Survivor: Cook Islands
Survivor: Cook Islands is the thirteenth season of the American CBS competitive reality television series Survivor. The season was filmed from June 26, 2006 through August 3, 2006 and premiered on September 14, 2006. During this season of Survivor, the contestants were divided into four tribes by ethnicity; the respective tribes' names were Manihiki, Puka Puka and Rarotonga. These four tribes were named after islands located in the Cook Islands; the four tribes evenly divided into two new mixed tribes after the second tribal council, taking the Aitutaki and Rarotonga names. A mutiny offer was made to all remaining players during this season before the merge, where two players from the same tribe accepted the mutiny offer. After the nine remaining contestants merged, they decided to name themselves Aitutonga; this season featured the first time a tribe has voted off two members during a single tribal council. The concept of Exile Island returned, with a hidden immunity idol located somewhere on the island.
Instead of the usual final two players facing a jury of seven, there was a final three facing a jury of nine, which included players that were voted out before the merge. The final jury setup meant that a two or three-way tie to decide the winner of the game was possible, though the method to resolve this tie was unknown at the time. In the end, Yul Kwon defeated Ozzy Lusth and Becky Lee by a jury vote of 5–4–0 and was named the Sole Survivor; the complete season, including the mid-season recap episode and live Reunion show, was released on DVD on December 11, 2012, available through Amazon.com. Ozzy Lusth, Jonathan Penner, Parvati Shallow were selected to compete again in Survivor: Micronesia. Shallow would again return for Survivor: Villains along with Candice Woodcock. Lusth would return for a third time in Survivor: South Pacific, again for a fourth time in Survivor: Game Changers. Penner returned for his third time in Survivor: Philippines. Woodcock, now using her husband's surname of Cody, returned for her third time in Survivor: Blood vs. Water, alongside her husband, John.
According to a local guidebook, pre-production began in the spring of 2006 and principal filming ran from July 3, 2006 until August 11, 2006. The 20 players were divided into four tribes based on race for the first six days of the competition, but merged into two tribes. An early visit to Exile island resulted in Yul discovering the hidden immunity idol. With the tribes equal at six members each on Day 19, the castaways were given the choice to mutiny and join the other tribe. However, this served to only increase the determination of the Aitutaki tribe. While the Aitu Four merged in the minority, Yul cemented his Aitutaki alliance by showing them the idol, convinced Jonathan to vote along with them to tip the scales; the Aitu Four took control of the game and were the final four players remaining. With Yul holding the hidden immunity idol and Ozzy winning the final challenge, the four agreed to let a fire-making challenge decide who would join them at the Final Tribal Council; the jury, seeing Becky's coat-tailing of Yul and poor performance at the fire-making challenge, did not consider any votes for her, Yul's brains edged out Ozzy's brawn, five votes to four.
In the case of multiple tribes or castaways who win reward or immunity, they are listed in order of finish, or alphabetically where it was a team effort. The tribal camps, Exile Island, many challenges of Survivor: Cook Islands were filmed on small motu in the Aituaki lagoon; the Rarotonga tribe's camp was on Moturakau. The Aitutaki tribe lived on Motukitiu; the short-lived tribes of Manihiki and Puka Puka lived on Muritapua, respectively. Most challenges were filmed on Tapuaetai. Exile Island is a small sand cay south of Tapuaetai, the bow of the wooden ship was brought in for the show. Just to the West of Tapuaetai is another sand cay called "Nude Island" by locals in reference to its lack of vegetation; the third challenge was played in the shallow waters just off the shore of Nude Island. Akaiami hosted challenges and "The Ponderosa," where eliminated contestants were sequestered until the end of the game. Tribal Council, the production camp, a few challenges were located on the main island of Aitutaki.
There were three reward trips to the neighboring islands of Atiu and Rarotonga. The decision to divide the teams by race and ethnicity has made this season of Survivor controversial before airing. Members of the New York City Council's Black and Asian Caucus have called on CBS to dump Survivor; those who work with the show indicate that as divisions by age, gender, or gender and age combined have been accepted, this should not be treated much different or it would set race apart. Host Jeff Probst conceded, by implication, a small difference in that racial segregation had been practiced in US history. Conversely, previous seasons have been criticized for not having many non-white contestants. Probst has since pointed out that over 80% of Survivor's applicants are wh
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Entourage (U.S. TV series)
Entourage is an American comedy-drama television series that premiered on HBO on July 18, 2004 and concluded on September 11, 2011, after eight seasons. The series was created and written by Doug Ellin and chronicles the acting career of Vincent Chase, a young A-list movie star, his childhood friends from Queens, New York City, as they attempt to further their nascent careers in Los Angeles. Mark Wahlberg and Stephen Levinson served as the show's executive producers, its premise is loosely based on Wahlberg's experiences as an up-and-coming film star; the series deals with real-life situations in modern-day Hollywood. The show is known for its array of famous guests, having featured several actors and other celebrities in guest star and cameo roles playing fictionalized versions of themselves. According to Mark Wahlberg, Entourage was conceived when his assistant asked if he could film Wahlberg and his friends, calling them "hilarious." Other reports credit Eric Weinstein, a long-time friend of Wahlberg, with the idea of filming the actor's group of friends.
However, according to Donnie Carroll, the inspiration for the Turtle character, the idea for a show involving an actor and his friends had come from him. It had originated as a book idea, centered on Carroll's own life and his experiences with Wahlberg, titled From the'Hood to Hollywood, A Soldier's Story. To be more satirical of the Hollywood lifestyle, a fictional approach was chosen rather than a straight documentary in order to keep the content light, avoid directly depicting Wahlberg's violent past. Vincent Chase was envisioned to be more similar to Wahlberg, but it was decided that some of his and his friends' activities would not work well on television. A lighter approach was subsequently decided upon. Entourage revolves around Vincent Chase, his best friend and manager is Eric Murphy. "E," as his friends call him, is based on Mark Wahlberg's friend and executive producer Eric Weinstein. He's been reported to be inspired by Stephen Levinson, Mark Wahlberg's manager. Vincent's older half-brother, Johnny "Drama" Chase, is Vince's personal chef and bodyguard.
Johnny is a C-list actor, in the fictional show Viking Quest during his younger days. His role in the new fictional hit show Five Towns had begun to resurrect his fame and career, although he still received less acknowledgment than he would have liked for it; as the show went on, Drama got offers for more roles. The show ended with Drama having his own animated TV show called "Johnny's Bananas" and him landing a new TV movie with the help of Vince. Drama's character is based on Johnny "Drama" Alves, whom Donnie Wahlberg had hired to keep his younger brother out of trouble. Rounding out the entourage of friends is Salvatore "Turtle" Assante, another of Vince's old friends from childhood. Turtle's official role is as Vince's driver and assistant, though his value as such is brought into question; this character is based on Wahlberg's former "gofer" Donnie Carroll aka "Donkey". Carroll auditioned for the role, but the Boston native was turned down when it was decided the actors would have to be New Yorkers.
Carroll died on December 2005, after an asthma attack. Ari Gold is Vince's lovable agent; the role has led to Emmy Awards for Piven. Ari is based on Wahlberg's real-life agent Ari Emanuel. Connolly, Dillon and Piven are credited in every episode in the opening credits of the entire series. Debi Mazar, who has a recurring guest star role as Shauna in season 1, is promoted to opening credits billing in season 2, her appearances in season 3 were limited due to her pregnancy and Mazar made her final regular appearance in episode 42. Mazar is credited as a special guest star. Melissa Gold and Lloyd have recurring roles in the first two seasons. Starting in season 3, Reeves and Lee are credited as "starring" in the end credits in the episodes they appear in. Reeves receives opening credits billing starting with season 4, Lee is added to the opening credits starting with season 5. In season 4, Rhys Coiro, who portrays recurring character Billy Walsh, is credited as "starring" in the end credits for the first six episodes of the season.
However, when his character returns in episode 52, he is again credited as a guest star. Emmanuelle Chriqui portrays E's on-and-off girlfriend Sloan McQuewick as a recurring guest star from season 2 to 5, beginning with season 6, she is credited as "starring" in the end credits. Gary Cole guest stars in three episodes of season 5 as agent Andrew Klein, beginning with season 6 he is credited as "starring" in the end credits and returns in season 7 as a special guest star. Scott Caan guest stars in two episodes of season 6 as Scott Lavin, in season 7 and 8, he is credited as "starring" in the end credits. Entourage features many recurring characters; some are fictional, such as Malcolm McDowell's "Terrance McQuewick" character, while other actors, such as Mark Wahlberg, Bob Saget, Pauly Shore, Jamie-Lynn Sigler, Mandy Moore, Sasha Grey, Seth Green appear as fictional versions of themselves. Entourage has at least one celebrity guest per episode, such as actors, film directors, film producers and professional athletes playing themselves.
Appearances include Peter Jackson, Christina Aguilera, Kanye West, Tom Brady, Jessica Alba, Gary Busey, Lar
The Daily 10
The Daily 10 is an American daily television entertainment news show that aired on cable channel E! from March 2006 to October 2010. Hosts count down the top ten entertainment news stories of the day. In addition to entertainment news, The Daily 10 featured segments that cover fashion and movie reviews. Regular segments include: "The Lyon's Den" in which resident movie critic, Ben Lyons reviews upcoming films. "Flashy or Trashy", celebrity fashion critiques by Robbie Laughlin, "Fashion Trends" with Amanda Luttrell Garrigus. Every Friday, the show featured rapper Infinite-1 performing the Hollywood Rap-Up. Other regular segments included "Fashion Round-Up", "Quick Hitters", "Who wore it better?" "True or False", "Now Hear This", "Spotted." On weekends, The Daily 10 was compiled of news and segments from the previous week. Sal Masekela - anchor Catt Sadler - anchor Debbie Matenopoulos - anchor Ben Lyons - film critic/correspondent Clinton Sparks - music correspondent Jason Kennedy - fill-in anchor Ashlan Gorse - fill-in anchor Kristina Guerrero - fill-in anchor Amy Paffrath - correspondent/fill-in anchor Robbie Laughlin - fashion correspondent Amanda Luttrell Garrigus - fashion correspondent Michael Yo - celebrity correspondent Damien Fahey - fill-in anchor Michael Catherwood - fill-in anchor Morgan Webb - fill-in anchor On September 27, 2010, E! had announced that it had cancelled The Daily Ten after four years on the air.
The final edition of the program aired on October 1, 2010. E! had announced on September 21, 2010 that its flagship entertainment news program E! News would expand back to its previous hour-long format on October 25, 2010, E! News incorporated some of The Daily 10's featured segments and some personalities featured on the program. On the September 17, 2010 edition of the show, Michael Catherwood, a radio host for Los Angeles radio station KROQ-FM and co-host of the syndicated radio show Loveline who substituted for Sal Masekela in recent months, made a controversial remark about gay singer and former American Idol runner-up Adam Lambert during a story about a physical altercation that Lambert had with a paparazzo earlier that week. Catherwood said "From what I know about jail, Mr. Lambert wouldn’t have too bad a time." Catherwood apologized on his Twitter account, insisting it was an attempted joke insinuating that Lambert would enjoy being in jail, because he would be in an all-male environment.
The Daily 10 on IMDb The Daily 10 at TV.com
Tribeca Film Festival
The Tribeca Film Festival is a prominent film festival held in the Tribeca neighborhood of Manhattan, showcasing a diverse selection of independent films. Since its inaugural year in 2002, it has become a recognized outlet for independent filmmakers in all genres to release their work to a broad audience. In 2006 and 2007, the Festival held 1,500 screenings; the Festival's program line-up includes a variety of independent films including documentaries, narrative features and shorts, as well as a program of family-friendly films. The Festival features panel discussions with personalities in the entertainment world and a music lounge produced with ASCAP to showcase artists. One of the more distinctive components of the Festival is its Artists Awards program in which emerging and renowned artists celebrate filmmakers by providing original works of art that are given to the filmmakers' competition winners. Past artists of the Artists Award Program have included Chuck Close, Alex Katz, Julian Schnabel.
The festival now draws an estimated three million people—including often-elusive celebrities from the worlds of art and music—and generates $600 million annually. The Tribeca Film Festival was founded in 2002 by Jane Rosenthal, Robert De Niro and Craig Hatkoff in response to the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the consequent loss of vitality in the Tribeca neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, although there are reports that its founding was underway prior to the events of 9/11; the inaugural festival launched after 120 days of planning with the help of more than 1,300 volunteers. It was featured several up-and-coming filmmakers; the festival included juried narrative and short film competitions. The 2003 festival brought more than 300,000 people; the festival showcased an expanded group of independent features and short films from around the world, coupled with studio premieres, panel discussions and comedy concerts, a family festival, sports activities, outdoor movie screenings along the Hudson River.
The family festival featured children's movie screenings, family panels and interactive games culminating in a daylong street fair that drew a crowd estimated at 250,000 people. At the end of 2003, De Niro purchased the theater at 54 Varick Street which had housed the closed Screening Room, an art house that had shown independent films nightly, renaming it the Tribeca Cinema, it became one of the venues of the festival. In an effort to serve its mission of bringing independent film to the widest possible audience, in 2006, the Festival expanded its reach in New York City and internationally. In New York City, Tribeca hosted screenings throughout Manhattan as the Festival's 1,000-plus screening schedule outgrew the capacity downtown. Internationally, the Festival brought films to the Rome Film Fest; as part of the celebrations in Rome, Tribeca was awarded the first "Steps and Stars" award, presented on the Spanish Steps. A total of 169 feature films and 99 shorts were selected from 4,100 film submissions, including 1,950 feature submissions—three times the total submissions from the first festival in 2002.
The festival featured 90 world premieres, nine international premieres, 31 North American premieres, 6 U. S. premieres, 28 New York City premieres. In 2009, Hatkoff and De Niro were named number 14 on Barron's list of the world's top 25 philanthropists for their role in regenerating TriBeCa's economy after September 11; as of 2010, the festival is run as a business by Tribeca Enterprises. Andrew Essex has been the CEO of Tribeca Enterprises since January, 2016. In 2011, L. A. Noire became the first video game to be recognized by the Tribeca Film Festival. In 2013, Beyond: Two Souls, featuring Ellen Page and Willem Dafoe, became only the second game to be premiered at the festival. 2018 – Diane and directed by Kent Jones. 2017 – Keep the Change written and directed by Rachel Israel 2016 – Dean, directed by Demetri Martin 2018 – Jeffrey Wright in O. G. 2017 – Alessandro Nivola in One Percent More Humid 2016 – Dominic Rains for Burn Country 2018 – Alia Shawkat in Duck Butter 2017 – Nadia Alexander in Blame 2016 – Mackenzie Davis for Always Shine 2018 – Wyatt Garfield for Diane 2017 – Chris Teague for Love After Love 2016 – Michael Ragen for Kicks 2018 – Diane, written by Kent Jones 2017 – Abundant Acreage Available, written by Angus MacLachlan 2017 – Son of Sofia written and directed by Elina Psykou 2016 – Junction 48, directed by Udi Aloni 2015 – Virgin Mountain, directed by Dagur Kári 2014 – Zero Motivation, directed by Talya Lavie 2013 – The Rocket, directed by Kim Mordaunt 2012 – War Witch, directed by Kim Nguyen 2011 – She Monkeys, directed by Lisa Aschan 2010 – When We Leave, directed by Feo Aladag 2009 – About Elly, directed by Asghar Farhadi 2008 – Let the Right One In, directed by Tomas Alfredson 2007 – My Father My Lord, directed by David Volach 2006 – Iluminados por el fuego, directed by Tristán Bauer 2005 – Stolen Life, directed by Li Shaohong 2004 – Green Hat, directed by Liu Fendou 2003 – Blind Shaft, directed by Li Yang 2002 – Roger Dodger, directed by Dylan Kidd 2017 – Rachel Israel, director of Keep the Change 2015 – Zachary Treitz for Men Go to Battle 2014 – Josef Wladyka for Manos Sucias 2013 – Emanuel Hoss-Desmarais for Whitewash 201
Staten Island is one of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U. S. state of New York. Located in the southwest portion of the city, the borough is separated from New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull and from the rest of New York by New York Bay. With an estimated population of 479,458 in 2017, Staten Island is the least populated of the boroughs but is the third-largest in land area at 58.5 sq mi. The borough contains the southern-most point in the state, South Point; the borough is coextensive with Richmond County and until 1975 was referred to as the Borough of Richmond. Staten Island has sometimes been called "the forgotten borough" by inhabitants who feel neglected by the city government; the North Shore—especially the neighborhoods of St. George, Tompkinsville and Stapleton—is the most urban part of the island; the East Shore is home to the 2.5-mile F. D. R. Boardwalk, the fourth-longest boardwalk in the world; the South Shore, site of the 17th-century Dutch and French Huguenot settlement, developed beginning in the 1960s and 1970s and is now suburban in character.
The West Shore is the most industrial part of the island. Motor traffic can reach the borough from Brooklyn via the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge and from New Jersey via the Outerbridge Crossing, Goethals Bridge and Bayonne Bridge. Staten Island has Metropolitan Transportation Authority bus lines and an MTA rapid transit line, the Staten Island Railway, which runs from the ferry terminal at St. George to Tottenville. Staten Island is the only borough, not connected to the New York City Subway system; the free Staten Island Ferry connects the borough across New York Harbor to Manhattan and is a popular tourist attraction, providing views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island and Lower Manhattan. Staten Island had the Fresh Kills Landfill, the world's largest landfill before closing in 2001, although it was temporarily reopened that year to receive debris from the September 11 attacks; the landfill is being redeveloped as an area devoted to restoring habitat. As in much of North America, human habitation appeared in the island rapidly after the Wisconsin glaciation.
Archaeologists have recovered tool evidence of Clovis culture activity dating from about 14,000 years ago. This evidence was first discovered in 1917 in the Charleston section of the island. Various Clovis artifacts have been discovered since on property owned by Mobil Oil; the island was abandoned possibly because of the extirpation of large mammals on the island. Evidence of the first permanent Native American settlements and agriculture are thought to date from about 5,000 years ago, although early archaic habitation evidence has been found in multiple locations on the island. Rossville points are distinct arrowheads that define a Native American cultural period that runs from the Archaic period to the Early Woodland period, dating from about 1500 to 100 BC, they are named for the Rossville section of Staten Island, where they were first found near the old Rossville Post Office building. At the time of European contact, the island was inhabited by the Raritan band of the Unami division of the Lenape.
In Lenape, one of the Algonquian languages, Staten Island was called Aquehonga Manacknong, meaning "as far as the place of the bad woods", or Eghquhous, meaning "the bad woods". The area was part of the Lenape homeland known as Lenapehoking; the Lenape were called the "Delaware" by the English colonists because they inhabited both shores of what the English named the Delaware River. The island was laced with Native American foot trails, one of which followed the south side of the ridge near the course of present-day Richmond Road and Amboy Road; the Lenape moved seasonally, using slash and burn agriculture. Shellfish was a staple of their diet, including the Eastern oyster abundant in the waterways throughout the present-day New York City region. Evidence of their habitation can still be seen in shell middens along the shore in the Tottenville section, where oyster shells larger than 12 inches are sometimes found. Burial Ridge, a Lenape burial ground on a bluff overlooking Raritan Bay in Tottenville, is the largest pre-European burial ground in New York City.
Bodies have been reported unearthed at Burial Ridge from 1858 onward. After conducting independent research, which included unearthing bodies interred at the site and archaeologist George H. Pepper was contracted in 1895 to conduct paid archaeological research at Burial Ridge by the American Museum of Natural History; the burial ground today lies within Conference House Park. The first recorded European contact on the island was in 1520 by Italian explorer Giovanni de Verrazzano who sailed through The Narrows on the ship La Dauphine and anchored for one night. In 1609, English explorer Henry Hudson sailed into Upper New York Bay on his ship the Half Moon; the Dutch named the island Staaten Eylandt in honor of the Dutch parliament, still known as the Staten-Generaal. The first permanent Dutch settlement of the New Netherland colony was made on Governor's Island in 1624, which they had used as a trading camp for more than a decade before. In 1626, the colony transferred to the island of Manhattan, designated as the capital of New Netherland.
The Dutch did not establish a permanent settlement on Staaten Eylandt for many decades. From 1639 to 1655, Cornelis Melyn