Selfridges known as Selfridges & Co. is a chain of high-end department stores in the United Kingdom, operated by Selfridges Retail Limited, part of the Selfridges Group of department stores. It was founded by Harry Gordon Selfridge in 1908; the flagship store on London's Oxford Street is the second largest shop in the UK and opened 15 March 1909. Other Selfridges stores opened in the Trafford Centre and Exchange Square in Manchester, in the Bullring in Birmingham. In the 1940s, smaller provincial Selfridges stores were sold to the John Lewis Partnership, in 1951, the original Oxford Street store was acquired by the Liverpool-based Lewis's chain of department stores. Lewis's and Selfridges were taken over in 1965 by the Sears Group, owned by Charles Clore. Expanded under the Sears Group to include branches in Manchester and Birmingham, the chain was acquired in 2003 by Canada's Galen Weston for £598 million; the shop's early history was dramatised in Mr Selfridge. The basis of Harry Gordon Selfridge's success was his relentlessly innovative marketing, elaborately expressed in his Oxford Street store.
From America himself, Selfridge attempted to dismantle the idea that consumerism was an American phenomenon. He tried to make shopping a fun adventure and a form of leisure instead of a chore, transforming the department store into a social and cultural landmark that provided women with a public space in which they could be comfortable and legitimately indulge themselves. Emphasizing the importance of creating a welcoming environment, he placed merchandise on display so customers could examine it, moved the profitable perfume counter front-and-centre on the ground floor, established policies that made it safe and easy for customers to shop; these techniques have been adopted by modern department stores around the world. Either Selfridge or Marshall Field is popularly held to have coined the phrase "the customer is always right", Selfridge used it in his advertising. Selfridge attracted shoppers with educational and scientific exhibits and was himself interested in education and science, believing that the displays would introduce potential new customers to Selfridges and thus generate both immediate and long-term sales.
In 1909, after the first cross-Channel flight, Louis Blériot's monoplane was put on display at Selfridges, where it was seen by 12,000 people. John Logie Baird made the first public demonstration of moving silhouette images by television from the first floor of Selfridges from 1 to 27 April 1925. In the 1920s and 1930s, the roof of the store hosted terraced gardens, cafes, a mini golf course and an all-girl gun club; the roof, with its extensive views across London, was a common place for strolling after a shopping trip and was used for fashion shows. During the Second World War, The store's basement was used as an air-raid shelter and during raids employees were on the lookout for incendiary bombs and took watch in turns; the store was bombed but survived comparatively unscathed except for the famous roof gardens, which were destroyed and not reopened until 2009. A Milne-Shaw seismograph was set up on the Oxford Street store's third floor in 1932, attached to one of the building's main stanchions, where it remained unaffected by traffic or shoppers.
It recorded the Belgian earthquake of 11 June 1938, felt in London. In 1947, it was given to the British Museum; the huge SIGSALY scrambling apparatus, by which transatlantic conferences between American and British officials were secured against eavesdropping, was housed in the basement from 1943 on, with extension to the Cabinet War Rooms about a mile away. In 1926, Selfridges set up the Selfridge Provincial Stores company, which had expanded over the years to include sixteen provincial stores, but these were sold to the John Lewis Partnership in 1940; the Liverpool-based Lewis's chain of department stores acquired the remaining Oxford Street Shop in 1951, until it was taken over in 1965 by the Sears Group, owned by Charles Clore. Under the Sears group, branches in Ilford and Oxford opened, with the latter remaining Selfridges until 1986, when Sears rebranded it as a Lewis's store. In 1990, Sears Holdings split Selfridges from Lewis's and placed Lewis's in administration a year later. In March 1998, Selfridges acquired its current logo in tandem with the opening of the Manchester Trafford Centre store and Selfridges' demerger from Sears.
In September 1998, Selfridges expanded and opened a department store in the newly-opened Trafford Centre in Greater Manchester. Following its success, Selfridges announced they would open an additional 125,000-square-foot store in Exchange Square, Manchester city centre; the Exchange Square store opened in 2002 as Manchester city centre started to return to normal following the 1996 Manchester bombing. A 260,000-square-foot store opened in 2003 in Birmingham's Bull Ring. In 2003, the chain was acquired by Canada's Galen Weston for £598 million and became part of Selfridges Group, which includes Brown Thomas and Arnotts in Ireland, Holt Renfrew in Canada and de Bijenkorf in the Netherlands. Weston, a retailing expert, the owner of major supermarket chains in Canada, has chosen to invest in the renovation of the Oxford Street store – rather than to create new stores in British cities other than Manchester and Birmingham. Simon Forster is the Managing Director of Selfridges, while Anne Pitcher is the Managing Director of Selfridges Group.
Josef Abel was an Austrian historical painter and etcher. Abel was born in Aschach Upper Austria, he visited the Academy in Vienna, at the time directed by Friedrich Heinrich Füger, was one of his best scholars. Abel developed an interest for the ancient world, reflecting a popular direction in the art of the beginning of the 19th century in Germany and France. During the years 1801–1807, he studied in Italy returned to Vienna, where he became a member of the Academy on 8 February 1815 and remained till his death in 1818. Among his famous works are paintings and etchings of Klopstock in Elysium and Electra, Socrates and Theramenes as well as Emperor Francis I of Austria, he painted the figural part of the front curtain of the old Burgtheater under directions of Füger. For some time it is discussed, that his portrait of a young man with glasses is a portrayal of the young Franz Schubert. List of Austrian artists and architects Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie - online version at Wikisource Josef Abel, on Artnet
Page Two is the second extended play by South Korean girl group Twice. The album was released digitally and physically on April 25, 2016 by JYP Entertainment and distributed by KT Music, it contains seven tracks, including the lead single, "Cheer Up". Page Two has the most first-week sales out of all K-pop girl group releases in 2016. "Cheer Up" is a blend of several different genres. The accompanying music video, in which the members parody characters from famous films, went viral on YouTube soon after release, reaching seven million views in two days. On April 11, 2016, JYP Entertainment announced via the band's official Facebook and SNS that the group would release their second mini-album Page Two and single "Cheer Up" on April 25. Two versions of the album and mint, were released in CD format; the first press of 30,000 limited edition copies featured a special sleeve designed by member Chaeyoung. The album was released as a digital download on various music portals; the album's lead single, "Cheer Up", has lyrics written by Sam Lewis and music by Black Eyed Pilseung, the same team who wrote Twice's hit single "Like Ooh-Ahh" from their debut mini-album.
"Cheer Up" is a dance-pop song that incorporates multiple genres, including hip hop, tropical house, drum and bass. The second track on the album is a remake of Park Ji-yoon's 1998 single, "Precious Love", written by Park Jin-young; the song was re-arranged in a house dance style with electronic instrumentation and hip hop rhythms, features a new rap written by Chaeyoung."Touchdown" was described as a "powerful dance number with dynamic rhythms and powerful sound effects". "Tuk Tok" is a dance-pop song with elements of soul and trap, inspired by the teaser video for Sixteen. "Woohoo" was described as a hip hop song with "groovy beats", "My Headphones On" is a pop ballad about a girl's breakup. A seventh track, "I'm Gonna Be a Star" is only available on the CD version of the album. On April 25, 2016, Twice held a media showcase at Yes 24 Live Hall in Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, they performed "Woohoo", "Touchdown", "Precious Love" and "Cheer Up" for the first time at the showcase, broadcast live via Naver's V app.
The group promoted the album with a series of televised live performances on various music shows. Their first music show appearance was on M! Countdown on April 28, where they performed "Cheer Up" and "Touchdown"; the choreography for "Cheer Up" was changed after Sana's "shy shy shy" line became a viral meme. Twice won their first music show award on M! Countdown the following week on May 5, won on Music Bank and Inkigayo that same week, they concluded promotion for the album on May 29 with a performance on Inkigayo, winning a total of eleven music show awards. The trophy on the May 27 edition of Music Bank was awarded to AOA before the show's producers admitted they had miscalculated the album points. Kim Hyang-min of Korea JoongAng Daily gave the album a mixed review, describing the songs as "high-spirited and cheerful" and "generally refreshing and witty" but regretting the album's lack of genre diversity. Kim noted that the tension in the title track's lyrics was "well-expressed" through its hip-hop and electronic sounds, though the song was too repetitive, praised "Touchdown" for its "powerful sound" and energetic feeling.
Page Two debuted at number 2 on the Gaon Album Chart and number 6 on the Billboard World Albums chart, with 80,686 units sold during the month of April. It had the highest first-week sales volume for a K-pop girl group in 2016. According to JYP representatives, the pre-order of 30,000 limited edition albums sold out before its official release. By September, the album had sold over 150,000 units; the songs from the album performed well digitally. "Cheer Up" charted at number 1 on the Gaon Digital Chart and number 3 on the Billboard World Digital Song Sales chart. "Precious Love" and "Touchdown" charted on the Gaon Digital Chart, at numbers 73 and 86 respectively. Credits adapted from album liner notes. LocationsRecorded and mixed at JYPE Studios, South Korea Mastered at Suono Mastering, South KoreaPersonnel