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Self-Strengthening Movement

The Self-Strengthening Movement known as the Westernization or Western Affairs Movement, was a period of institutional reforms initiated in China during the late Qing dynasty following the military disasters of the Opium Wars. The British and French burning of the Old Summer Palace in 1860 as Taiping rebel armies marched north, forced the imperial court to acknowledge the crisis. Prince Gong was made regent, Grand Councilor, head of the newly formed Zongli Yamen. To make peace with the Western powers and mobilize support among Han Chinese for their Manchu dynasty, Prince Gong and Ci Xi, the Empress Dowager, appointed Han Chinese officials such as Zeng Guofan to positions of responsibility in prosecuting the war against the rebels. Zeng and his armies defeated the rebels and prosecuted efforts to import Western military technology and to translate Western scientific knowledge, they established successful arsenals and munitions factories. In the 1870s and 1880s, their successors used their positions as provincial officials to build shipping and railways.

China made substantial progress toward modernizing its heavy industry and military but the majority of the ruling elite still subscribed to a conservative Confucian worldview, the "self-strengtheners" were by and large uninterested in social reform beyond the scope of economic and military modernization. The Self-Strengthening Movement succeeded in securing the revival of the dynasty from the brink of eradication, sustaining it for another half-century; the considerable successes of the movement came to an abrupt end with China's defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895. The original use of the phrase "self-strengthening" is the ancient I Ching, the Book of Changes, where it is written, "The superior man makes himself strong"; the same phrase is encountered in use by the Southern Song dynasty in reference to dealing with the crisis of Jurchen invasion, again by the Qianlong Emperor, writing that self strengthening was requisite for warding off foreign aspirations. As the eighteenth century drew to a close, the gradual decline of the Chinese bureaucracy became apparent, there was a rapid shift in the ideology of the Chinese Confucian Scholars towards the "School of Practical Learning" that argued for a practical approach to government and did not shy away from urging institutional reforms.

These scholars came to co-opt ideas from the ancient Legalist philosophy such as fu-chi'ang, the focus on the wealth and power of the state. The concern with the "self-strengthening" of China was expressed by Feng Guifen in a series of essays presented by him to Zeng Guofan in 1861. Feng obtained expertise in warfare commanding a volunteer corps in Qing government's campaign against the Taiping rebels. In 1860 he moved to Shanghai. In his diaries, Zeng mentioned his self-strengthening rhetoric directed at technological modernization. Li Hongzhang uses the term in an 1864 letter whereby he identifies the Western strength as lying in technology and advocates learning to construct such machines, first military and subsequently – in a memorial the following year – civilian. Other terms used to refer to the movement are the Westernization Movement or Western Affairs Movement. Early works by scholars such as Chen Lujiong, Wang Dahai, Xie Qinggao espoused the idea that Western countries were a threat due to their superior military technology: these scholars called for the adoption of Western weapon technology.

Scholar official Wei Yuan, writing on behalf of Commissioner Lin Zexu at the close of the First Opium War, expressed advocacy for production of Western armament and warships. By the 1830s and 1840s, proposals emerged urging the use of Western military technology for defence against foreign powers, as well as specific reforms to traditional institutions such as the Imperial Examinations to assist the propagation of the new technology. During the First Opium War, Lin Zexu purchased a ship from Europeans; the Taiping rebellion was not relatively. An growing number of Western weapons dealers and blackmarketeers sold Western weapons such as modern muskets and cannons to the rebels. Taiping leadership advocated the adoption of railways and steamships among other Western developments. Zeng Guofan, official in Hunan province, begun recruitment for his managed militia, the Xiang Army, sourcing funds from local merchants, to combat the rebels, using Western weapons and training. Imperial forces encompassed the Ever Victorious Army, consisting of Chinese soldiers led by a European officer corps, backed by British arms companies like Willoughbe & Ponsonby.

By 1860, the overwhelming bulk of the Chinese scholarly class had become conscious of the radical transformation, occurring. They now proclaimed that change was irresistible and advocated for deeper studies of Western technology. In July 1861, Prince Gong declared that he had received Imperial approbation for the purchase of foreign weapons for self-strengthening, initiating the reform movement; the movement can be divided into three phases. The first lasted from 1861 to 1872, emphasized the adoption of Western firearms, scientific knowledge and training of technical and diplomatic personnel through the establishment of a diplomatic office and a college; the Tongwen Guan was established in 1862 by the joint advocacy of Prince Gong and Wenxiang, offering classes in English, French and German, in order to train diplomats to engage with Westerners. Li Hongzhang founded a similar language school in Shanghai in 1862, anothe

Energy in Norway

Norway is a large energy producer, one of the world's largest exporters of oil. Most of the electricity in the country is produced by hydroelectricity. Norway is one of the leading countries in the electrification of its transport sector, with the largest fleet of electric vehicles per capita in the world. Since the discovery of North Sea oil in Norwegian waters during the late 1960s, exports of oil and gas have become important elements of the economy of Norway. With North Sea oil production having peaked, disagreements over exploration for oil in the Barents Sea, the prospect of exploration in the Arctic, as well as growing international concern over global warming, energy in Norway is receiving close attention. In 2011, Norway was the eighth largest crude oil exporter in the world, the 9th largest exporter of refined oil, it was the world's third largest natural gas exporter, having significant gas reserves in the North Sea. Norway possesses some of the world's largest exploitable coal reserves on earth.

Norway's abundant energy resources represent a significant source of national revenue. Crude oil and natural gas accounted for 40% of the country's total export value in 2015; as a share of GDP, the export of oil and natural gas is 17%. As a means to ensure security and mitigate against the “Dutch disease” characterized by fluctuations in the price of oil, the Norwegian government funnels a portion of this export revenue into a pension fund, the Government Pension Fund Global; the Norwegian government receives these funds from their market shares within oil industries, such as their two-thirds share of Statoil, allocates it through their government controlled domestic economy. This combination allows the government to distribute the natural resource wealth into welfare investments for the mainland. Tying this fiscal policy to the oil market for equity concerns creates a cost-benefit economic solution towards a public access good problem in which a select few are able to reap the direct benefits of a public good.

Domestically, Norway has addressed the complications that occur with oil industry markets in protecting the mainland economy and government intervention in distributing its revenue to combat balance-of-payment shocks and to address energy security. The externalities engendered from Norway’s activities on the environment, pose another concern apart from its domestic economic implications. Most of Norwegian gas is exported to European countries, 20% of European gas consumption is from Norway, Norwegian oil supplies 2% of the global consumption of oil. Considering that three million barrels of oil adds 1.3 Mt of CO2 per day to the atmosphere as it is consumed, 474 Mt/year, the global CO2 impact of Norway’s natural resource supply is significant. Despite that Norway exports eight times the amount of energy consumed domestically, most of Norway’s carbon emissions are from its oil and gas industry at 30% and from road traffic at 23%. To address the problem of CO2 emissions, the Norwegian government has adopted different measures, including signing multilateral and bilateral treaties to cut its emissions in lieu of rising global environmental concerns.

Norway can serve as a role model for many countries in terms of petroleum resource management. In Norway, good institutions and open and dynamic public debate involving a whole variety of civil society actors are key factors for successful petroleum governance. In May 1963, Norway asserted sovereign rights over natural resources in its sector of the North Sea. Exploration started on July 1966, when Ocean Traveller drilled its first hole. Initial exploration was fruitless, until Ocean Viking found oil on August 21, 1969. By the end of 1969, it was clear that there were large gas reserves in the North Sea; the first oil field was Ekofisk, which produced 427,442 barrels of crude in 1980. Subsequently, large natural gas reserves have been discovered and it was this huge amount of oil found in the North Sea that made Norway’s separate path outside the EU possible. Against the backdrop of the 1972 Norwegian referendum to not join the European Union, the Norwegian Ministry of Industry, headed by Ola Skjåk Bræk moved to establish a national energy policy.

Norway decided to stay out of OPEC, keep its own energy prices in line with world markets, spend the revenue—known as the "currency gift"—in the Petroleum Fund of Norway. The Norwegian government established its own oil company and awarded drilling and production rights to Norsk Hydro and the newly formed Saga Petroleum; the North Sea turned out to present many technical challenges for production and exploration, Norwegian companies invested in building capabilities to meet these challenges. A number of engineering and construction companies emerged from the remnants of the lost shipbuilding industry, creating centers of competence in Stavanger and the western suburbs of Oslo. Stavanger became the land-based staging area for the offshore drilling industry. Due to refinery needs when making special qualities of commercial oils, Norway imported NOK 3.5 billion of foreign oil in 2015. In March 2005, Minister of Foreign Affairs Jan Petersen stated that the Barents Sea, off the coast of Norway and Russia, may hold one third of the world's remaining undiscovered oil and gas.

In 2005, the moratorium on exploration in the Norwegian sector, imposed in 2001 due to environmental concerns, was lifted following a change in government. A terminal and liquefied natural gas plant is now being constructed at Snøhvit, it is thought that Snøhvit may act as a future staging post for oil exploration in the Arc

Afzal Tahir

Admiral Muhammad Afzal Tahir,. Admiral Tahir tenured as the Chief of Naval Staff of Pakistan Navy from 7 October 2005 until retiring from his military service on 7 October 2008. Upon the announcement to the four-star appointment in 2005, he superseded Vice-Admiral Mohammad Haroon who continued to serve under him as Vice-Chief of Naval Staff and was succeeded by newly appointed Admiral Noman Bashir in October 2008. Muhammad Afzal Tahir was born on 4 January 1949 in Lyallpur, Pakistan to a Punjabi family who belonged to the Arain tribe, his father was a civil servant in the British Indian government who worked as an administrative officer in the Kapurthala State before the partition of India in 1947. After the partition that saw the establishment of Pakistan in August 1947, his father joined the Central Superior Services and worked as Federal Secretary in various ministerial cabinets. After graduating from a local high school in Lyallpur, he was commissioned in the Pakistan Navy as a midshipman on 11 May 1967 and was sent to join the Pakistan Military Academy where he did his initial military training.

He is the graduate in the class of 40th PMA Long Course and promoted as Sub-Lieutenant upon his graduation. He did his necessary sea training at the Pakistan Naval Academy in Karachi prior being promoted as lieutenant in the Navy and inducted in Operations Branch, he was trained as a surface warship officer and qualified as a naval aviator to fly the Alouette III of Pakistan Army board in the surface warships during the western front of the third war with India in 1971. Lt. Tahir saw combat actions in the naval operations during the third war with India and served on the minesweepers as an executive officer. After the war, Lt. Tahir joined the naval aviation in 1974 to continue his training as a naval aviator and was appointed as flag lieutenant to Chief of Naval Staff, Admiral K. R. Niazi, from 1981 until 1982, he was promoted as lieutenant-commander in 1982 and was posted in Qatar to serve as a military adviser to Qatar military until 1985 when he returned to Pakistan. On return from deputation to Qatar in 1985, Lt.

Cdr Tahir was appointed Staff Officer to the Commander Naval Aviation. During the same time, he was promoted as commander and was appointed as executive officer of a destroyer. In 1988, Cdr Tahir was sent to attend the Joint Services Staff Course at Joint Services Staff College at Chaklala and upon completion of the course he was appointed to its Directing Staff. In 1990, he was promoted as captain and assumed the command of the naval air station, PNS Mehran before commanding the guided missile destroyer in 1992, he was nominated to attend the National Defence University where he gained master's degree in Strategic studies in 1997 and assumed the command of the Naval Aviation as its commander. During the same time, he was promoted as commodore and was the chief of staff to the Commander Pakistan Fleet in 1997. In 1998, he moved to the Inter-Services Intelligence and served its director in Islamabad and led the intelligence department while stationed in Islamabad, his tenure as an ISI director for Islamabad section witnessed key political events in the country, including the testing program in 1998, leading the ISI intelligence section during the Kargil confrontation in 1999, the martial law in the country in 1999.

In 2000, Cdre Tahir was promoted as rear-admiral and moved to the Navy NHQ as Deputy Chief of Naval Staff and took participation in naval defense preparations during the military standoff between India and Pakistan in 2001. Together with Admiral Shahid Karimullah, he lobbied for notably acquiring the second-strike nuclear capability and marked: Pakistan navy would soon have "a qualitative edge over a numerically superior enemy" meaning archrival India."In 2002, Rear-Admiral Tahir was moved as DCNS but assumed the command of the fleet vessel as Commander Pakistan Fleet the same year. He facilitated a visit of Lieutenant-General Earl B. Hailston of U. S. Marines at the Navy NHQ to held talks on geo-strategic situation in South Asia. In 2003, he was promoted to three-star rank, Vice-Admiral, moved to the Navy NHQ as DCNS, he is a recipient of the Hilal-i-Imtiaz. In 2005, Vice-Admiral Tahir was announced to be appointed as the next Chief of Naval Staff by President Pervez Musharraf and promoted as four-star rank Admiral before taking over the command of the Navy from Admiral Shahid Karimullah, appointed for a diplomatic post in Saudi Arabia.

Admiral Tahir superseded Vice-Admiral Mohammad Haroon, serving as chief of staff under Admiral Karimullah and was senior to Admiral Tahir. In October 2005, Admiral Tahir assumed the command of the Navy and had Vice-Admiral Haroon to serve on his capacity until retiring from his service. Tahir is a keen single-handicap golfer, he belongs to an Arain agriculturalist family of Punjab. He has three daughters and two sons. Pakistan Navy Pakistan Naval Aviation Mirage 5 in the services of Pakistan Navy Aérospatiale Alouette III in Pakistan Navy Biography of Admiral Afzal Tahir

Lancaster Arts Hotel

The Lancaster Arts Hotel is a hotel in Lancaster, housed in a historic tobacco warehouse. The hotel site was built in the 1880s as a tobacco warehouse and was used that way until 1945, it was used by a paper and twine business as well as an electronics business before being transformed into the hotel. The hotel is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a contributing property to the Harrisburg Avenue Tobacco Historic District. Lancaster Arts Hotel is a member of Historic Hotels of America, the official program of the National Trust for Historic Preservation; the hotel has an art gallery featuring rotating exhibitions by regional artists. Included in the gallery is a room paying homage to Lancaster sculptor Blanche Nevin whose sculpture of Peter Muhlenberg is housed in the National Statuary Hall Collection at the U. S. Capitol Building. Another room features the work of Watercolor Painter Charles Demuth. Other artists who have been exhibited at the hotel include David Brumbach. Becker, Gloria O. "Harrisburg Avenue Tobacco Historic District".

National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Retrieved August 12, 2011. Lancaster Arts Hotel

Monoceros (legendary creature)

The monoceros is a legendary animal with only one horn related to the unicorn. It derives from the Greek word μονόκερως, a compound word from μόνος which means "only one" / "single" and κέρας, which means "horn"; the monoceros was first described in Pliny the Elder's Natural History as a creature with the body of a horse, the head of a stag, the feet of an elephant, the tail of a wild boar. It has one black horn in the middle of its forehead, two cubits in length, is impossible to capture alive. Cosmas Indicopleustes, in the Christian Topography, writes that he did not see the animal, but he did see brazen figures of it at the palace of the King of Aethiopia and from these figures he was able to draw it, he mention that the people speak of it as a terrible beast and invincible and that all its strength lies in his horn. When it is pursued by many hunters and is about to being caught, it springs up to the top of some precipice whence and falls down and while falling it turns so that the horn sustains all the shock of the fall, it escapes unhurt.

In today's English language, the term monoceros refers to a unicorn or similar one-horned creature. Elasmotherium Rhinoceros Unicorn

William Blair (surgeon)

William Blair was an English surgeon with an interest in ciphers and stenography. He was known for contributing articles to Rees's Cyclopædia. William Blair was born in 1766 in Suffolk, he was the youngest son of William Blair, M. D. and his wife Ann Gideon. He qualified as a surgical practice in London under Mr. J. Pearson of Golden Square, who introduced him to the London Lock Hospital, when a vacancy arose he was given a position as a surgeon to that charity. Blair was an M. A. but it is not known. He became eminent in his profession, was surgeon to the Asylum, the Finsbury Dispensary, the Bloomsbury Dispensary for the Relief of the Sick Poor in Great Russell Street, the Female Penitentiary at Cumming House and the New Rupture Society, he was a member of the Royal College of Surgeons, of the medical societies of London, Paris and Aberdeen. For some time he was editor of the London Medical Magazine. Blair was a keen Methodist, worked in the cause of the British and Foreign Bible Society, to which he presented his valuable collection of rare and curious editions of the Bible, many scarce commentaries in different languages.

He with little success. On his wife's death in March 1822 he resolved to give up professional practice, to retire into the country, he took a house in the neighbourhood of Colchester, but before the preparations for removing were completed he was seized with illness, died at his residence in Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury on 6 December 1822. William Blair's portrait was presented to the Bloomsbury Dispensary by Henry Meyer. Blair was interested in ciphers and stenography, wrote articles about the subject in Rees's Cyclopædia. David Kahn, in his work The Code breakers, characterized Blair's "superb article" as "the finest treatise in English on cryptology" until Parker Hitt's military manual was published by the U. S. Army in 1916. Blair's article on ciphers from the American edition of the Cyclopedia has been digitized and can be linked from the website about the Beale ciphers; the Soldier's Friend, containing familiar instructions to the loyal volunteers, yeomanry corps, military men in general, on the preservation and recovery of their health, 1798 Essays on the Venereal Disease and its concomitant Effects, 1798, Anthropology, or the Natural History of Man, with a comparative view of the structure and functions of animated beings in general, 1805 The Vaccine Contest, being an exact outline of the arguments adduced by the principal combatants on both sides respecting Cow-Pox inoculation, including a late official report by the medical council of the Royal Jennerian Society, 1806 Hints for the consideration of Parliament in a letter to Dr. Jenner on the supposed failure of vaccination at Ringwood, including a report of the Royal Jennerian Society remarks on the prevalent abuse of variolous inoculation, on the exposure of out-patients attending at the Small-pox Hospital, 1808 Prostitutes Reclaimed and Penitents Protected, being an answer to some objections against the Female Penitentiary, 1809 Strictures on Mr. Hale's reply to the pamphlets published in defence of the London Penitentiary, 1809 The Pastor and Deacon examined, or remarks on the Rev. John Thomas's appeal in vindication of Mr. Hale's character, in opposition to Female Penitentiaries, 1810 The Correspondence on the Formation and Plan of the Roman Catholic Bible Society, 1814 The Revival of Popery, its intolerant character, political tendency, encroaching demands, unceasing usurpations, in letters to William Wilberforce, 1819 A New Alphabet of Fifteen Letters, including the vowels,’ in William Harding's ‘Universal Stenography 2nd edit.

1824. MS letters about his method of Secret Writing, containing original letters to him on the subject from the Right Hon. W. Windham, G. Canning, the Earl of Harrowby, J. Symmons of Paddington, Michael Gage of Swaffham, with the whole of his system of ciphers, were sold at the dispersal of William Upcott's collection in 1846. For Rees's Cyclopædia he contributed articles on Surgery as well as: Cipher, Vol 8, Vol 34, Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Cooper, Thompson. "Blair, William". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 5. London: Smith, Elder & Co