Self-propelled artillery

Self-propelled artillery is artillery equipped with its own propulsion system to move towards its target. Within the terminology are the self-propelled gun, self-propelled howitzer, self-propelled mortar, rocket artillery, they are high mobility vehicles based on continuous tracks carrying either a large field gun, mortar, or some form of rocket/missile launcher. They are used for long-range indirect bombardment support on the battlefield. In the past, self-propelled artillery has included direct-fire vehicles, such as assault guns and tank destroyers; these have been armoured vehicles, the former providing close fire-support for infantry and the latter acting as specialized anti-tank vehicles. Modern self-propelled artillery vehicles may superficially resemble tanks, but they are lightly armoured, too to survive in direct-fire combat. However, they protect their crews against shrapnel and small arms and are therefore included as armoured fighting vehicles. Many are equipped with machine guns for defense against enemy infantry.

The key advantage of self-propelled over towed artillery is that it can be brought into action much faster. Before the towed artillery can be used, it has to stop and set up the guns. To move position, the guns must be brought -- towed -- to the new location. By comparison, self-propelled artillery can stop at a chosen location and begin firing immediately quickly move on to a new position; this shoot-and-scoot ability is useful in a mobile conflict and on the advance. Conversely, towed artillery remains cheaper to build and maintain, it is lighter and can be taken to places that self-propelled guns cannot reach. Since the Vietnam War, heavy transport helicopters have been used for rapid artillery deployment. So, despite the advantages of the self-propelled artillery, towed guns remain in the arsenals of many modern armies. During the Thirty Years' War, early 17th century experiments were made with early types of horse artillery. Batteries towed light field guns where all of the crew rode horses into battle.

The gunners were trained to dismount, deploy the guns and provide instant fire support to cavalry, act as a flexible reserve. The Russian army organized small units of horse artillery that were distributed among their cavalry formations in the early 18th century. While not forming large batteries and employing only lighter 2- and 3-pound guns, they were still effective and inflicted serious losses to Prussian units in the Seven Years' War; this inspired Frederick the Great to organize the first regular horse artillery unit in 1759. Other nations realized the capability of the new arm and by the start of French Revolutionary Wars in 1790s Austria, Portugal, France, Great Britain and Sweden had all formed regular units of horse artillery; the arm was employed throughout the Napoleonic Wars and remained in use throughout the entire 19th century and into the first half of the 20th century, when advances in weapons technology made it obsolete. The British Gun Carrier Mark I was the first example of a self-propelled gun, fielded in 1917 during World War I.

It carried a heavy field gun. The gun could either be fired from the vehicle, or set up as normal. In effect, the carrier replaced the use of a separate horse team or internal combustion engine powered artillery tractor, allowed a new way for the gun to be used; the next major advance can be seen in the Birch gun developed by the British for their motorised warfare experimental brigade after the end of the War. This mounted a field gun, capable of both the usual artillery trajectories and high angle anti-aircraft fire, on a tank style chassis, it was designed and built as part of a general approach to warfare where all arms and artillery included, would be able to operate over the same terrain as tanks. The Red Army experimented with truck- and tank-mounted artillery, but produced none in quantity. At the outbreak of World War II all artillery was still being moved around by artillery tractors or horses. While the German Blitzkrieg doctrine called for combined-arms action, which required fire support for armoured units, during the invasion of Poland and France this was provided by the Luftwaffe using Stuka dive-bombers acting as artillery.

Conventional towed howitzers followed. As the war progressed, most nations developed self-propelled artillery; some early attempts were no more than a field gun or anti-tank gun mounted on a truck—a technique known in the British Army as carrying portee. These lacked protection for the crew; the next step was to mount the guns on a tracked chassis and provide an armoured superstructure to protect the gun and its crew. Many of the early designs were improvised and the lessons learned led to better designs in the war. For example, the first British design, "Bishop", carried the 25 pdr gun-howitzer, but in a mounting that limited the gun's performance, it was replaced by the more effective Sexton. The Germans were prolific with designs, they created many examples of armored self-propelled anti-tank guns using captured French equipment, their own obsolete light tank chassis, or ex-Czech chassis. These led to better-protected Assault guns or Sturmgeschütz with enclosed casemates, built on medium tank chassis such as the Jagdpanzer IV and Jagdpanther.

Some designs were based on existing chassis, leftover chassis from c

79th New York Volunteer Infantry

The 79th New York Volunteer Infantry was a military regiment organized on June 20, 1859, in the state of New York. Prior to the American Civil War it was one of the three regiments which formed the Fourth Brigade of the First Division of the New York State Militia; the Fourth Brigade included 2nd Wisconsin, the 13th and the 69th New York regiments. The 79th gained fame during the American Civil War for its service in the Union Army. Created as a social club in New York city in the fall of 1858, the Highland Guard or 79th New York was created with the help of the St. Andrews and Caledonian societies of New York and wealthy financial backers like Samuel M. Elliot and James Cameron, the brother of Simon Cameron, President Lincoln's Secretary of War; the organization had no actual connection to the 79th Cameron Highlanders of Scotland. Only in name and in tartan did they identify with the 79th of the British Army, their original duty was to parade, train as heavy artillery, provided a guard for the Prince of Wales when he visited the United States and did the same for the Japanese ambassador.

The unit started as a Scottish American fraternity. The 79th, without knowing it, set themselves up to take part in nearly every major engagement of the civil war and become one of the most known and traveled regiments in the Union Army; when the organization had their first drill on October 25, 1858, the men were in civilian clothing as uniforms were not yet available. As per the guide lines set by the New York Militia, the Highland Guard was to uniform their soldiers in tartan trousers, not kilts; the inspector was informed by Col. McLeays that: "Their stuff for trousers was expected to arrive from Scotland daily, when they would put their uniforms under contract for manufacture". Report of inspection, 4th Brigade, NYSM, 25 October, in annual report of the AG, NYS, The issued uniform as per the New York State Militia agreement consisted of these items: Jacket The pre-war jacket worn was dark blue with red cuffs and collar which were trimmed with white piping; the jacket itself was trimmed with red wool cording on the edges and around the circumference of the cuffs.

It had 18 NY-30 buttons in all with 9 2.20 cm buttons down the front and two on the rear and 3 1.50 cm buttons on each cuff, 1 1.50 cm button on the left hip for the belt loop. The jacket was lined in tan polished cotton with quilting in the front panels that extended over and onto the back of the shoulders, following the breast panels; the Inverness flaps were lined with polished cotton. Trews Cameron of Erracht trousers in the large military sett with a tartan repeat of nine inches; the tartan was matched and had Victorian trousers cut to them consistent with common trousers of the late 1850s. Glengarry The glengarry was knit and felted as one cover. Dicing and body as one piece, it was dark blue with dicing, red and white, in two rows high, off set by one square to the right. The glengarry was lined in black polished cotton and while some of the originals that still exist today have quilting and other lining decorations, all five have different lining treatments. Leathers The belts used were common M1839 "baby" US" belts.

Used were Springfield bayonets and scabbards with the various models of.69 weapons, shield pattern cap pouches, the M1857 cartridge box. Parade uniform When on parade the 79th wore the kilt, going against the wishes of the New York Militia; this uniform used the same jacket and glengarry but instead of trousers made of tartan, they had New York tailors make non-regulation kilts. Kilts The kilts were made of the same Cameron of Erracht, they were not pleated to the line as is common in military regiments, but to the sett as seen in civilian kilts. The kilts were odd and unlike any kilt before or since thanks to their unqualified manufactures, they were box pleated, used two tartan straps that buckled into suspender buckles on either hip. Because of their lack in size variation, suspenders were worn with them. Original kilt information: Sporran The sporran was made of nappy white horse hair with three black tassels with a black leather cantle. Original glengarry information: Hose and flashes Common Victorian red and white diced hose with common Victorian flashes.

Shoes Low cut false buckle shoes When the war broke out in 1861, the Highlanders were mobilised and, as the regiment was under strength, new men were recruited before they left New York City. Under the command of Lt. Col. Samuel Mackenzie Elliott, the regiment was mustered into service for a three-year duration on 29 May 1861, attached to Mansfield's command, Department of Washington. On 2 June 1861, the Cameron Highlanders, 895 men strong, complete with pipe band, marched down Broadway on its way to Washington. Passing through Baltimore, the Highlanders received a good welcome—in contrast with the reception the 6th Massachusetts Militia had received a few days earlier. Arriving in Washington, the regiment served in the defences of the capital until the middle of July when it was attached to Sherman's Brigade, Tyler's Division, in McDowell's Army of Northeastern Virginia, for the advance on Manassas. At the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861, the Third Brigade of Tyler's Division, under Colonel William Tecumseh Sherman, consisted of four regiments of infantry and a battery of artillery.

As one of those infantry regiments, the 79th New York Infantry experienced some of the fiercest fighting and suffered some of the highest Union casualties at First Bull Run although, to begin with, it appeared that t

Halloween 5: The Revenge of Michael Myers

Halloween 5: The Revenge of Michael Myers is a 1989 American slasher film written and directed by Dominique Othenin-Girard. It is the fifth installment in the Halloween series, stars Donald Pleasence, Danielle Harris; the film follows Michael Myers returning to Haddonfield to murder his niece, one year after the events of Halloween 4. The film's on-screen titles do not display "The Revenge of Michael Myers", used in all of the promotional material, TV spots and merchandising. Halloween 5 was theatrically released on October 13, 1989, grossed $11.6 million at the box office on a budget of $5–6 million, making it the poorest-performing film in the series to date. It received negative reviews from critics upon release, was followed by Halloween: The Curse of Michael Myers. On October 31, 1988, Michael Myers falls down a mine shaft. Sheriff Ben Meeker, the lynch mob, state police toss down dynamite to finish him off. Escaping into a nearby creek, Michael stumbles upon a local hermit and falls into a coma, placing himself in the hermit's care, being nursed back to health.

One year on October 30, 1989, Michael awakens, kills the hermit, returns to Haddonfield to find his niece Jamie Lloyd again, who narrowly avoided being killed by him the year before. Jamie has been admitted to a children's hospital, having been rendered mute due to psychological trauma, suffering from nightmares and seizures and being treated for attacking her foster mother under Michael's influence, though her foster mother survived. Jamie exhibits signs of a telepathic link with her uncle. Dr. Sam Loomis becomes aware of Jamie's psychic link with Michael, tries to convince Sheriff Meeker that Michael is still alive. Meanwhile, Michael kills Jamie's foster sister Rachel by stabbing her in the chest with a pair of scissors, begins stalking their friend Tina killing Tina's boyfriend Mike with a sharp rake to his head; that night and her friends Sam and Spitz go to a Halloween party at a farm. Sensing that Tina is in danger, having regained her ability to speak, goes to warn her. While Sam and Spitz are having sex in the barn, Michael murders them.

Michael leaves the barn and kills two deputies and Tina. Jamie agrees to put herself in danger to help Loomis stop Michael for good. With Jamie's help, Loomis lures Michael back to his abandoned childhood home. In the house, Loomis creates a set-up with the police. However, Sheriff Meeker and most of the police are called away due to Michael attacking the children's hospital Jamie was admitted to, leaving only Loomis and Deputy Charlie Bloch; when Michael arrives, Loomis tries to reason with him, but Michael subdues him and goes after Jamie. Bloch attempts to escape with Jamie out of a window using a rope ladder but they are unable to escape in time and Bloch sacrifices himself to save Jamie. Jamie races upstairs to the attic where she finds the bodies of Mike. Michael finds Jamie. At Jamie's request, Michael takes off his mask and he sheds a tear. However, when Jamie touches Michael's face, he goes into a fit of rage. Loomis appears, using Jamie as bait, lures Michael into a trap to weaken him with a tranquilizer gun.

After beating Michael unconscious with a wooden beam, Loomis suffers a stroke and collapses, before Sheriff Meeker and the police return and apprehend Michael. Michael is locked up in the sheriff's station, to be escorted to a maximum-security prison by the National Guard. After Jamie is escorted out to be taken home, a mysterious "Man in Black" arrives and at the police station; the officer goes back inside. Jamie goes back inside and finds all the officers dead and finds her uncle's cell empty. Jamie begins sobbing in terror; the success of Halloween 4: The Return of Michael Myers had revived Michael Myers' fame as the 1980s slasher movie craze had begun to subside, leaving film series like Friday the 13th and A Nightmare on Elm Street as its most prominent examples. While the previous film was still in theaters, Moustapha Akkad had laid out plans for Halloween 5; the producers wanted to screen the film in October 1989, just one year after the previous sequel. The first draft of the script was written by Shem Bitterman.

Bitterman's idea was that Jamie Lloyd would become evil after stabbing her stepmother while The Shape was after her. This idea was rejected by the Akkad, who brought in Michael Jacobs to write the script. After reviewing the script, director Dominique Othenin-Girard added some new aspects like Jamie's inability to speak and her visions. Veteran actor Donald Pleasence had disagreements with Akkad and Othenin-Girard, citing that Jamie should have been portrayed as "all-evil" after stabbing her stepmother. Akkad disagreed. In an interview, Danielle Harris explained. Harris said, The way Halloween 4 ended, I thought. I thought it would have been fun to come back as Michael's sidekick. Scary, but fun; the Hermit, shown in the beginning of the film as living in a quiet shack outside of the river with his parrot, was supposed to be a young man who tried to bring The Shape back to life after finding him. His shack was supposed to be filled with ancient runes and other items for resurrection; this scene was re-shot with an old man, instead of a younger man.

The script included "bumbling" cops, Deputies Nick and Tom, with their own "clown theme" to pay homage to Wes Craven's The Last House on the Left. Dominique Othenin-Girard attempte