Misogyny is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women or girls. Misogyny manifests in numerous ways, including social exclusion, sex discrimination, androcentrism, male privilege, belittling of women, disenfranchisement of women, violence against women, sexual objectification. Misogyny can be found within sacred texts of religions and Western philosophy and Eastern philosophy; the inverse is misandry. According to sociologist Allan G. Johnson, "misogyny is a cultural attitude of hatred for females because they are female". Johnson argues that: Misogyny.... is a central part of sexist prejudice and ideology and, as such, is an important basis for the oppression of females in male-dominated societies. Misogyny is manifested in many different ways, from jokes to pornography to violence to the self-contempt women may be taught to feel toward their own bodies. Sociologist Michael Flood at the University of Wollongong defines misogyny as the hatred of women, notes: Though most common in men, misogyny exists in and is practiced by women against other women or themselves.
Misogyny functions as an ideology or belief system that has accompanied patriarchal, or male-dominated societies for thousands of years and continues to place women in subordinate positions with limited access to power and decision making. Aristotle contended that women exist as natural deformities or imperfect males Ever since, women in Western cultures have internalised their role as societal scapegoats, influenced in the twenty-first century by multimedia objectification of women with its culturally sanctioned self-loathing and fixations on plastic surgery and bulimia. Dictionaries define misogyny as "hatred of women" and as "hatred, dislike, or mistrust of women". In 2012 in response to events occurring in the Australian Parliament, the Macquarie Dictionary expanded the definition to include not only hatred of women but "entrenched prejudices against women"; the counterpart of misogyny is the hatred or dislike of men. Misogynous or misogynist can be used as adjectival forms of the word.
In his book City of Sokrates: An Introduction to Classical Athens, J. W. Roberts argues that older than tragedy and comedy was a misogynistic tradition in Greek literature, reaching back at least as far as Hesiod; the term misogyny itself comes directly into English from the Ancient Greek word misogunia, which survives in several passages. The earlier and more complete passage comes from a moral tract known as On Marriage by the stoic philosopher Antipater of Tarsus. Antipater argues that marriage is the foundation of the state, considers it to be based on divine decree, he uses misogunia to describe the sort of writing the tragedian Euripides eschews, stating that he "reject the hatred of women in his writing". He offers an example of this, quoting from a lost play of Euripides in which the merits of a dutiful wife are praised; the other surviving use of the original Greek word is by Chrysippus, in a fragment from On affections, quoted by Galen in Hippocrates on Affections. Here, misogyny is the first in a short list of three "disaffections"—women and humanity.
Chrysippus' point is more abstract than Antipater's, Galen quotes the passage as an example of an opinion contrary to his own. What is clear, however, is that he groups hatred of women with hatred of humanity and hatred of wine. "It was the prevailing medical opinion of his day that wine strengthens body and soul alike." So Chrysippus, like his fellow stoic Antipater, views misogyny negatively, as a disease. It is this issue of conflicted or alternating emotions, philosophically contentious to the ancient writers. Ricardo Salles suggests that the general stoic view was that " man may not only alternate between philogyny and misogyny and misanthropy, but be prompted to each by the other."Aristotle has been accused of being a misogynist. According to Cynthia Freeland: Aristotle says that the courage of a man lies in commanding, a woman's lies in obeying; the Timaeus warns men. The Republic contains a number of comments in the same spirit, evidence of nothing so much as of contempt toward women. Socrates' words for his bold new proposal about marriage... suggest that the women are to be "held in common" by men.
He never says that the men might be held in common by the women... We have to acknowledge Socrates' insistence that men surpass women at any task that both sexes attempt, his remark in Book 8 that one sign of democracy's moral failure is the sexual equality it promotes. Misogyni
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The use of the term "racism" does not fall under a single definition; the ideology underlying racism includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities, as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa and segregation in the United States, slavery in Latin America. Racism was an aspect of the social organization of many colonial states and empires. While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group.
Therefore and racial discrimination are used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination; the UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable unjust and dangerous. It declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Racist ideology can manifest in many aspects of social life. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws. Associated social actions may include nativism, otherness, hierarchical ranking and related social phenomena. In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e. subscribing to the belief that the human population can or should be classified into races with differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially distributed based on racial categories. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages. A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists held the view that some races were inferior to others and they believed that the differential treatment of races was justified; these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions. Today, most biologists and sociologists reject a taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy.
To date, there is little evidence in human genome research which indicates that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in determining a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism as "n earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it", cites it in a 1902 quote; the revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from the following year, 1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "he theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race". By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism, a harmful intent; as its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism, which saw "race" as a given political unit.
It is agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, but there is not a wide agreement on a single definition of what racism is and what it is not. Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms, in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not fall under a single definition, they argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas. Garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups. Though many countries around the globe have passed laws related to race and discrimination, the first significant international human rights instrument developed by the United Nations
Bias against left-handed people
Bias based on handedness is bias or design, unfavorable against people who are left-handed. Part of this is due to design in the world, right-hand biased. Handwriting is one of the biggest sources of actual disadvantage for left-handed people, other than for those forced to work with certain machinery. About ten percent of the world's population is left-handed, yet many common articles are designed for efficient use by right-handed people, may be inconvenient, painful, or dangerous for left-handed people to use; these may include school desks, kitchen implements, tools ranging from simple scissors to hazardous machinery such as power saws. Beyond being inherently disadvantaged by a right-handed bias in the design of tools, left-handed people have been subjected to deliberate discrimination and discouragement. In certain societies, they may be considered unlucky or malicious by the right-handed majority. Many languages still contain references to left-handedness to convey awkwardness, stupidity, or other undesirable qualities.
In advanced societies, left-handed people were forced as children to use their right hands for tasks which they would perform with the left, such as eating or writing. Among Incas left-handers were called lloq' e. Peoples of the Andes consider left-handers to possess special spiritual abilities, including magic and healing; the Third Sapa Inca—Lloque Yupanqui—was left-handed. His name, when translated from Quechua, means "the glorified lefthander." In the Chinese language, the character for "left", 左, depicts a left hand attending to its work. In contrast, the character for "right", 右, depicts a right hand in relation to the mouth, suggesting the act of eating. In tantra Buddhism, the left hand represents wisdom. In early Roman times, the left side retained a positive connotation, as the Augures proceeded from the eastern side; the negative meaning was subsequently borrowed into Latin from Greek, since in all Roman languages. In Russian, "levsha" became a common noun for skilled craftsman, after the title character from "The Tale of Cross-eyed Lefty from Tula and the Steel Flea" written in 1881 by Nikolai Leskov.
The unfavorable associations and connotations of the use of the left hand among cultures are varied. In some areas, in order to preserve cleanliness where sanitation was an issue, the right hand, as the dominant hand of most individuals, was used for eating, handling food, social interactions; the left hand would be used for personal hygiene after urination and defecation. These rules were imposed on no matter their dominant hand. Through these practices, the left hand became known as the "unclean" hand. Amongst Muslims and in some societies including Nepal and India it is still customary to use the left hand for cleaning oneself with water after defecating; the right hand is known in contradistinction from the left, as the hand used for eating. In many religions, including Christianity, the right hand of God is the favored hand. For example, Jesus sits at God's right side. God's left hand, however, is the hand of judgement; the Archangel Gabriel is sometimes called "God's left hand", sits at God's left side, is one of six angels of death.
Those who fall from favor with God are sent to left, as described in Matthew 25: 32–33, in which sheep represent the righteous and goats represent the fallen: "And he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats. And he shall set the sheep on his right, but the goats on his left." In 19th-century Europe, homosexuals were referred to as "left-handed". In Protestant-majority parts of the United Kingdom, Catholics were called "left-footers", vice versa in Catholic-majority parts of Ireland and Irish America. Black magic is sometimes referred to as the "left-hand path", associated with Satanism. Various innocuous activities and experiences become rude or signs of bad luck when the left hand becomes involved. In some parts of Scotland, it is considered bad luck to meet a left-handed person at the start of a journey. In Ghana, gesturing, giving or receiving items with the left hand is considered taboo or rude. A person giving directions will put their left hand behind them and physically strain to point with their right hand if necessary.
In some Asian countries, holding eating utensils in the left hand is considered impolite. Due to cultural and social pressures, many left-handed children were encouraged or forced to write and perform other activities with their right hands; this conversion can cause multiple problems in the developing left-handed child, including learning disorders, dyslexia and other speech disorders. Shifts from left- to right-handed are more to be successful than right to left, though neither have a high success rate to begin with. Successful shifters are more to become ambihanded than unsuccessful ones. Conversions can be successful with consistent daily practice in a variety of manual activities, but though activity in the non-dominant left-hemisphere of the brain will increase during tasks, so too will activity in the dominant right-hemisphere. Consistent left-handers have no higher activity in these task centers than converted left-handers, so it may be inferred that "attempts to switch handedness by educational training far from weakening the functional expression of lefthandedness in higher-order motor areas of the right hemisphere in fact enhance it."Many Asian countries encourage or force their children to become right-handed due to cultural perceptions of bad luck as
Xenophobia is the fear and distrust of that, perceived to be foreign or strange. Xenophobia can involve perceptions of an ingroup towards an outgroup and can manifest itself in suspicion of the activities of others, a desire to eliminate their presence to secure a presumed purity and may relate to a fear of losing national, ethnic or racial identity. Xenophobia can be exhibited in the form of an "uncritical exaltation of another culture" in which a culture is ascribed "an unreal and exotic quality"; the terms xenophobia and racism are sometimes confused and used interchangeably because people who share a national origin may belong to the same race. Due to this, xenophobia is distinguished by opposition to foreign culture. Dictionary definitions of xenophobia include: "deep-rooted fear towards foreigners", "fear of the unfamiliar"; the word comes from the Ancient Greek words ξένος, meaning "strange", "foreigner", φόβος, meaning "fear". A scholarly definition of xenophobia, according to Andreas Wimmer, is "an element of a political struggle about who has the right to be cared for by the state and society: a fight for the collective goods of the modern state."
In other words, xenophobia arises when people feel that their rights to benefit from the government is being subverted by other people's rights. An early example of xenophobic sentiment in Western culture is the Ancient Greek denigration of foreigners as "barbarians", the belief that the Greek people and culture were superior to all others, the subsequent conclusion that barbarians were meant to be enslaved. Ancient Romans held notions of superiority over all other peoples, such as in a speech attributed to Manius Acilius, "There, as you know, there were Macedonians and Thracians and Illyrians, all most warlike nations, here Syrians and Asiatic Greeks, the most worthless peoples among mankind and born for slavery." Despite the majority of the country's population being of mixed, African, or indigenous heritage, depictions of non-European Brazilians on the programming of most national television networks is scarce and relegated for musicians/their shows. In the case of telenovelas, Brazilians of darker skin tone are depicted as housekeepers or in positions of lower socioeconomic standing.
Muslim and Sikh Canadians have faced racism and discrimination within recent years after 2001, the spill over effect of the United States’ War on Terror. A 2016 survey from The Environics Institute, a follow-up to a study conducted 10 years prior that there may be discriminating attitudes that may be a residual of the effects of the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States; when it comes to opinions on both Sikh's and Muslims, a poll done by Maclean's revealed that only 28% of Canadians view Islam favourably, only 30% viewed the Sikh religion favourably. 45 % of respondents believed. In Quebec in particular, only 17% of respondents had a favourable view of Muslims There has been racial tension between the Indo-Guyanese people and the Afro-Guyanese. Racism in Mexico has a long history. Mexicans with light skin tones had absolute control over dark skinned Amerindians due to the structure of the Spanish colonial caste system; when a Mexican of a darker-skinned tone marries one of a lighter skinned-tone, it is common for them say that they are "'making the race better'."
This can be interpreted as a self-attack on their ethnicity. Despite improving economic and social conditions of Indigenous Mexicans, discrimination against Indigenous Mexicans continues to this day and there are few laws to protect Indigenous Mexicans from discrimination. Violent attacks against indigenous Mexicans are moderately common and many times go unpunished. In Venezuela, like other South American countries, economic inequality breaks along ethnic and racial lines. A 2013 Swedish academic study stated that Venezuela was the most racist country in the Americas, followed by the Dominican Republic. Concern over Japanese ethnic and immigrant groups during the Second World War prompted the Canadian and U. S. governments to intern most of their ethnically Japanese populations in the western portions of North America. As in most countries, many people in the U. S. continue to be xenophobic against other races. In the view of a network of scores of US civil rights and human rights organizations, "Discrimination permeates all aspects of life in the United States, extends to all communities of color."
Discrimination against racial and religious minorities when it comes to African Americans, is acknowledged. Members of every major American ethnic and religious minority have perceived discrimination in their dealings with other minority racial and religious groups. Philosopher Cornel West has stated that "racism is an integral element within the fabric of American culture and society, it is embedded in the country's first collective definition, enunciated in its subsequent laws, imbued in its dominant way of life." After Donald Trump took presidential office in 2017, he attempted to enact a travel ban on seven countries which were listed as "countries of concern" by Secretary of Homeland Security Jeh Johnson under the Obama administration in 2011. This was changed to six in a revision that removed Iraq in part due to criticism that the original order overlooked the country’s role in fighting Islamic terrorism and barred entry to the Iraqi interpreters, embedded with US forces in the region.
Khizr Khan, the father of United States Army Captain Humayun Khan, described it in a CNN interview as a continuat
Anti-intellectualism is hostility to and mistrust of intellect and intellectualism expressed as deprecation of education and philosophy, the dismissal of art and science as impractical and contemptible human pursuits. Anti-intellectuals present themselves and are perceived as champions of common folk—populists against political and academic elitism—and tend to see educated people as a status class detached from the concerns of most people, feel that intellectuals dominate political discourse and control higher education. Totalitarian governments apply anti-intellectualism to repress political dissent. During the Spanish Civil War and the following fascist dictatorship of General Francisco Franco, the reactionary repression of the White Terror was notably anti-intellectual, with most of the 200,000 civilians killed being the Spanish intelligentsia, the politically active teachers and academics and writers of the deposed Second Spanish Republic. In the communist state of Democratic Kampuchea, the Khmer Rouge régime of Pol Pot condemned all of the non-communist intelligentsia to death in the Killing Fields.
In the 20th century, societies have systematically removed intellectuals from power, to expediently end public political dissent. During the Cold War, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic ostracized the philosopher Václav Havel as a politically-unreliable man unworthy of ordinary Czechs' trust. Ideologically-extreme dictatorships who mean to recreate a society such as the Khmer Rouge rule of Cambodia pre-emptively killed potential political opponents the educated middle-class and the intelligentsia. To realize the Year Zero of Cambodian history, Khmer Rouge social engineering restructured the economy by de-industrialization and assassinated non-communist Cambodians suspected of "involvement in free-market activities" such as the urban professionals of society and people with political connections to foreign governments; the doctrine of Pol Pot identified the farmers as the true proletariat of Cambodia and the true representatives of the working class entitled to hold government power, hence the anti-intellectual purges.
In 1966, the anti-communist Argentine military dictatorship of General Juan Carlos Onganía intervened at the University of Buenos Aires with the Night of the Long Batons to physically dislodge politically-dangerous academics from five university faculties. That expulsion to exile of the academic intelligentsia became a national brain drain upon the society and economy of Argentina. In support of the military repression of free speech, biochemist César Milstein said: "Our country would be put in order, as soon as all the intellectuals who were meddling in the region were expelled". However, anti-intellectualism is not always violent. Any social group can act anti-intellectually by discounting the humanist value to their society of intellect and higher education. In The Campus Wars, the philosopher John Searle said, he two most salient traits of the radical movement are its anti-intellectualism and its hostility to the university as an institution.... Intellectuals, by definition, are people who take ideas for their own sake.
Whether or not a theory is true or false is important to them, independently of any practical applications it may have. Have, as Richard Hofstadter has pointed out, an attitude to ideas, at once playful and pious. But, in the radical movement, the intellectual ideal of knowledge for its own sake is rejected. Knowledge is seen as valuable only as a basis for action, it is not very valuable there. Far more important than what one knows is. In Social Sciences as Sorcery, the sociologist Stanislav Andreski advised laymen to distrust the intellectuals' appeals to authority when they make questionable claims about resolving the problems of their society: "Do not be impressed by the imprint of a famous publishing house, or the volume of an author's publications.... Remember that the publishers want to keep the printing presses busy, do not object to nonsense if it can be sold."In Science and Relativism: Some Key Controversies in the Philosophy of Science, the epistemologist Larry Laudan said that the prevailing type of philosophy taught at university in the U.
S. is anti-intellectual, because "the displacement of the idea that facts and evidence matter, by the idea that everything boils down to subjective interests and perspectives is—second only to American political campaigns—the most prominent and pernicious manifestation of anti-intellectualism in our time." In the U. S. the American conservative economist Thomas Sowell argued for distinctions between unreasonable and reasonable wariness of intellectuals in their influence upon the institutions of a society. In defining intellectuals as "people whose occupations deal with ideas", they are different from people whose work is the practical application of ideas; that cause for layman mistrust lies in the intellectuals' incompetence outside their fields of expertise. Although possessed of great working knowledge in their specialist fields, when compared to other professions and occupations, the intellectuals of a society face little discouragement against speaking authoritatively beyond their field of formal expertise, thus are unlikely to face responsibility for the social and practical consequences of their errors.
Hence, a physician is judged competent by the effective treatment of the sickness of a patient, yet mi
White supremacy or white supremacism is the racist belief that white people are superior to people of other races and therefore should be dominant over them. White supremacy has roots in scientific racism, it relies on pseudoscientific arguments. Like most similar movements such as neo-Nazism, white supremacists oppose members of other races as well as Jews; the term is typically used to describe a political ideology that perpetuates and maintains the social, historical, or institutional domination by white people. Different forms of white supremacism put forth different conceptions of, considered white, different groups of white supremacists identify various racial and cultural groups as their primary enemy. In academic usage in usage which draws on critical race theory or intersectionality, the term "white supremacy" can refer to a political or socioeconomic system, in which white people enjoy a structural advantage over other ethnic groups, on both a collective and individual level. White supremacy has ideological foundations that date back to 17th-century scientific racism, the predominant paradigm of human variation that helped shape international relations and racial policy from the latter part of the Age of Enlightenment until the late 20th century.
White supremacy was dominant in the United States both before and after the American Civil War, it persisted for decades after the Reconstruction Era. In the antebellum South, this included the holding of African Americans in chattel slavery, in which four million of them were denied freedom; the outbreak of the Civil War saw the desire to uphold white supremacy being cited as a cause for state secession and the formation of the Confederate States of America. In an editorial about Native Americans in 1890, author L. Frank Baum wrote: "The Whites, by law of conquest, by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians."In some parts of the United States, many people who were considered non-white were disenfranchised, barred from government office, prevented from holding most government jobs well into the second half of the 20th century. Professor Leland T. Saito of the University of Southern California writes: "Throughout the history of the United States, race has been used by whites for legitimizing and creating difference and social and political exclusion."
The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only. The denial of social and political freedom to minorities continued into the mid-20th century, resulting in the civil rights movement. Sociologist Stephen Klineberg has stated that U. S. immigration laws prior to 1965 declared "that Northern Europeans are a superior subspecies of the white race". The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 opened entry to the U. S. to immigrants other than traditional Northern European and Germanic groups, altered the demographic mix in the U. S as a result. Many U. S. states banned interracial marriage through anti-miscegenation laws until 1967, when these laws were invalidated by the Supreme Court of the United States' decision in Loving v. Virginia; these mid-century gains had a major impact on white Americans' political views. For sociologist Howard Winant, these shifts marked the end of "monolithic white supremacy" in the United States. After the mid-1960s, white supremacy remained an important ideology to the American far-right.
According to Kathleen Belew, a historian of race and racism in the United States, white militancy shifted after the Vietnam War from supporting the existing racial order to a more radical position—self-described as "white power" or "white nationalism"—committed to overthrowing the United States government and establishing a white homeland. Such anti-government militia organizations are one of three major strands of violent right-wing movements in the United States, with white supremacist groups and a religious fundamentalist movement being the other two. Howard Winant writes that, "On the far right the cornerstone of white identity is belief in an ineluctable, unalterable racialized difference between whites and nonwhites." In the view of philosopher Jason Stanley, white supremacy in the United States is an example of the fascist politics of hierarchy, in that it "demands and implies a perpetual hierarchy" in which whites dominate and control non-whites. Some academics argue that outcomes from the 2016 United States Presidential Election reflect ongoing challenges with white supremacy.
Psychologist Janet Helms suggested that the normalizing behaviors of social institutions of education and healthcare are organized around the "birthright of...the power to control society's resources and determine the rules for ". Educators, literary theorists, other political experts have raised similar questions, connecting the scapegoating of disenfranchised populations to white superiority. White supremacism has been depicted in music videos, feature films, journal entries, on social media; the 1915 silent drama film The Birth
Anti-Masonry is "avowed opposition to Freemasonry". However, there is no homogeneous anti-Masonic movement. Anti-Masonry consists of radically differing criticisms from sometimes incompatible groups who are hostile to Freemasonry in some form; the earliest anti-Masonic document was a leaflet printed in 1698 by a Presbyterian minister named Winter. It reads: TO ALL GODLY PEOPLE, In the Citie of London. Having thought it needful to warn you of the Mischiefs and Evils practiced in the Sight of God by those called Freed Masons, I say take Care lest their Ceremonies and secret Swearings take hold of you. For this devilish Sect of Men are Meeters in secret, they are the Anti Christ, to come leading Men from Fear of God. For how should Men meet in secret Places and with secret Signs taking Care that none observed them to do the Work of GOD. Knowing how that God observeth privilly them that sit in Darkness they shall be smitten and the Secrets of their Hearts layed bare. Mingle not among this corrupt People lest you be found so at the World's Conflagration.
In 1826, William Morgan disappeared from the small town of Batavia, New York, after threatening to expose Freemasonry's "secrets" by publishing its rituals. His disappearance caused some Anti-masons to claim that he had been kidnapped and murdered by Masons. Morgan's disappearance sparked a series of protests against Freemasonry, which spread to the political realm. Under the leadership of anti-Masonic Thurlow Weed, an Anti-Jacksonist movement became the Anti-Masonic Party; this political Party ran presidential candidates in 1828 and 1832, but by 1835 the party had disbanded everywhere except Pennsylvania. In the United Kingdom, anti-Masonic sentiment grew following the publication of Martin Short's 1989 book, Inside the Brotherhood; the allegations made by Short led several members of the British Government to propose laws requiring Freemasons who join the police or judiciary to declare their membership publicly to the government amid accusations of Freemasons performing acts of mutual advancement and favour-swapping.
This movement was led by Jack Straw, Home Secretary from 1997 until 2001. In 1999, the Welsh Assembly became the only body in the United Kingdom to place a legal requirement on membership declaration for Freemasons. Existing members of the police and judiciary in England are asked to voluntarily admit to being Freemasons. However, all first time successful judiciary candidates had to "declare their freemasonry status" before appointment until 2009, when – following a successful challenge in the European Court by Italian Freemasons – Jack Straw accepted that the policy was "disproportionate" and revoked it. Conversely, new members of the police are not required to declare their status. In 2004, Rhodri Morgan, the First Minister of the Welsh Assembly, in Great Britain, said that he blocked Gerard Elias' appointment to counsel general because of links to hunting and freemasonry, although it was claimed by non-Labour politicians that the real reason was in order to have a Labour supporter, Malcolm Bishop, in the role.
Soviet Russia outlawed all secret societies, including Masonry, in 1922. At one of the Second International meetings Grigory Zinoviev demanded to purge it of masons. Freemasonry did not exist in China, or most other Communist states. Postwar revivals of Freemasonry in Czechoslovakia and Hungary were suppressed in 1950. However, Freemasonry in Cuba continued to exist following the Cuban Revolution, according to Cuban folklore, Fidel Castro is said to have "developed a soft spot for the Masons when they gave him refuge in a Masonic Lodge" in the 1950s. However, when in power, Castro was said to have "kept them on a tight leash" as they were considered a subversive element in Cuban society. Fascists treated Freemasonry as a potential source of opposition. Masonic writers state that the language used by the totalitarian regimes is similar to that used by other modern critics of Freemasonry. Considered an ideological foe of Nazism in their world perception, Concentration Camp inmates who were Freemasons were graded as "Political" prisoners, wore an inverted red triangle.
In 1943, the Propaganda Abteilung, a delegation of Nazi Germany's propaganda ministry within occupied France, commissioned the propaganda film Forces occultes. The film virulently denounces Freemasonry, parliamentarianism and Jews as part of Vichy's drive against them and seeks to prove a Jewish-Masonic plot; the number of Freemasons from Nazi occupied countries who were killed is not known, but it is estimated that between 80,000 and 200,000 Freemasons perished under the Nazi regime. The Government of the United Kingdom established Holocaust Memorial Day to recognise all groups who were targets of the Nazi regime, counter Holocaust denial. Freemasons are listed as being among those. In 1980, the Iraqi legal and penal code was changed by Saddam Hussein and the ruling Ba'ath Party, thereby making it a felony to "promote or acclaim Zionist principles, including freemasonry, or who associate with Zionist organizations." Freemasonry has been alleged to hold back its members from committing to their nation.
Critics claim that compared to Operative Masonry's clear denunciations of treachery, Speculative Masonry was far more ambiguous. The old Catholic Encyclopedia alleges that Masonic disapproval of treachery is not on moral grounds but on the grounds of inconvenience to other Masons, it argues that the adage "Loyalty to freedom