kept for wool production.

Bakewell was the first to breed cattle to be used for beef. Cattle were first and foremost kept for pulling ploughs as oxen, but he crossed long-horned heifers and a Westmoreland bull to create the Dishley Longhorn; as more and more farmers followed his lead, farm animals increased in size and quality. In 1700, the average weight of a bull sold for slaughter was 370 pounds. By 1786, that weight had more than doubled to 840 pounds. However, after his death, the Dishley Longhorn was replaced with short-horn versions, he bred the Improved Black Cart horse, which became the Shire horse. Charles Darwin coined the term'selective breeding'. Darwin noted that many domesticated animals and plants had special properties that were developed by intentional animal and plant breeding from individuals that showed desirable characteristics, discouraging the breeding of individuals with less desirable characteristics. Darwin used the term "artificial selection" twice in the 1859 first edition of his work On the Origin of Species, in Chapter IV: Natural Selection, in Chapter VI: Difficulties on Theory: Slow though the process of selection may be, if feeble man can do much by his powers of artificial selection, I can see no limit to the amount of change, to the beauty and infinite complexity of the co-adaptations between all organic beings, one with another and with their physical conditions of life, which may be effected in the long course of time by nature's power of selection.

We are profoundly ignorant of the causes producing unimportant variations. Animals with homogeneous appearance and other characteristics are known as particular breeds or pure breeds, they are bred through culling animals with partic

Jardin botanique du Thabor

The Jardin botanique du Thabor known as the Jardin botanique de la Ville de Rennes, is a compact but significant botanical garden located at the eastern side of the Parc du Thabor, Place Saint-Mélaine, Ille-et-Vilaine, in the region of Brittany, France. It is open daily without charge; the garden was established in 1868 and consists of circular walkways around 11 beds growing over 3,000 species. The larger park contains 129 species of trees, including 34 conifer species, as well as 373 shrub species, its holdings include about 1500 herbarium specimens. Between 2008 and 2018, the park was renovated; this was complicated by the presence of buxus parasites. List of botanical gardens in France Jardin botanique du Thabor Map of Thabor BGCI entry Convention on Biological Diversity - Botanical gardens in France Gralon.net entry

86th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron

The 86th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron is an inactive United States Air Force unit. Its last assignment was with the 79th Fighter Group at Youngstown Air Force Base, where it was inactivated on 1 March 1960; the squadron was first activated shortly after the United States entered World War II as the 86th Pursuit Squadron. As the 86th Fighter Squadron It saw combat in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations and earned two Distinguished Unit Citations. After the end of the war it became an element of the occupation forces until returning to the United States, where it was inactivated in 1947, it was activated once again to replace an Air National Guard squadron, mobilized for the Korean War and carried out the air defense of the Great Lakes area for the next eight years. The squadron was first activated in early 1942 at Dale Mabry Field, Florida as the 86th Pursuit Squadron, one of the original three squadrons of the 79th Pursuit Group, its initial cadre was drawn from the 81st Fighter Groups. The squadron was redesignated the 86th Fighter Squadron in May 1942.

The unit trained in the United States moved to Egypt by sea via Brazil in October–November 1942, where it became part of Ninth Air Force. The squadron trained with P-40 Warhawks while moving westward in the wake of the British drive across Egypt and Libya to Tunisia. By escorting bombers, attacking enemy shipping, supporting ground forces, the 86th took part in the Allied operations that defeated Axis forces in North Africa, captured Pantelleria, conquered Sicily; the squadron was awarded a Distinguished Unit Citation for its support of British Eighth Army during that period, March–August 1943. The squadron became part of Twelfth Air Force in August 1943 and continued to support the British Eighth Army by attacking troop concentrations, gun positions, bridges and rail lines in southern Italy, it operated in the area of the Anzio beachhead from January to March 1944. The unit participated in the drive on Rome from March to June 1944, converted to P-47 Thunderbolts during that time, it flew escort and strafing missions in southern France during August and September 1944, afterward returned to Italy and engaged in interdiction and close air support operations in northern Italy.

The 86th received a second DUC for numerous missions flown at minimum altitude in intense flak to help pierce the enemy line at the Santerno River in Italy in April 1945. Squadron pilots were credited with twenty-eight victories over enemy aircraft during World War II; the squadron remained overseas as part of United States Air Forces in Europe after the war as part of the occupation forces. It was transferred, without personnel and equipment, to the US in June 1947 and inactivated on 15 July 1947; the squadron was redesignated the 86th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron and activated in November 1952 at Youngstown Municipal Airport, where it replaced the federalized 166th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, released to the Ohio Air National Guard. As an element of Air Defense Command it was responsible for air defense of the Great Lakes area with the Republic F-84 Thunderjets it inherited from the 166th. Three months ADC reorganized it dispersed fighter bases and the 86th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron was assigned to the 502d Air Defense Group, which assumed control of ADC operational and support elements at Youngstown.

In July the squadron upgraded to radar equipped and rocket armed North American F-86D Sabres at Youngstown. In August 1955 ADC implemented Project Arrow, designed to bring back on the active list the fighter units which had compiled memorable records in the two world wars. At Youngstown, the squadron's World War II headquarters, the 79th Fighter Group assumed the personnel and equipment of the 502d Air Defense Group, inactivated. In September 1957 the 86th traded its Sabres for AIM-4 Falcon armed Convair F-102 Delta Dagger aircraft equipped with data link for interception control through the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment system; the Air Force transferred command of Youngstown MAP from ADC to Continental Air Command on 1 March 1960 and the 79th Fighter Group and its components inactivated that date. Constituted as the 86th Pursuit Squadron on 13 January 1942Activated on 9 February 1942 Redesignated 86th Fighter Squadron on 15 May 1942 Inactivated on 15 July 1947Redesignated 86th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron on 11 September 1952Activated on 1 November 1952 Inactivated on 1 March 1960 79th Pursuit Group, 9 February 1942 – 15 July 1947 4708th Defense Wing, 1 November 1952 502d Air Defense Group, 16 February 1953 79th Fighter Group, 18 August 1955 – 1 March 1960 Notes Citations This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

Buss, Lydus H. Sturm, Thomas A. Volan, McMullen, Richard F. History of Continental Air Defense Command and Air Defense Command July to December 1955, Directorate of Historical Services, Air Defense Command, Ent AFB, CO, 1956 Cornett, Lloyd H. A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization, 1946 – 1980. Peterson AFB, CO: Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center. Johnson, 1st Lt. David C.. U. S. Army Air Forces Continental Airfields D-Day to V-E Day. Maxwell AFB, AL: Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center. Archived from the original on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2017. Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979. Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force

Stairway to Heaven

"Stairway to Heaven" is a song by the English rock band Led Zeppelin, released in late 1971. It was composed by guitarist Jimmy Page and vocalist Robert Plant for the band's untitled fourth studio album, it is considered the best rock song and regarded by many as the greatest song of all time. The song has each one progressively increasing in tempo and volume; the song begins in a slow tempo with acoustic instruments before introducing electric instruments. The final section is an uptempo hard rock arrangement highlighted by Page's intricate guitar solo accompanying Plant's vocals that end with the plaintive a cappella line: "And she's buying a stairway to heaven." "Stairway to Heaven" was voted number three in 2000 by VH1 on its list of the 100 Greatest Rock Songs, was placed at number 31 on Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Songs of All Time. It was the most requested song on FM radio stations in the United States in the 1970s, despite never having been commercially released as a single there. In November 2007, through download sales promoting Led Zeppelin's Mothership release, "Stairway to Heaven" hit number 37 on the UK Singles Chart.

The recording of "Stairway to Heaven" commenced in December 1970 at Island Records' new Basing Street Studios in London. The song was completed by the addition of lyrics by Plant during the sessions for Led Zeppelin IV at Headley Grange, Hampshire, in 1971. Page returned to Island Studios to record his guitar solo; the song originated in 1970 when Jimmy Page and Robert Plant were spending time at Bron-Yr-Aur, a remote cottage in Wales, following Led Zeppelin's fifth American concert tour. According to Page, he wrote the music "over a long period, the first part coming at Bron-Yr-Aur one night". Page always kept a cassette recorder around, the idea for "Stairway" came together from bits of taped music; the first attempts at lyrics, written by Robert Plant next to an evening log fire at Headley Grange, were spontaneously improvised and Page claimed, "a huge percentage of the lyrics were written there and then". Jimmy Page was strumming the chords, Robert Plant had a pencil and paper; the complete studio recording was released on Led Zeppelin IV in November 1971.

The band's record label, Atlantic Records, was keen to issue this track as a single, but the band's manager Peter Grant refused requests to do so in both 1972 and 1973. This led many people to buy the fourth album. In the US, Atlantic issued "Stairway to Heaven" as a 7" promotional single in 1972. "Stairway to Heaven" is described as folk rock and hard rock. The song consists of several distinct sections, beginning with a quiet introduction on a finger-picked six-string guitar and four recorders in a Renaissance music style and moving into a slow electric middle section a long guitar solo, before the faster hard rock final section, ending with a short vocals-only epilogue. Plant sings the opening and epilogue sections in his mid vocal range, but sings the hard rock section in his higher range which borders on falsetto. Written in the key of A minor, the song opens with an arpeggiated, finger-picked guitar chord progression with a chromatic descending bassline A-G♯-G-F♯-F. John Paul Jones contributed overdubbed wooden bass recorders in the opening section and a Hohner Electra-Piano electric piano in the middle section.

The sections build with more guitar layers, each complementary to the intro, with the drums entering at 4:18. The extended Jimmy Page guitar solo in the song's final section was played for the recording on a 1959 Fender Telecaster given to him by Jeff Beck plugged into a Supro amplifier, although in an interview he gave to Guitar World magazine, Page claimed, "It could have been a Marshall, but I can't remember". Three different improvised solos were recorded, with Page agonising about. Page revealed, "I did have the first phrase worked out, there was the link phrase. I did check them out beforehand before the tape ran." The other guitar parts were played using a Harmony Sovereign H1260 acoustic guitar and a Fender Electric XII guitar. For live versions, Page switched to a Heritage Cherry Gibson EDS-1275 6/12 Doubleneck guitar; the final progression is a mainstay of rock music. Another interesting aspect of the song is the timing of the lead-up to the famous guitar solo. While staying in 4/4 throughout this section, most of the accents shift to the eighth notes.

This makes the rhythm figure challenging for some musicians, but adds a feeling of anticipation to the approaching guitar solo. Jimmy Page has likened the song to a sonic orgasm. Over the years, some people have considered that the song's opening guitar arpeggios bear a close resemblance to the 1968 instrumental "Taurus" by the Los Angeles-based rock band Spirit, written by Spirit guitarist Randy California. In the liner notes to the 1996 reissue of Spirit's self-titled debut album, California wrote: "People always ask me why'Stairway to Heaven' sounds like'Taurus,', released two years earlier. I know Led Zeppelin played'Fresh Garbage' in their live set, they opened up for us on their first American tour."In May 2014, Spirit bassist Mark Andes and a trust acting on behalf of California filed a copyright infringement suit against Led Zep

Academy of Live and Recorded Arts

The Academy of Live and Recorded Arts is a British drama school. It has two sites: ALRA South on Wandsworth Common in south London and ALRA North in Wigan, Greater Manchester, it was founded in 1979 by director and actor Sorrel Carson who directed the school as its principal until 2001. The current principal is Adrian Hall. ALRA was a member of Drama UK the Conference of Drama Schools, National Council for Drama Training, both organizations since dissolved, receives funding from the Young People's Learning Agency, it is a member of the Federation of Drama Schools. ALRA South is in the Royal Victoria Patriotic Building, a Victorian Gothic Grade 2 listed building on the edge of Wandsworth Common; until 1982/3 it was in a converted church hall in North London. ALRA North, in Wigan, Greater Manchester, opened in September 2010; the curriculum and teaching methods are the same as at ALRA South. ALRA offers the following courses: Three-year Acting course – leading to BA Acting/National Diploma in Professional Acting Fifteen-month Acting course – leading to MA Professional Acting/National Certificate in Professional Acting MA in Directing Foundation Acting Various short courses.

Admission to the school is based on three rounds of auditions and an interview with the school's directors, its registrar and an audition panel. The audition is held over the course of a single day. Jimmy Akingbola Samuel Anderson Clive Ashborn Anna Brecon Lorraine Bruce Dominic Burgess Stephanie Chambers Ian Champion Bridget Christie Thomas Craig Amanda Eliasch Tanya Franks Francesca Gonshaw Denise Gough Miranda Hart Daniel Healy Joanna Jeffrees Elizabeth Keates Lucy Liemann Robert Lonsdale Kim Lukas Paul McEwan Steve McNeil Sarah Parish Mark Pegg Lisa Ray Vincent Regan Suzi Ruffell Georgia Steel Hannah Waddingham Media related to Academy of Live and Recorded Arts at Wikimedia Commons ALRA website Royal Victoria Patriotic Building website Dance and Drama Award Scheme website

Thomas Bradford

Lieutenant-general Sir Thomas Bradford was a British Army officer. Bradford was commissioned as an ensign in the 4th Regiment of Foot in October 1793 without purchase He took part in the suppression of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, the Buenos Aires Expedition of 1806 as well as the battle of Vimeiro in 1808, battle of Corunna in 1809 and battle of Salamanca in 1812 during the Peninsular War, he commanded a Portuguese division at the Battle of Vitoria, the Battle of San Sebastian and the Battle of the Nive, all in 1813. For his service in the Peninsular he was awarded the Gold Medal with one clasp, he became General Officer Commanding the 7th Division of the Army of Occupation in France in 1815, Commander-in-Chief, Scotland in 1819 and Commander-in-Chief of the Bombay Army from 1825 to 1829. He was Colonel of the 94th Regiment of Foot and, after returning to England, Colonel of the 30th Regiment of Foot, he exchanged the Colonelcy of the 38th Foot for that of the 4th Regiment of Foot in 1846, a position he held until his death in 1853.

He married the daughter of James Atkinson of Newcastle. His eldest son, James Henry Hollis Bradford changed his surname to Atkinson in compliance with the will of one Ralph Atkinson, his brother, Lieutenant-colonel Sir Henry Hollis Bradford, was a distinguished soldier wounded at Waterloo. Dalton, Charles; the Waterloo roll call. With biographical notes and anecdotes. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode