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Selma to Montgomery marches

The Selma to Montgomery marches were three protest marches, held in 1965, along the 54-mile highway from Selma, Alabama, to the state capital of Montgomery. The marches were organized by nonviolent activists to demonstrate the desire of African-American citizens to exercise their constitutional right to vote, in defiance of segregationist repression. By highlighting racial injustice, they contributed to passage that year of the Voting Rights Act, a landmark federal achievement of the civil rights movement. Southern state legislatures had passed and maintained a series of discriminatory requirements and practices that had disenfranchised most of the millions of African Americans across the South throughout the 20th century; the African-American group known as the Dallas County Voters League launched a voter registration campaign in Selma in 1963. Joined by organizers from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, they began working that year in a renewed effort to register black voters.

Finding resistance by white officials to be intractable after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended legal segregation, the DCVL invited Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. and the activists of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to join them. SCLC brought many prominent civil rights and civic leaders to Selma in January 1965. Local and regional protests began, with 3,000 people arrested by the end of February. According to Joseph A. Califano Jr. who served as head of domestic affairs for U. S. President Lyndon Johnson between the years 1965 and 1969, the President viewed King as an essential partner in getting the Voting Rights Act enacted. Califano, whom the President assigned to monitor the final march to Montgomery, said that Johnson and King talked by telephone on January 15 to plan a strategy for drawing attention to the injustice of using literacy tests and other barriers to stop black Southerners from voting, that King informed the President on February 9 of his decision to use Selma to achieve this objective.

On February 26, 1965, activist and deacon Jimmie Lee Jackson died after being shot several days earlier by state trooper James Bonard Fowler, during a peaceful march in nearby Marion, Alabama. To defuse and refocus the community's outrage, SCLC Director of Direct Action James Bevel, directing SCLC's Selma voting rights movement, called for a march of dramatic length, from Selma to the state capital of Montgomery. Bevel had been working on his Alabama Project for voting rights since late 1963; the first march took place on March 7, 1965, organized locally by Bevel, Amelia Boynton, others. State troopers and county possemen attacked the unarmed marchers with billy clubs and tear gas after they passed over the county line, the event became known as Bloody Sunday. Law enforcement beat Boynton unconscious, the media publicized worldwide a picture of her lying wounded on the Edmund Pettus Bridge; the second march took place March 9. Troopers and marchers confronted each other at the county end of the bridge, but when the troopers stepped aside to let them pass, King led the marchers back to the church.

He was obeying a federal injunction while seeking protection from federal court for the march. That night, a white group beat and murdered civil rights activist James Reeb, a Unitarian Universalist minister from Boston, who had come to Selma to march with the second group. Many other clergy and sympathizers from across the country gathered for the second march; the violence of "Bloody Sunday" and Reeb's murder resulted in a national outcry and some acts of civil disobedience, targeting both the Alabama and federal governments. The protesters demanded protection for the Selma marchers and a new federal voting rights law to enable African Americans to register and vote without harassment. President Lyndon Johnson, whose administration had been working on a voting rights law, held a historic, nationally televised joint session of Congress on March 15 to ask for the bill's introduction and passage. With Governor Wallace refusing to protect the marchers, President Johnson committed to do so; the third march started on March 21.

Protected by 1,900 members of the Alabama National Guard under federal command, many FBI agents and federal marshals, the marchers averaged 10 miles a day along U. S. Route 80, known in Alabama as the "Jefferson Davis Highway"; the marchers arrived in Montgomery on March 24 and at the Alabama State Capitol on March 25. With thousands having joined the campaign, 25,000 people entered the capital city that day in support of voting rights; the route is memorialized as the "Selma To Montgomery Voting Rights Trail", is designated as a U. S. National Historic Trail; the Voting Rights Act became law on August 6, 1965. At the turn of the 20th century, the Alabama state legislature passed a new constitution that disenfranchised most blacks and many poor whites by requirements for payment of a poll tax and passing a literacy test and comprehension of the constitution. Subjective application of the laws closed most blacks out of politics. Selma is a major town and the seat of Dallas County, part of the Alabama Black Belt with a majority-black population.

In 1961, the population of Dallas County was 57% black, but of the 15,000 blacks old enough to vote, only 130 were registered. At that time, more than 80% of Dallas County blacks lived below the poverty line, most of them working as sharecroppers, maids and day laborers, but there were teachers and business owners. With the literacy test administered subjectively by white registrars educated blacks were prevented from registering or voting. Led by the Boynton family (Ame


In France, a banlieue is a suburb of a large city. Banlieues are divided into autonomous administrative entities and do not constitute part of the city proper. For instance, 80% of the inhabitants of the Paris metropolitan area live outside the city of Paris. Like the city centre, suburbs may be rich, middle-class or poor—Versailles, Le Vésinet, Maisons-Laffitte and Neuilly-sur-Seine are affluent banlieues of Paris, while Clichy-sous-Bois and Corbeil-Essonnes are less so. However, since the 1970s, banlieues has taken on an additional meaning in French of France, becoming a popular word for low-income housing projects in which black immigrants and French of foreign descent reside, in what are called poverty traps. In France, since the establishment of the Third Republic at the beginning of the 1870s, communities beyond the city centre stopped spreading their own boundaries, as a result of the extension of the larger Paris urban agglomeration; the city — which in France corresponds to the concept of the "urban unit" – does not have a correspondence with a single administrative location, instead includes other communities that link themselves to the city centre and form the banlieues.

Since annexing the banlieues of major French cities during the Second Empire period, the French communities have in effect extended their boundaries little beyond their delimitations, have not followed the development of the urban unit existing prior to 1870 as well as all large and mid-sized cities in France having a banlieue develop a couronne pėriurbaine. Communities in the countryside beyond the near-urban ring are regarded as being outside the city's strongest social and economic sphere of influence, are termed communes périurbaines. In either case, they are divided into numerous autonomous administrative entities. Banlieues 89, a design-led urban policy backed by the French government, renovated over 140 low-cost estates, such as Les Minguettes and the Mas du Taureau block in Vaulx-en-Velin. Improvements were made in road and rail access and shops were built, the towers and blocks were made to look more attractive. In Vaulx-en-Velin, for instance, shops and a library were built, houses were built to make the landscape more interesting, 2,500 homes were renovated, the blocks were repainted.

The word banlieue is, in formal use, a neutral term, designating the urbanized zone located around the city centre, comprising both sparsely and populated areas. Therefore, in the Parisian metropolitan area, for example, the wealthy suburb of Neuilly-sur-Seine may be referred to as a banlieue as might the poor suburb of La Courneuve. To distinguish them, Parisians refer to a banlieue aisée for Neuilly, to a banlieue défavorisée for Clichy-sous-Bois; the Paris region can be divided into several zones. In the northwest and the northeast, many areas are vestiges of former working-class and industrial zones, in the case of Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-d'Oise. In the west, the population is upper class, the centre of business and finance, La Défense, is located there; the southeast banlieues are less homogenous. Close to Paris, there are many communities that are considered "sensitive" or unsafe, divided by residential zones with a better reputation; the farther away from the Paris city centre, the more the banlieues of the south of Paris can be divided into two zones.

On one side, there are the banks of the Seine, where working-class residents used to live but other areas that are well off. Are large cities close to Paris, such as Chanteloup-les-Vignes, Les Mureaux, Mantes-la-Jolie, Achères, Trappes, Aubergenville Évry, Grigny, Corbeil-Essonnes and Fleury-Mérogis. Small communities that are disparate can be found in the Yvelines department with Villennes-sur-Seine, Croissy-sur-Seine, Le Pecq, Maisons-Laffitte but in the Essonne and Seine-et-Marne departments: Etiolles, Soisy-sur-Seine, Saint-Pierre-du-Perray or Seine-Port; the banlieues rouges are the outskirt districts of Paris where, the French Communist Party held mayorships and other elected positions. Examples of these include Ivry-sur-Seine, Malakoff; such communities named streets after Soviet personalities, such as rue Youri Gagarine. The banlieues of large cities like Lyon and Marseille those around Paris, are criticized and forgotten by the country's territorial spatial planning administration. Since the French Commune government of 1871, they were and still are ostracised and considered by other residents as places that are "lawless" or "outside the Republic", as opposed to "deep France", or "authentic France" associated with the provinces.

However, it is in the banlieues that the young working households are found that raise children and pay taxes but lack in public services, in transportation, sports, as well as employment opportunities. Since the 1980s, petty crime has increased in France, much of it blamed on juvenile delinquency fostered within the banlieues; as a result, the banlieues are perceived to have become unsafe places to live, youths from the banlieues are perceived to be one important source of increased petty crimes and uncivil behavior. This criminality was seized upon to fan the flames of racism stoked by the Fron

Paul Halter

Paul Halter is a writer of crime fiction known for his locked room mysteries. Halter pursued technical studies in his youth before joining the French Marines in the hope of seeing the world. Disappointed with the lack of travel, he left the military and, for a while, sold life insurance while augmenting his income playing the guitar in the local dance orchestra, he gave up life insurance for a job in the state-owned telecommunications company, where he works in what is now known as France Télécom. Halter has been compared with the late John Dickson Carr considered the 20th century master of the locked room genre. Throughout his more than forty books his genre has been entirely impossible crimes, as a critic has said "Although influenced by Carr and Christie, his style is his own and he can stand comparison with anyone for the originality of his plots and puzzles and his atmospheric writing." His first published novel, La Quatrieme Porte was published in 1988 and won the Prix de Cognac, given for detective literature.

The following year, his novel Le Brouillard Rouge won "one of the highest accolades in French mystery literature", the Prix du Roman d'Aventures. He has published more than forty books. Several of his short stories have been translated into English. Dr. Twist and Chief Inspector Hurst novels: La quatrième porte 1987 La mort vous invite 1988 La mort derrière les rideaux 1989 La chambre du fou 1990 La tête du tigre 1991 La septième hypothèse 1991 Le diable de Dartmoor 1993 A 139 pas de la mort 1994 L'image trouble 1995 La malédiction de Barberousse 1995 L'arbre aux doigts tordus 1996 Le cri de la sirène 1998 Meurtre dans un manoir anglais 1998 L'homme qui aimait les nuages 1999 L'allumette sanglante 2001 Le toile de Pénélope 2001 Les larmes de Sibyl 2005 Les meurtres de la salamandre 2009 La corde d'argent 2010 Le voyageur du passé 2012 La tombe indienne 2013Dr. Twist and Chief Inspector Hurst short stories: "Les morts dansent la nuit" in the collection La nuit du loup 2000 "L'appel de la Lorelei" in the collection La nuit du loup 2000 "Meurtre à Cognac" in the collection La nuit du loup 2000 "La balle de Nausicaa" in the collection La balle de Nausicaa 2011 "La tombe de David Jones" in the collection La balle de Nausicaa 2011 "The Gong of Doom" in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, June 2010 "Jacob's Ladder" in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, February 2014 "The Scarecrow's Revenge" in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, May 2016 "The Yellow Book" in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, July-August 2017 "The Fires of Hell" in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, May-June 2018Owen Burns and Achilles Stock novels: Le roi du désordre 1994 Les sept merveilles du crime 1997 Les douze crimes d'Hercules 2001 La ruelle fantôme 2005 La chambre d'Horus 2007 Le masque du vampire 2014 La montre en or 2019Owen Burns and Achilles Stock short stories: "La marchande de fleurs" in the collection La nuit du loup 2000 "La hache" in the collection La nuit du loup 2000 "The Man with the Face of Clay" in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, July 2012 "The Wolf of Fenrir" in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, March-April 2015 "The Helm of Hades" in Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, March-April 2019Other novels: Le brouillard rouge 1988 La lettre qui tue 1992 Le cercle invisible 1996 Le crime de Dédale 1997 Le géant de pierre 1998 Le mystère de l'Allée des Anges 1999 Le chemin de la lumière 2000 Les fleurs de Satan 2002 Le tigre borgne 2004 Lunes assassines 2006 La nuit du Minotaure 2008 Le testament de Silas Lydecker 2009 Spiral 2012Other short stories: "L'escalier assassin" in the collection La nuit du loup 2000 "Un rendez-vous aussi saugrenu" in the collection La nuit du loup 2000 "Ripperomanie" in the collection La nuit du loup 2000 "La nuit du loup" in the collection La nuit du loup 2000 "Le spectre doré" in the collection La balle de Nausicaa 2011 and "The Night of the Wolf" 2006 "Le regard étrange" in the collection La balle de Nausicaa 2011 "L'abominable homme de neige" in the collection La balle de Nausicaa 2011 and The Night of the Wolf 2006 "Le clown de minuit" in the collection La b

Girlguiding Cymru

Girlguiding Cymru is one of the nine regions of Girlguiding UK. It serves the approximate area of Wales. In 2004, there were 6,964 youth participant groups; until 1938 Wales was administered from Headquarters in London. From 1918 to 1938 there were Deputy Chief Commissioners. In 1938 the Council for Wales was formed and a Standing Committee was appointed. Lady Blythswood was appointed Chief Commissioner in the same year. Girlguiding Cymru is split into 14 Girlguiding Counties; these counties are broadly based on the historic counties of Wales except that Glamorgan is split into three and Flintshire are combined into "Clwyd" and Monmouthshire is referred to as "Gwent". Anglesey Breconshire Caernarfonshire Cardiff and East Glamorgan Carmarthenshire Central Glamorgan Ceredigion Clwyd Gwent Merioneth Montgomeryshire Pembrokeshire Radnorshire West Glamorgan Broneirion is a Victorian house and grounds on the hillside across the River Severn from the village of Llandinam, it became the Welsh Training Centre in 1946.

In 1992 it became the property of Girlguiding Cymru after a campaign that raised £510000 for the purchase and an endowment fund. Both the house and grounds are used for training and camping activities, the site is used by Guides, other organisations and private groups. Ynysgain is the Girlguiding Cymru holiday centre in Criccieth, Gwynedd, it has camping areas. The 1st Carmarthen Company was the first Guide Company to be registered in Wales. Prior to 1910, some girls from Wales were registered as Scouts. Scouting in Wales The Scout Association Girlguiding Cymru

Intermediate frequency

In communications and electronic engineering, an intermediate frequency is a frequency to which a carrier wave is shifted as an intermediate step in transmission or reception. The intermediate frequency is created by mixing the carrier signal with a local oscillator signal in a process called heterodyning, resulting in a signal at the difference or beat frequency. Intermediate frequencies are used in superheterodyne radio receivers, in which an incoming signal is shifted to an IF for amplification before final detection is done. Conversion to an intermediate frequency is useful for several reasons; when several stages of filters are used, they can all be set to a fixed frequency, which makes them easier to build and to tune. Lower frequency transistors have higher gains so fewer stages are required. It's easier to make selective filters at lower fixed frequencies. There may be several such stages of intermediate frequency in a superheterodyne receiver. Intermediate frequencies are used for three general reasons.

At high frequencies, signal processing circuitry performs poorly. Active devices such as transistors cannot deliver much amplification. Ordinary circuits using capacitors and inductors must be replaced with cumbersome high frequency techniques such as striplines and waveguides. So a high frequency signal is converted to a lower IF for more convenient processing. For example, in satellite dishes, the microwave downlink signal received by the dish is converted to a much lower IF at the dish, to allow a inexpensive coaxial cable to carry the signal to the receiver inside the building. Bringing the signal in at the original microwave frequency would require an expensive waveguide. A second reason, in receivers that can be tuned to different frequencies, is to convert the various different frequencies of the stations to a common frequency for processing, it is difficult to build multistage amplifiers and detectors that can have all stages track in tuning different frequencies, but it is comparatively easy to build tunable oscillators.

Superheterodyne receivers tune in different frequencies by adjusting the frequency of the local oscillator on the input stage, all processing after, done at the same fixed frequency, the IF. Without using an IF, all the complicated filters and detectors in a radio or television would have to be tuned in unison each time the frequency was changed, as was necessary in the early tuned radio frequency receivers. A more important advantage is; the bandwidth of a filter is proportional to its center frequency. In receivers like the TRF in which the filtering is done at the incoming RF frequency, as the receiver is tuned to higher frequencies its bandwidth increases; the main reason for using an intermediate frequency is to improve frequency selectivity. In communication circuits, a common task is to separate out or extract signals or components of a signal that are close together in frequency; this is called filtering. Some examples are, picking up a radio station among several that are close in frequency, or extracting the chrominance subcarrier from a TV signal.

With all known filtering techniques the filter's bandwidth increases proportionately with the frequency. So a narrower bandwidth and more selectivity can be achieved by converting the signal to a lower IF and performing the filtering at that frequency. FM and television broadcasting with their narrow channel widths, as well as more modern telecommunications services such as cell phones and cable television, would be impossible without using frequency conversion; the most used intermediate frequencies for broadcast receivers are around 455 kHz for AM receivers and 10.7 MHz for FM receivers. In special purpose receivers other frequencies can be used. A dual-conversion receiver may have two intermediate frequencies, a higher one to improve image rejection and a second, lower one, for desired selectivity. A first intermediate frequency may be higher than the input signal, so that all undesired responses can be filtered out by a fixed-tuned RF stage. In a digital receiver, the analog to digital converter operates at low sampling rates, so input RF must be mixed down to IF to be processed.

Intermediate frequency tends to be lower frequency range compared to the transmitted RF frequency. However, the choices for the IF are most dependent on the available components such as mixer, filters and others that can operate at lower frequency. There are other factors involved in deciding the IF frequency, because lower IF is susceptible to noise and higher IF can cause clock jitters. Modern satellite television receivers use several intermediate frequencies; the 500 television channels of a typical system are transmitted from the satellite to subscribers in the Ku microwave band, in two subbands of 10.7 - 11.7 and 11.7 - 12.75 GHz. The downlink signal is received by a satellite dish. In the box at the focus of the dish, called a low-noise block downconverter, each block of frequencies is converted to the IF range of 950 - 2150 MHz by two fixed frequency local oscillators at 9.75 and 10.6 GHz. One of the two blocks is selected by a control signal from the set top box inside, which switches on one of the local oscillators.

This IF is carried into the building to the television receiver on a coaxial cable. At the cable company's set top box, the signal is converted to a lower IF of 480 MHz for filtering, by a variable frequency oscillator; this is sent through a 30 MHz bandpass filter, which selects the signal from one of the transponders on the satellite, which carries several channels. Further

Mayag├╝ez Mall

Mayagüez Mall is a shopping mall located between the municipalities of Mayagüez and Hormigueros. It is the third largest shopping center in Puerto Rico with a total of 1,050,000 square feet of retail space, it is the main shopping center in western Puerto Rico, its main stores include Sears, JCPenney, Shoe Carnival, Old Navy, Summit Trampoline Park and Office Max. It has stores such as Tous, Aldo, PacSun, Sunglass Hut, Lids, Pandora, Foot Locker, Champs Sports, The Children's Place, Van Heusen, Pueblo Supermarket and much more. For dinner the mall has various restaurants such as Chili's Grill & Bar, Romano's Macaroni Grill and Pizza Hut. and fast food restaurants such as Burger King, Church's Chicken, El Meson Sandwiches, KFC, Krispy Kreme, Pollo Tropical, Taco Maker and a Wendy's. There is a heliport within the mall property; the mall is made up of three concourses. The former theater building was demolished in May 2010 and was replaced with a Romano's Macaroni Grill. A Ponderosa Steakhouse on the outparcel closed in 2016.

The mall was opened in 1972. During that time, its main tenants were Walgreens and Sears. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the mall underwent extensive renovations, including the construction of its third and largest concourse, anchored by JCPenney. One of the mall's lesser entrances was expanded to connect to Walmart, which opened in the mid 1990s. A Gonzalez Padín department store once co-anchored the Sears concourse, but it closed in the mid 1990s when the parent company went bankrupt, its former space is occupied today by Sears Brand Central. Map of Mayagüez Mall