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Self-assembly is a process in which a disordered system of pre-existing components forms an organized structure or pattern as a consequence of specific, local interactions among the components themselves, without external direction. When the constitutive components are molecules, the process is termed molecular self-assembly. Self-assembly can be classified as either dynamic. In static self-assembly, the ordered state forms as a system approaches equilibrium, reducing its free energy. However, in dynamic self-assembly, patterns of pre-existing components organized by specific local interactions are not described as "self-assembled" by scientists in the associated disciplines; these structures are better described as "self-organized", although these terms are used interchangeably. Self-assembly in the classic sense can be defined as the spontaneous and reversible organization of molecular units into ordered structures by non-covalent interactions; the first property of a self-assembled system that this definition suggests is the spontaneity of the self-assembly process: the interactions responsible for the formation of the self-assembled system act on a local level—in other words, the nanostructure builds itself.

Although self-assembly occurs between weakly-interacting species, this organization may be transferred into strongly-bound covalent systems. An example for this may be observed in the self-assembly of polyoxometalates. Evidence suggests that such molecules assemble via a dense-phase type mechanism whereby small oxometalate ions first assemble non-covalently in solution, followed by a condensation reaction that covalently binds the assembled units; this process can be aided by the introduction of templating agents to control the formed species. In such a way organized covalent molecules may be formed in a specific manner. Self-assembled nano-structure is an object that appears as a result of ordering and aggregation of individual nano-scale objects guided by some physical principle. A counter-intuitive example of a physical principle that can drive self-assembly is entropy maximization. Though entropy is conventionally associated with disorder under suitable conditions entropy can drive nano-scale objects to self-assemble into target structures in a controllable way.

Another important class of self-assembly is field-directed assembly. An example of this is the phenomenon of electrostatic trapping. In this case an electric field is applied between two metallic nano-electrodes; the particles present in the environment are polarized by the applied electric field. Because of dipole interaction with the electric field gradient the particles are attracted to the gap between the electrodes. Generalizations of this type approach involving different types of fields, e.g. using magnetic fields, using capillary interactions for particles trapped at interfaces, elastic interactions for particles suspended in liquid crystals have been reported. Regardless of the mechanism driving self-assembly, people take self-assembly approaches to materials synthesis to avoid the problem of having to construct materials one building block at a time. Avoiding one-at-a-time approaches is important because the amount of time required to place building blocks into a target structure is prohibitively difficult for structures that have macroscopic size.

Once materials of macroscopic size can be self-assembled, those materials can find use in many applications. For example, nano-structures such as nano-vacuum gaps are used for storing energy and nuclear energy conversion. Self-assembled tunable materials are promising candidates for large surface area electrodes in batteries and organic photovoltaic cells, as well as for microfluidic sensors and filters. At this point, one may argue that any chemical reaction driving atoms and molecules to assemble into larger structures, such as precipitation, could fall into the category of self-assembly. However, there are at least three distinctive features. First, the self-assembled structure must have a higher order than the isolated components, be it a shape or a particular task that the self-assembled entity may perform; this is not true in chemical reactions, where an ordered state may proceed towards a disordered state depending on thermodynamic parameters. The second important aspect of self-assembly is the predominant role of weak interactions compared to more "traditional" covalent, ionic, or metallic bonds.

These weak interactions are important in materials synthesis for two reasons. First, weak interactions take a prominent place in materials in biological systems. For instance, they determine the physical properties of liquids, the solubility of solids, the organization of molecules in biological membranes. Second, in addition to the strength of the interactions, interactions with varying degrees of specificity can control self-assembly. Self-assembly, mediated by DNA pairing interactions constitutes the interactions of the highest specificity that have been used to drive self-assembly. At the other extreme, the least specific interactions are those provided by emergent forces that arise from entropy maximization; the third distinctive feature of self-assembly is that the building blocks are not only atoms and molecules, but span a wide range of nano- and mesoscopic structures, with different chemical compositions and shapes. Research into possible three-dimensional shapes of self-assembling micrites examines Platonic solids.

The term ‘micrite’ was created by DARPA to refer to sub-millimeter sized microrobots, whose self-organizing abilities

Brian Timmis

Brian Mercer "Old Man of the Mountain" Timmis was a star senior Canadian football player in the Saskatchewan Rugby Football Union and Interprovincial Rugby Football Union for a combined 17 seasons for the Hamilton Tigers. He is a three-time Grey Cup champion as a player, having won with the Tigers in 1928, 1929, 1932, he coached the Hamilton Flying Wildcats, leading them to the 1943 Grey Cup championship. He was an inaugural member of the Canadian Football Hall of Fame in 1963 and was inducted into Canada's Sports Hall of Fame in 1975. Brian Timmis Stadium in Hamilton, Ontario was named after him. Timmis was born in Winnipeg and moved to Ottawa in 1910 where his father, a militia member, was stationed, he played football locally before enlisting in the Canadian Armed Forces in 1915 by stating he was two years younger than he was. After returning from the First World War in 1919, he played junior football for the Ottawa Seconds. After being released from military service, Timmis joined the Royal Canadian Mounted Police where he was stationed in Regina.

Following his move to Regina, Timmis played locally for the Regina Rugby Club where he played from 1920 to 1922. In a game in 1921, an opponent nearly strangled him with his own chinstrap, so Timmis played the rest of his career without a helmet. In 1923, he played one season for the Ottawa Rough Riders, he joined the Hamilton Tigers in 1924 and played in his first game with the club on October 4, 1924, starting at middle wing. The team finished in first place in the IRFU in 1924, but lost the East Final to the Queen's Golden Gaels. After sub-par seasons in 1925 and 1926, where the team did not qualify for playoffs, Timmis played in his first Grey Cup game in 1927, but the Tigers lost to the Toronto Balmy Beach Beachers; the Tigers won back-to-back Grey Cup championships over Timmis' former club, Regina, in 1928 and 1929 while Timmis scored two touchdowns in the 1928 game. Timmis was named an Eastern All-Star by the Canadian Press in 1932 at the Tackle position, the first year players were named all-stars.

He capped off his year by winning his third Grey Cup championship in the 20th Grey Cup game by once again defeating the Regina Roughriders. He retired at the end of the 1935 season. At the behest of the Tigers organization, Timmis came out of retirement to play in the team's 1936 IRFU playoff game against the Ottawa Rough Riders in Ottawa, he played with infected tonsils and shoulder neuritis, leaving his left arm limp, but still played the entire game. He was cheered on by the crowd in Ottawa. After his playing career, Timmis had numerous stints as a football coach, highlighted by his 1943 season when he coached the Hamilton Flying Wildcats to a win in the 31st Grey Cup game. Timmis' son, Brian II, played fullback for the Saskatchewan Roughriders in 1953, his great-grandson, Mercer Timmis, was drafted by the Hamilton Tiger-Cats and, as of 2018, plays as running back for the team. Canada's Sports Hall of Fame profile Brian Timmis at Find a Grave

Eugeniusz Geppert

Eugeniusz GeppertPolish painter associated with the Colourist movement, organizer of the Eugeniusz Geppert Academy of Fine Arts in Wrocław. Received formal training at the Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow under the tutelage of Jacek Malczewski as well as at the Jagiellonian University. Geppert studied art in Paris between 1925 and 1927, as well as in 1957. Before World War II he was a member of the Zwornik arts group, he was the first rector of the first Higher School of the Arts in Wrocław. Between 1950-1961 and 1966-1974 he had his own painting studio. On April 25, 2008 Wrocław's Academy of Fine Arts was renamed to commemorate him. Encyklopedia Wrocławia, Wrocław 2000

Andrei Smetanin

Andrei Ruslanovich Smetanin is a Russian professional football coach and a former player. He made his debut in the Soviet Top League in 1990 for FC Dynamo Moscow. From 2007 to 2010 he worked as the general director for the futsal team MFC Dynamo-2 Moscow. Russian Premier League champion: 1998, 1999, 2000. Russian Premier League runner-up: 1994. Russian Premier League bronze: 1992, 1993, 1997. Soviet Top League bronze: 1990. Russian Cup winner: 1995. Russian Cup finalist: 1997. Russian Second Division Zone Ural/Povolzhye best goalkeeper: 2004. UEFA Cup 1991–92 with FC Dynamo Moscow: 6 games. UEFA Cup 1993–94 with FC Dynamo Moscow: 1 game. UEFA Cup 1994–95 with FC Dynamo Moscow: 4 games. UEFA Cup Winners' Cup 1995–96 with FC Dynamo Moscow: 4 games. UEFA Cup 1996–97 with FC Dynamo Moscow: 3 games. UEFA Cup 1999–2000 with FC Spartak Moscow: 1 game

Philadelphia Freedom (album)

Philadelphia Freedom is the fourth album to be released by Philadelphia International Records houseband MFSB. It is noted as the debut of PIR producer and musician Dexter Wansel. Of the songs on this album, the bassline of the song "Smile Happy" was used in the song It's Wasn't Me by Shaggy. "Zach's Fanfare #2" 1:03 "Get Down with The Philly Sound" 4:29 "Philadelphia Freedom" 6:00 "South Philly" 4:28 "Ferry Avenue" 4:01 "Interlude 1" 0:52 "When Your Love Is Gone" 4:11 "Morning Tears" 5:15 "Brothers and Sisters" 3:50 "Smile Happy" 5:52 "The Zip" 3:51 Bobby Eli, Norman Harris, Reggie Lucas, Roland Chambers, T. J. Tindall - guitar Anthony Jackson, Ron Baker - bass Leon Huff, Lenny Pakula, Eddie Green, Harold "Ivory" Williams - keyboards Earl Young, Karl Chambers, Norman Farrington - drums Larry Washington - percussion Vincent Montana, Jr. - vibraphone Zach Zachery, Tony Williams - saxophone Don Renaldo and his Strings and Horns Philadelphia Freedom at Discogs

Hungry (XYZ album)

Hungry is the second studio album recorded by the metal band XYZ. The album was released on September 3, 1991. A music video was created for the song "Face Down in the Gutter," but issues arose concerning airtime on MTV due to the clothing of the women pictured. "Face Down in the Gutter" "Don't Say No" "Fire and Water" "When the Night Comes Down" "Off to the Sun" "Feels Good" "Shake Down the Walls" "When I Find Love" "H. H. Boogie" "The Sun Also Rises in Hell" "A Roll of the Dice" "Whiskey on a Heartache" "Two Wrongs Can Make a Right" - Bonus track Henderson, Alex "Hungry Review", Macrovision Corporation "Face Down In The Gutter" video clip as shown on Headbanger's Ball