An anti-aircraft vehicle known as a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun or self-propelled air defense system, is a mobile vehicle with a dedicated anti-aircraft capability. The Russian equivalent of SPAAG is ZSU, for zenitnaya samokhodnaya ustanovka. Specific weapon systems used include machine guns, larger guns, or missiles, some mount both guns and longer-ranged missiles. Platforms used include both trucks and heavier combat vehicles such as APCs and tanks, which add protection from aircraft and small arms fire for front line deployment. Anti-aircraft guns are mounted in a quickly-traversing turret with a high rate of elevation, for tracking fast-moving aircraft, they are in dual or quadruple mounts, allowing a high rate of fire. In addition, most anti-aircraft guns can be used in a direct-fire role against surface targets to great effect. Today, missiles have supplanted anti-aircraft guns. Anti-aircraft machine guns have long been mounted on trucks, these were quite common during World War I. A predecessor of the WWII German "88" anti-aircraft gun, the WWI German 77 mm anti-aircraft gun, was truck-mounted and used to great effect against British tanks.
The British QF 3 inch 20 cwt was mounted on trucks for use on the Western Front. Between the two World Wars the United Kingdom developed the Birch gun, a general purpose artillery piece on an armoured tracked chassis capable of maintaining formation with their current tanks over terrain; the gun could be elevated for anti-aircraft use. Vickers Armstrong developed a SPAAG based on the chassis of the Mk. E 6-ton light tank/Dragon Medium Mark IV tractor. About 26 were sold to Siam and saw action as infantry support guns and AA guns during the Franco-Thai war along with 30 Vickers Mk. E Type B 6-ton tanks; this was the first tracked SPAAG manufactured in series. The British developed a version of the Mk. VI Light Tank armed with four machine guns, known as Light Tank AA Mk. I, and a twin 15 mm version based on the Light Tank Mk. V was built. Among early pre-war pioneers of self-propelled AA guns were the Germans. By the time of the war, they fielded the Sd. Kfz. 10/4 and 6/2, cargo halftracks mounting single 20 mm or 37 mm AA guns.
In the war similar German halftracks mounted quadruple 20 mm weapons. Larger guns followed on larger trucks, but these mountings required off-truck setup in order to unlimber the stabilizing legs these guns needed. One exception to this rule was the Italian Cannone da 90/53, effective when mounted on trucks, a fit known as the "autocannoni da 90/53"; the 90/53 was a feared weapon, notably in the anti-tank role, but only a few hundred had been produced by the time of the armistice in 1943. Other nations tended to work on truck chassis. Starting in 1941, the British developed the "en portee" method of mounting an anti-tank gun on a truck; this was to prevent the weapon from being damaged by long-distance towing across rough, stony deserts, it was intended only to be a carrying method, with the gun unloaded for firing. However, crews tended to fire their weapons from their vehicles for the mobility this method provided, with consequent casualties; this undoubtedly inspired their Morris C9/B, a Bofors 40 mm AA gun mounted on a chassis derived from the Morris "Quad" Field Artillery Tractor truck.
Similar types, based on 3-ton lorries, were produced in Britain and Australia, together formed the most numerous self-propelled AA guns in British service. The U. S. Army brought truck-towed Bofors 40 mm AA guns along with truck-mounted units fitted with mechanized turrets when they sailed, first for Great Britain and onto France; the turrets carried four.50 inch machine guns, which were designed to be adjusted to converge at the single point where enemy aircraft were expected to appear at low altitude in conduction of strafing runs directed at large infantry and field artillery units. Interest in mobile AA turned to heavier vehicles with the mass and stability needed to train weapons of all sizes; the desire in German service, for anti-aircraft vehicles to be armoured for their own protection assisted this trend. The concept of an armored SPAAG was pioneered by Hungary during World War II by producing the 40M Nimrod based on the Luftvärnskanonvagn L-62 Anti II license acquired from Sweden. Germany followed with their "Flakpanzer" series.
German World War II SPAAGs include the Möbelwagen, Wirbelwind and Kugelblitz. Other forces followed with designs of their own, notably the American M16 created by mounting quadruple M2HB Browning machine guns on a M3 Half-track; the British developed their own SPAAGs throughout the war mounting multiple machine guns and light cannon on various tank and armoured car chassis and by 1943, the Crusader AA tanks, which mounted the Bofors 40 mm gun or two-three Oerlikon 20 mm cannon. Although used during the Normandy landings, by that point German aircraft were contained by the Allies own air forces and they were unneeded; the introduction of jet engines and the subsequent rough doubling of aircraft speeds reduced the effectiveness of the SPAAG against attack aircraft. A typical SPAAG round might have a muzzle velocity on the order of 1,000 metres per second and might take as long as two to three seconds to reach a target at its maximum range. An aircraft flying at 1,000 kilometres per hour is moving at a rate of about 280 metres per second.
This means the aircraft will have moved hundreds of
Richard Wade Farley is an American convicted mass murderer. A former employee of ESL Incorporated in Sunnyvale, California, he stalked his co-worker Laura Black for four years beginning in 1984. Black obtained a temporary restraining order against him on February 2, 1988, with a court date set for February 17, 1988 to make the order permanent. On February 16, 1988, Richard Farley shot and killed seven people at ESL and wounded four others, including Laura Black, he was convicted of seven counts of first degree murder, is on death row at San Quentin. Richard Farley was born July 25, 1948 in Texas, he was the oldest of six children. His father was in the military, therefore the family relocated, settled in California, he graduated from high school in 1966 and attended Santa Rosa Junior College. Farley joined the United States Navy in 1967 where he stayed for ten years. After his discharge in 1977, Farley began working as a software technician at ESL Inc. a defense contractor in Sunnyvale, California.
In April 1984, 36-year-old Richard Farley met 22-year-old Laura Black, who worked at ESL Inc. Farley was smitten and said that he fell in love with Black. Farley began leaving gifts, including letters and homemade baked goods, on Laura Black's desk and asked her out numerous times. Black refused the invitations and said in an interview that she "...tried to ignore him but to be cordial". Despite her refusals, Farley persisted. By providing false information to the ESL HR department through pretexting, Farley was able to obtain Black's home address and home phone number. Farley was known to have befriended the custodial department in an attempt to copy keys to Black's desk so he could rifle through her files to gain an insight into her life, he was known to have pried through confidential personnel files of Black through false pretenses. During this time, Farley was sending one or two letters to Black a week. Though there were periods of time during which the letters would cease, in total Farley sent about two hundred letters over a period of four years, with the final letter sent from his prison cell after his rampage at ESL.
Black moved four times during those four years, but Farley was able to obtain her address every time. Farley doctored photos of him and Black being together and mailed them to her. In fall of 1985, Black asked the Human Resources Department at ESL for help. ESL ordered Farley to attend psychological counseling sessions, despite attending these sessions, his harassment of Black continued. By spring of 1986, Farley was threatening fellow ESL employees; because of his poor performance, his employment with ESL was terminated in May 1986. He had been working for ESL for nine years and spent several months stalking Black full-time found work at a rival company, Covalent Systems Corporation in Sunnyvale. Black filed for a temporary restraining order against Farley on February 2, 1988 and it was granted by a family court judge. A court date was set for February 17, 1988 to see if the restraining order should be made permanent. Farley bought a shotgun and various other weapons and equipment; the restraining order did not prevent him from buying weapons during that time.
He owned a variety of other weapons which were not present during the shooting at ESL, including a Mossberg shotgun barrel and a Ruger.22LR carbine and over 3,000 rounds of ammunition. On February 9, 1988, he left a package with Black's attorney, claiming to have evidence that he and Black had a longstanding relationship; the package included items such as photographs purportedly showing Black and Farley on dates, a garage door opener to Black's house, hotel and credit card receipts. Farley claimed that Black kept a stash of cocaine that they shared once. Black's attorney dismissed the package as utter fabrications. On the day before the court date, February 16, 1988, Farley drove his motorhome to the ESL parking lot in Sunnyvale, California, he claimed he waited for Black to leave work so he could convince her to rescind the restraining order. If she refused, he would kill himself. At about 3:00 p.m. Farley loaded up his guns, a 12-gauge Benelli Riot semi-automatic shotgun, a Ruger M-77.22-250 rifle with a scope, a Mossberg 12-gauge pump-action shotgun, a Sentinel.22 WMR revolver, a Smith & Wesson.357 Magnum revolver, a Browning BDA.380 ACP pistol, a Smith & Wesson 9mm pistol.
He had a foot-long buck knife and smoke bomb and wore a bulletproof vest, a leather glove. Carrying over 1,000 rounds of ammunition with him, he approached the building while shooting toward bystanders, he entered a side door by shooting through the glass, shot at employees he encountered while heading toward Black's office on the second floor. Several employees were killed by his shots as he made his way through the building. Arriving at Black's office, he opened her door which she slammed in his face, he fired a shotgun round through the door, hitting her in the left shoulder and collapsing a lung. The injury sent her unconscious to the floor while Farley moved on. Farley held a police SWAT team at bay for five hours by moving from room to room so the SWAT snipers could not target him. Meanwhile, Black regained consciousness and managed to prevent her wound from bleeding further while she and other survivors hid from Farley. Black and other survivors escaped, Farley surrendered to police after requesting a sandwich and a soft drink.
Seven people were killed by Farley with four more wounded, including Black. 98 rounds were fired. DeadLawrence J. Kane, 46, from San Jose Wayne "Buddy" Williams Jr. 23, from San Jose Ronald G. Doney, 36, from M
Twilight Alley was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. A series of physical problems restricted him to four races a track career which lasted from July 1962 to July 1963. On his third racecourse appearance he defeated a strong field to win Britain's most important long-distance race, the Ascot Gold Cup, he broke down injured on his only subsequent appearance and was retired to stud where he had some success as a sire of steeplechasers. Twilight Alley was a "giant" chestnut horse, standing over seventeen hands high with a narrow white blaze bred by the stud of Sir Victor Sassoon, he was sired by Alycidon an outstanding stayer who won the Ascot Gold Cup in 1949 before becoming a successful breeding stallion. Alycidon was the Leading sire in Great Britain & Ireland in 1955. Twilight Alley's dam Crepuscule was an outstanding broodmare who had produced The Derby winner Crepello and the 1000 Guineas winner Honeylight; the colt was sent into training with Noel Murless at his Warren Place stable in Suffolk.
Following the death of Victor Sassoon in 1961, Twilight Alley raced in the colours of his widow, Lady Sassoon. Twilight Alley's huge size and fragile forelegs made him a difficult horse to train and he did not race as a two-year-old; as a three-year-old he did not appear until July, when he won the Cranbourne Chase Maiden Stakes over one and a half miles at Ascot Racecourse. After the race he did not race again for ten months. In May 1963, Twilight Alley contested the inaugural running of the Henry II Stakes over two miles at Sandown Park Racecourse and finished second behind Gaul. On 20 June, at Royal Ascot, Twilight Alley was ridden by Lester Piggott in the Ascot Gold Cup, he started at odds of 100/30 in against six opponents including the French challengers Balto and Taine. Piggott sent the favourite into the lead after a quarter of a mile and opened up a clear advantage before easing the pace to allow the horse to have a "breather" six furlongs out. Twilight Alley accelerated again on the turn into the straight and held off the challenge of Misti to win by a length, with Taine in third and Balto in fourth.
In July, Twilight Alley started 7/2 favourite for the thirteenth running of Britain's most prestigious weight-for-age race, the King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes over one and a half miles at Ascot. Twilight Alley sustained a serious pastern injury during the race and finished unplaced behind Ragusa, he never raced again. The independent Timeform organisation awarded Twilight Alley a rating of 133, five pounds below the top-rated Exbury. In their book, A Century of Champions, based on the Timeform rating system, John Randall and Tony Morris rated Twilight Alley as a "superior" winner of the Ascot Gold Cup. Twilight Alley was retired from racing to become a breeding stallion at Lady Sassoon's Beech House stud in Newmarket, he made little impact as a sire of winners on the flat but had some success as a sire of National Hunt horses when based at Tyrley Castle Stud in Shropshire. The best of his progeny included Midnight Court, who won the Cheltenham Gold Cup in 1978 and Drumlargan who won the Sun Alliance Novices' Hurdle in 1980.
Twilight Alley was euthanised in September 1976 due to pulmonary emphysema. Twilight Alley was inbred 4 x 4 to Gainsborough, meaning that this stallion appears twice in the fourth generation of his pedigree
This is a list of all 90 television episodes from the British television series All Creatures Great and Small. Dates shown are original broadcast dates on BBC One; the core quartet of characters — James Herriot, Siegfried Farnon, Tristan Farnon and Helen Herriot — appear, unless otherwise stated. James and Siegfried are the only two characters. Tristan appears in 65 episodes, Helen in 87; the final appearances of regular cast members are noted. Filmed in 1977, the opening credits for the first three series feature Siegfried and James driving around the Dales and, at one point, sharing a laugh in the car; this is an excerpt from the Series 1 episode "Calf Love". The bridge they drive over is in Langthwaite, it is between Feetham that they drive through the ford. Filming: July and August 1977. Recording: September–December 1977 Filming: March and April 1978. Recording: May–August 1978 Filming: March–May 1979. Recording: June–October 1979 After an eight-year break, the opening credits get a makeover from the last series.
Whereas it was only Siegfried and James featured, now each central character that appears in the episode receives an isolated shot with their textual introduction. The opening credits for Series 5 are the same; the opening credits hark back to that of the first run, with Siegfried driving the car and James being the passenger in an excerpt from the episode "The Rough and the Smooth". For that of the first few episodes, the footage was filmed late in 1988 or in early 1989, as there is snow on the hills; the interior car shot is updated in the series with material from spring- and summer-time. Still in the series, the credits begin with Siegfried and James leaving J. R. Stubbs Provisions, getting back in the car and driving over the bridge featured in the series' first run; the opening credits of the early episodes of the final series again features Siegfried and James driving around the Dales, this time from head-on rather than from the driver's side of the vehicle. For episodes involving Tristan, he is filmed driving his convertible, wearing a flat cap and waving at two women having a picnic by the roadside.
"Knowin' How To Do It" and "If Music Be the Food of Love" feature the J. R. Stubbs opening credits. In the closing credits, the three vets are seen exiting a shop called Players Please, next door to The Castle Tea Shop, before getting into Siegfried's car; the credits are changed in the series, with James exiting the back of Skeldale House and being roped into assisting Siegfried in working on the latter's car. Helen and Mrs Alton receive isolated introductions. For the final episode, the credits return to their early-series format. List of All Creatures Great and Small episodes on IMDb
Li Qiang is a former Chinese politician from Jiangsu province. He served as Mayor of Yancheng and the Communist Party Secretary of the coastal city of Lianyungang, both located in Jiangsu province, before being investigated for suspected corruption in September 2014. Li was born and raised in Shuyang County, Jiangsu. Li graduated from Southeast University in 1997, he became involved in politics in December 1970 and joined the Communist Party of China in August 1975. Beginning in 1970, he served in several posts in Jiangsu Military District, including soldier, platoon leader, staff. In March 1981 he was transferred to Nanjing Military Region, he worked there until September 1988. From December 1996 to December 2000, he served as Chief Executive and Deputy CPC Party Chief of Baixia District, he became the Chief Executive of Jianye District in December 2000, he was re-elected in July 2003. He became Vice-Mayor of Yancheng in December 2005, was promoted to Mayor and Deputy Party Secretary in January 2007.
In September 2011, he was appointed Party Secretary of Lianyungang City. On September 17, 2014, he was taken away and detained by officers from the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection for investigation following a meeting that he chaired, he was the first prefectural-level party secretary from Jiangsu to be detained following the 18th Party Congress in 2012
Smoke Signals is an album by the hardcore punk band MDC. The original vinyl release appeared on the band's own Radical Records label in 1986, it was reissued on CD in 2001 on the We Bite label and distributed by Plastic Head. The album finds the band moving in musical directions outside of hardcore, with some tracks featuring hints of classic and progressive rock sounds, but it is still a punk rock album featuring the band's tight, fast musicianship. Lyrics focus on sociopolitical themes typical of punk rock at the time, including sentiments critical of the government and of South African apartheid. One of the band's more humorous songs, "Country Squawk" espouses a pro-vegetarian view over fast, twangy country-western musical backing. "No More Cops" "King of Thrash" "Drink to Forget" "The Big Picture" "Skateboards from Hell" "Tofutti" "South Africa Is Free" "Acceptable Risks" "Missile Destroyed Civilization" "Soup Kitchen Celebrity" "Country Squawk" "Paradise Lost" "Smoke Signals" Dave Dictor - lead vocals Gordon Fraser - guitar Franco Mares - bass guitar Al Schvitz - drumswith help from: Joe Rock - bass Ex Con Ron - guitar Dave Dick - acoustic guitar on "Country Squawk" Tom Albino - guitar on "Missile Destroyed Civilization" "Tofutti" is a tribute to non-dairy ice cream brand Tofutti written by Dave Dictor, a strict vegetarian, sung to the tune of "Tooti Fruity" by Little Richard.
"Country Squawk" is a new recording of "Chicken Squawk" from the band's Millions of Dead Children 7" EP. The title track was the band's first released instrumental; the song "Big Picture" is a cover of a Subhumans song