AC Cars Ltd. known as Auto Carriers Ltd. is a British specialist automobile manufacturer and one of the oldest independent car makers founded in Britain. The first car from what became AC was presented at the Crystal Palace motor show in 1903; the Weller Brothers of West Norwood, planned to produce an advanced 20 hp car. However, their financial backer and business manager John Portwine, a butcher, thought the car would be too expensive to produce and encouraged Weller to design and produce a little delivery three-wheeler. In 1904 a new company was named Autocars and Accessories; the vehicle caught on and was a financial success. In 1907, a passenger version appeared, called the A. C. Sociable, it had a seat in place of the cargo box. The A. C. Sociable was described in a review of the 1912 Motor Cycle and Cycle Car Show as "one of the most popular cycle cars on the road, both for pleasure and business", A. C. displayed six for pleasure and two for business. The single rear wheel contained a two-speed hub, the single-cylinder engine was mounted just in front of it, with rear chain drive.
The company became Auto Carriers Ltd. in 1911 and moved to Ferry Works, Thames Ditton, Surrey—at this time they began using the famed "AC" roundel logo. Their first four-wheeled car was produced in 1913. Only a few were built. During the Great War, the Ferry Works factory produced shells and fuses for the war effort, although at least one vehicle was designed and built for the War Office. At the end of the First World War, AC Cars started making motor vehicles again and building many successful cars at Ferry Works, as well as expanding into an old balloon factory on Thames Ditton High Street. After the war, John Weller started on the design of a new overhead-cam 6-cylinder engine; the first versions of this design were running by 1919. The Weller engine would be produced until 1963. In 1921, Selwyn Edge was appointed governing director, he did not get along with Portwine, who resigned less than a year later. In customary fashion Edge sought publicity for the company through motoring competition.
In 1921 Sammy Davis joined A. C. as a driver, competing in the Junior Car Club 200-mile race, for cars up to 1,500 c.c. at Brooklands. In 1922, the name changed again to AC Cars Ltd. In 1923 and 1924 J. A. Joyce won the Brighton Speed Trials driving an A. C. In May 1924, at Montlhéry, near Paris, T. G. Gillett broke the continuous 24-hour record in a 2-litre A. C. fitted with special streamlined bodywork. In 1926 the Honourable Victor Bruce, an AC employee, won the Monte Carlo Rally in his 2-litre AC. In 1927, Victor Bruce, with his wife Mildred, assisted by J. A. Joyce, set a 10-day endurance record at Montlhéry. Selwyn Edge bought the company outright for £135,000 in 1927 and re-registered it as AC Ltd but sales, falling, continued to decline; the company went into voluntary liquidation. Production ceased for a time, the company was sold to the Hurlock family who ran a successful haulage business, they wanted the High Street factory only as a warehouse, but allowed the service side of AC to continue.
A single car was made for William Hurlock in 1930. He liked it and agreed to restart limited production using components left over from previous models. An agreement was reached with Standard to supply new chassis, the ancient three-speed transaxle was replaced by a modern four-speed gearbox, by 1932 a new range of cars was launched. Production continued on this small scale, averaging less than 100 vehicles per year, until the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939; the final pre-war car was delivered in June 1940, after which the factory was involved with war production. After the war AC secured a large contract with the government to produce the fibreglass-bodied, single seat, Thundersley Invacar Type 57 invalid carriages with Villiers 2-stroke engines; the invalid carriages continued to be built until 1976 and were an important source of revenue to the company. Production of cars restarted in 1947 with the 2-Litre, using the 1991 cc engine from the 16; the 2-Litre used an updated version of the pre-war, underslung chassis, fitted with the AC straight-six engine and traditional ash-framed and aluminium-panelled coachwork, available in saloon or convertible versions.
They built an aluminium-bodied three-wheeled microcar, the Petite. They produced "Bag Boy" golf carts. In 1949, AC Cars produced four trains, each consisting three power cars and four coaches, for the Southend Pier Railway in Essex; these remained in use until 1976. In 1953, the firm began production of the AC Ace, based on a lightweight chassis designed by John Tojeiro and Hand built Aluminium Body designed and built by Eric George Gray with the venerable Weller-designed 2-Litre engine. For 1954, a new aluminium-bodied closed coupe was unveiled at the AC Aceca, it was only heavier than the convertible Ace, because of better aerodynamics was slightly faster. Today, Acecas are popular at historic racing events. Arch McNeill, a factory Morgan racer from the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s told fellow Texan and Aceca owner Glenn Barnett that "the Morgan team spent two years campaigning to b
Concord, New South Wales
Concord is a suburb in the inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is 10 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Canada Bay. Concord is known as the'Parklands Suburb' of the Inner West. Concord West is a separate suburb, to the north-west. Concord takes its name from Concord, Massachusetts, in the USA, the site of the Battle of Concord, one of the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War; some historians believe the Sydney suburb was named Concord to encourage a peaceful attitude between soldiers and settlers. The first land grants in the area were made in 1793; the original Concord Council was established in 1883. Concord Council amalgamated with Drummoyne Council in 2000 after 117 years of self governance to form the City of Canada Bay, it is the name of the surrounding parish. Concord features a small shopping strip on Majors Bay Road. Several cafes and restaurants featuring outside dining are located here.
There is a small shopping strip on Cabarita Road. St Luke's Anglican Church is one of the oldest churches in Concord; the church is located at Burton Street near Concord Oval. Its current organ was donated by Dame Eadith Walker, of the famous Walker family on her 21st birthday in 1883. St Mary's Catholic Church is a prominent architectural landmark on Parramatta Road; the first church on the site was built in 1845 until a new church was built in 1874. A school operated in the original church building until a separate school building was built and opened by Cardinal Moran in 1894. A convent for the Sisters of Charity was erected next to the church in 1898; the present church building was completed in 1929. Concord has many parks, including: Queen Elizabeth Park Henley Park Majors Bay Reserve, including Arthur Walker and Ron Routly Reserves. Concord Golf Course, Massey Park, Cintra Park Concord Oval Sid Richards Park Central Park, St Lukes Park, Bayview Park, Edwards Park, Greenlees Park, Goddard Park, Rothwell Park.
State Transit and Transit Systems operate 9 routes via Concord: 439 & L39: Mortlake to the City via Five Dock & Leichhardt 458: Burwood station to Ryde 460: Concord Hospial to Five Dock 464: Mortlake to Ashfield station 466: Cabarita Park to Ashfield station via Bayview Park 502: Bayview Park to the City via Victoria Road 526: One weekday service from Concord High School to Olympic Park wharf via Burwood & Strathfield M41: Hurstville via Campsie and Ryde to MarsfieldConcord West railway station & North Strathfield railway station service the Concord area. The stops are on the Northern line 14 km from Central Station. Sydney Ferries service the Concord area stopping at Cabarita Wharf. Concord was once serviced by an independent tram line which ran from Mortlake and Cabarita junction through Majors Bay Road, though to Burwood Road south though Burwood CBD and terminating at Enfield, its most southern point; this tram system did not join with the rest of the Sydney wide tram network which ceased operating in the early 1960s.
Bus services between Mortlake/Breakfast Point and Cabarita to Burwood follow the old tram lines through the suburb, which were removed in 1948. Few hints of Concord's trams remain today apart from the extra width of Majors Bay Road and Brewer Street in order to accommodate a double track tramway and the existence of Tramway Lane and Cabarita Junction, where the tram tracks split, with one track providing the Mortlake branch and the other the Cabarita branch. Schools in the suburb are Concord Public School Concord High School St Mary's Primary School Mortlake Public School At the 2016 census, there were 14,533 residents in Concord. 62.1% of people were born in Australia. The most common countries of birth were Italy 6.4%, China 5.3%, England 2.0%, South Korea 1.8% and India 1.5%. In Concord 57.6% of people only spoke English at home, compared to the national average of 68.5&. Other languages spoken at home included Italian 11.0%, Mandarin 5.8%, Cantonese 3.4%, Greek 3.3% and Arabic 3.3%. The most common responses for religion in Concord were Catholic 45.4%, No Religion 20.2% and Anglican 7.8%.
Notable people who have resided in the suburb have included: Isaac Nichols - Australia Post's first postmaster and original owner of Walker Estate Phillip Wilcher - Australian classical pianist and composer one of the original members of The Wiggles Thomas Walker - Australian politician, prominent land owner in Concord, father of Dame Eadith Campbell Walker. Walker built the Italianate mansion Yaralla in the 1860s, it was extended in the 1890s by John Sulman and is now used as the Dame Eadith Walker Convalescent Hospital. It is listed on the Register of the National Estate. Thomas Walker Convalescent Hospital was built in fulfilment of Walker's will, it too was designed by John Sulman and is on the Register of the National Estate Dame Eadith Walker - Australian philanthropist and major land owner in Concord for much of the late 19th and early 20th Century who aided in establishing Concord Repatriation General Hospital Selwyn Francis Edge - businessman, racing driver, record-breaker. He is principally associated with selling and racing De Dion-Bouton, Gladiator, AC C
De Dion-Bouton was a French automobile manufacturer and railcar manufacturer operating from 1883 to 1953. The company was founded by the Marquis Jules-Albert de Dion, Georges Bouton, Bouton's brother-in-law Charles Trépardoux; the company was formed after de Dion in 1881 saw a toy locomotive in a store window and asked the toymakers to build another. Engineers Bouton and Trépardoux had been eking out a living with scientific toys at a shop in the Passage de Léon, near "rue de la Chapelle" in Paris. Trépardoux had long dreamed of building a steam car. De Dion inspired by steam and with ample money, De Dion, Bouton et Trépardoux was formed in Paris in 1883; this became the De Dion-Bouton automobile company, the world's largest automobile manufacturer for a time, becoming well known for their quality and durability. Before 1883 was over, they had set up shop in larger premises in the Passage de Léon, Paris and dropped steam engines for boats, produced a steam car. With the boiler and engine mounted at the front, driving the front wheels by belts and steering with the rear, it burned to the ground on trials.
They built a second, La Marquise, the next year, with a more conventional steering and rear-wheel drive, capable of seating four. The Marquis de Dion entered one of these in an 1887 trial, "Europe's first motoring competition", the brainchild of one M. Fossier of cycling magazine Le Vélocipède. Evidently, the promotion was insufficient, for the De Dion was the sole entrant, but it completed the course, with de Dion at the tiller, was clocked at 60 km/h; this must be taken with considerable care. The vehicle survives, in road-worthy condition, has been a regular entry in the London to Brighton Veteran Car Run. Following this singular success, the company offered steam tricycles with boilers between the front wheels and two-cylinder engines, they were built in small numbers, evidently a favorite of young playboys. They were joined by a larger tractor, able to pull trailers; this larger vehicle introduced "dead" axle. On July 22, 1894, Paris–Rouen race, it averaged 18.7 km/h over the 126 km route, but was disqualified for needing both a driver and a stoker.
Two more cars were made in 1885 followed by a series of lightweight two-cylinder tricars, which from 1892 had Michelin pneumatic tyres. In 1893, steam tractors were introduced which were designed to tow horse type carriages for passengers or freight and these used an innovative axle design which would become known as the De Dion tube, where the location and drive function of the axle are separated; the company manufactured steam buses and trucks until 1904. Trepardoux, staunchly supporting steam, resigned in 1894 as the company turned to internal combustion vehicles; the steam car remained in production less unchanged for ten years more. By 1889, de Dion was becoming convinced the future lay in the internal combustion engine, the company had built a ten-cylinder two-row rotary. After Trépardoux resigned in 1894, the company became De Bouton et Compagnie. For 1895, Bouton created a new 137 cc one-cylinder engine with trembler coil ignition. Proving troublesome at its designed speed of 900 rpm, when Bouton increased the revs, the problems vanished.
In trials, it achieved an unprecedented 3500 rpm, was run at 2,000 rpm, a limit imposed by its atmospheric valves and surface carburettor. Inlet and exhaust valves were overhead, a flywheel was fitted to each end of the crankshaft; this engine was fitted behind the rear axle of a tricycle frame bought from Decauville, fitted with the new Michelin pneumatic tires. It showed superb performance, went on the market in 1896 with the engine enlarged to 1¼ CV 185 cc, with 1¾ CV in 1897. By the time production of the petite voiture tricar stopped in 1901, it had 2¾ CV, while racers had as much as 8 CV. In 1898, Louis Renault had a De Dion-Bouton modified with fixed drive shaft and ring and pinion gear, making "perhaps the first hot rod in history"; the same year, the tricar was joined by a four-wheeler and in 1900 by a vis a vis voiturette, the Model D, with its 3¾ CV 402 cc single-cylinder engine under the seat and drive to the rear wheels through a two-speed gearbox. This curious design had the passenger facing the driver.
The voiturette had one inestimable advantage: the expanding clutches of the gearbox were operated by a lever on the steering column. The Model D was developed through Models E, G, I, J, with 6 CV by 1902, when the 8 CV Model K rear-entry phaeton appeared, with front-end styling resembling the contemporary Renault; until World War I, De Dion-Boutons had an unusual decelerator pedal which reduced engine speed and applied a transmission brake. In 1902, the Model O introduced three speeds, standard for all De Dion-Boutons in 1904. A small number of electric cars were made in 1901. De Dion-Bouton supplied engines to vehicle manufacturers such as Société Parisienne who mounted a 2.5 hp unit directly on the front axle of their front wheel drive voiturette the'Viktoria Combination'. The De Dion-Bouton engine is considered to the first high-speed lightweight internal combustion engine, it was
Cork Harbour is a natural harbour and river estuary at the mouth of the River Lee in County Cork, Ireland. It is one of several which lay claim to the title of "second largest natural harbour in the world by navigational area". Other contenders include Halifax Harbour in Canada, Trincomalee Harbour in Sri Lanka and Poole Harbour in England; the harbour has been a working port and a strategic defensive hub for centuries, it has been one of Ireland's major employment hubs since the early 1900s. Traditional heavy industries have waned since the late 20th century, with the likes of the closure of Irish Steel in Haulbowline and shipbuilding at Verolme, it still has major and strategic significance in energy generation, shipping and pharmaceuticals. Cork City is located upstream on the River Lee on the northwest corner of Cork Harbour. Several of the city's suburbs, including Blackrock, Douglas, Passage West and Rochestown lie on Lough Mahon or the Douglas Estuary, both of which are parts of Upper Cork Harbour.
The Lower Harbour has a number of towns around its shores. Passage West, Monkstown and the smaller village of Raffeen are found on the western shore. On the southwestern shore is Crosshaven. Great Island, which forms the northern shore of the lower harbour, houses the town of Cobh; as of 2011, Cobh had a population of about 12,500. The eastern shore is less densely populated, but has two villages Whitegate and Aghada, both home to power plants; the village of Ballinacurra is on the northeastern spur of the harbour, known as the Ballynacorra River. Due to the recent expansion of the town of Midleton, Ballinacurra has become a suburb of Midleton, so it could be said that Midleton lies on Cork Harbour. Cork Harbour hosts the headquarters of the Irish Naval Service. Prior to the transfer of the treaty ports in 1938, Cork Harbour was an important base for the British Royal Navy; some of the first coastal defence fortifications built in Cork Harbour date to the 17th century, were intended to protect the approaches to Cork City.
In the 18th century, fortifications were built on and opposite Haulbowline Island to protect the anchorage in Cobh - including Cove Fort. Fort Camden and Fort Carlisle were built at opposite sides of the harbour entrance during the period of the American War of Independence; the harbour's military significance increased during the Napoleonic Wars, when the naval establishment in Kinsale was transferred to Cork Harbour. The harbour became an important anchorage, which could be used to guard the entrance to the English Channel and maintain the blockade of France. At this time, the naval dockyard on Haulbowline Island was constructed, as well as a fort on Spike Island and a number of Martello Towers and other fortifications were added or improved around the harbour; the fortifications were developed throughout the 19th century and a further fort, Fort Templebreedy, was added to the south of Fort Camden at the beginning of the 20th century. At the time of Irish independence, Cork Harbour was included, along with Berehaven and Lough Swilly, in a list of British naval establishments that would remain under the control of the Royal Navy, although the naval dockyard on Haulbowline Island was handed over to the Irish Free State in 1923.
Although the Royal Navy appreciated the location of Cork Harbour for submarines, which had a shorter range in the 1920s, maintenance of the fortifications became an issue after Ireland became independent. The political uncertainty over the future of the treaty ports meant that the British government was not inclined to invest in their upgrade. At the time of their construction, nobody had considered the possibility of air attack and as they were unable to expand, there was no possibility of adding adequate air cover. If the Irish Free State was hostile during any conflict, the treaty ports would have to be supplied by sea rather than land, wasting resources. In March 1938, the British government announced that the treaty ports would be handed over unconditionally, on 11 July 1938, the defences at Cork Harbour were handed over to the Irish military authorities at a ceremony attended by Taoiseach Éamon de Valera. Since being handed over to the Irish military, most of the military installations have ceased to be used for military purposes.
Fort Carlisle was renamed Fort Davis and is used by the Defence Forces for training - but is in a somewhat neglected state. Fort Camden became known as Fort Meagher and while no longer in military use, has been subject to renovation by local volunteers and enthusiasts, can be visited by the public on certain days; the fort was renamed as of 11 July 2013 as Camden Fort Meagher, to account for both its British military and Irish military history. Locally, the two forts are sometimes known as "Camden" and "Carlisle", rather than their official titles. Fort Westmoreland became Fort Mitchell Spike Island prison, has since ceased use for military or prison purposes. "Spike" was gifted to Cork County Council by the State and has been renovated as a tourist attraction by council workers and volunteers under the supervision of archaeologists. The fortifications on Haulbowline Island however have been maintained, are now the headquarters of the Irish Naval Service. Cork Harbour is one of the most important industrial areas in Ireland.
While several traditional industries such as shipbuilding at Verolme Dockyards, steel-making on Haulbowline Island and fertiliser manufacturing at IFI have ceased in recent years, they have been replaced with newer industries and Cork Harbour is now significant within the pharmaceutical industry. Large international f
For cycle, motor-cycle, motor-car and airship companies associated with French industrialist Adolphe Clément-Bayard, see Clement. Gustave Adolphe Clément, from 1909 Clément-Bayard, was a French entrepreneur. An orphan who became a blacksmith and a Compagnon du Tour de France, he went on to race and manufacture bicycles, pneumatic tyres, automobiles and airships. In 1894 he was a passenger in the winning vehicle in the world's first competitive motor event. Albert Lemaître's Peugeot was judged to be the winner of the Paris–Rouen Competition for Horeseless Carriages; as a result of selling the manufacturing rights to his Clément car he added Bayard to the name of his new business. The company name honoured the Chevalier Pierre Terrail, seigneur de Bayard who saved the company's town of Mézières from an Imperial army during the Siege of Mézières in 1521. In 1909, five years after the successful launch of the Clément-Bayard automobile brand, he applied for and obtained the consent of the Conseil d'Etat to change his name and those of his descendants to Clément-Bayard.
Clément-Bayard was appointed a Commander of the Légion d'honneur in 1912. Most of his manufacturing empire was destroyed by World War 1, by German ransacking, by conversion to war production for France, by the subsequent weak economic market. In 1922 the Clément-Bayard company was sold to André Citroën and the factory at Levallois-Perret was the centre of 2CV manufacturing for the next 40 years. Adolphe Clément, the son of a grocer, was born at rue du Bourg, Oise, he was the second of five children of Julie Alexandrine Rousselle. His mother died when he was seven years old and although his father remarried he died 2 years when Adolphe was nine years old. For the next seven years he was raised by his stepmother. Adolphe studied at the primary school in Pierrefonds and at the College of Villers-Cotterêts, he worked in the family business by delivering groceries, at 13 chose to be apprenticed to a farrier/blacksmith. During the winter of 1871–1872, the 16-year-old Adolphe left Pierrefonds to travel around France as a Compagnon du Tour de France, an organization of craftsmen and artisans dating from the Middle Ages.
He had saved 30 francs by doing multiple jobs for three years. He subsisted in each city by working in forges owned by the Compagnons du Tour de France, shoeing horses, repairing metal and doing any kind of work, he reached Paris in 1872 followed by Orléans and Tours where he encountered'Truffault cycles'. This led him to build an iron bicycle frame. Cycle racing had begun in 1869, so in 1873 Truffaut lent the 18-year-old Clément an iron bicycle with solid rubber tires to race in Angers, he was exhilarated to read his name in the newspapers. Adolphe Clément married Céleste Angèle Roguet and they had four children, Angèle, Jeanne and Maurice. Albert died. Angèle was widowed from an engineer and director at the Levallois factory. Angele remarried Numa Joseph Edouard "Petit" Sasias, a'Fonctionnaire aux Affaires Etrangères, ex-Secrétaire à la Présidence du Conseil, with whom she had one son. Jeanne became divorced from Fernand Charron, racing driver and manager of the plant at Levallois-Perret, subsequently living alone.
Maurice had three children Andrée, Jacqueline and Albert. The Domaine Bois D'Aucourt in Pierrefonds was a 17th-century hunting lodge of the Sun King Louis XIV, upgraded circa 1822. Located 1.5 kilometres west of both the Château de Pierrefonds and his own birthplace on the rue du Bourg, Adolphe Clément bought the property around 1904 and employed architect Edward Redont to renovate and remodel it. Latterly the mansion'Domaine du Bois d'Aucourt' at Pierrefonds was used by his son Maurice, while Adolphe continued living at 35 Avenue du Bois de Boulogne, Neuilly-sur-Seine. By 1893 Clément owned the Vélodrome de la Seine near the site of the factory at Levallois-Perret. La plus belle et la plus vite piste du monde", it was managed by Tristan Bernard who managed the Vélodrome Buffalo, its events were an integral part of Parisian life, being attended by personalities such as Toulouse-Lautrec. Clément sold or converted this around 1900. On achieving business success he used the Latinate format of his name, Gustavus Adolphus, received permission from the Conseil d'État to change his surname to Clément-Bayard.
The death of his son Albert. In 1913 he was elected as mayor of Pierrefonds and, on taking office he ceded control in 1914 of Clément-Bayard to his son Maurice, passionate about aviation. In 1928 he died of a heart attack while driving along the rue Laffitte to a meeting of a'Board of Directors' in Paris. In 1876, after 2 years of cycle racing and saving, Adolphe had enough money to start in business, so he opened a bicycle repair works in Bordeaux, aged 21; the next stage of his business plan was to move to Marseille where he learned how to manufacture steel tubes for bicycles. The following year he moved to Lyon and began manufacturing whole bicycles under the name'Clément SA cycles'; the following year, circa 1878, he moved to Paris and opened a cycle business, A. Clément & Cie, at 20 Rue Brunel near the Place de l'Etoile. Here he ran a cycling school and was competing in cycle races. In Paris his business backers were monsieur de Graf
Auto racing is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Auto racing has existed since the invention of the automobile. Races of various sorts were organised, with the first recorded as early as 1867. Many of the earliest events were reliability trials, aimed at proving these new machines were a practical mode of transport, but soon became an important way for competing makers to demonstrate their machines. By the 1930s, specialist racing cars had developed. There are now each with different rules and regulations; the first prearranged match race of two self-powered road vehicles over a prescribed route occurred at 4:30 A. M. on August 30, 1867, between Ashton-under-Lyne and Old Trafford, a distance of eight miles. It was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles; the first organized contest was on April 28, 1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier.
It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne. On July 22, 1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the world's first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee; the first American automobile race is held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28, 1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile. With auto construction and racing dominated by France, the French automobile club ACF staged a number of major international races from or to Paris, connecting with another major city, in France or elsewhere in Europe. Brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907, it featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners. One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2.5-mile-long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana.
It is the largest capacity sports venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257,000+ seated spectators. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21, 1948, with the help of several other drivers of the time. The first NASCAR "Strictly Stock" race was held on June 19, 1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars, with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers. From 1972 through 2003, NASCAR's premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, sponsored by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company cigarette brand Winston; the changes that resulted from RJR's involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCAR's "modern era". The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, which ran its first season in 1999; the European races became the related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs.
Turismo Carretera is a popular touring car racing series in Argentina, the oldest car racing series still active in the world. The first TC competition took place in 1937 with 12 races, each in a different province. Future Formula One star Juan Manuel Fangio won the 1940 and 1941 editions of the TC, it was during this time that the series' Chevrolet-Ford rivalry began, with Ford acquiring most of its historical victories. The two most popular varieties of open wheel road racing are the IndyCar Series. Formula One is a European-based series that runs only street race tracks; these cars are based around technology and their aerodynamics. With the highest speed record set in 2005 by Juan Pablo Montoya hitting 373 kph; some of the most prominent races are the Monaco Grand Prix, the Italian Grand Prix, the British Grand Prix. The season ends with the crowning of the World Championship for constructors. In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, the cars have aerofoil wings front and rear to produce downforce and enhance adhesion to the track.
In Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is referred to as'Formula', with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the'Formula' terminology is not followed; the sport is arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In the United States, the most popular series is the National Championship, more known as the IndyCar Series and known as CART; the cars have traditionally been similar though less technologically sophisticated than F1 cars, with more restrictions on technology aimed at controlling costs. While these cars are not as technologically advanced, they are faster because they compete on oval race tracks, being able to average a lap at 388 kph; the series' biggest race is the Indianapolis 500, referred to as "The Greatest Spectacle in Racing" due to being the longest continuously run race and having the largest crowd for a single-day sporting event. The other major international single-seater racing series is Formula 2.
Regional series include Formula Nippon and Formula V6 Asia, Formula Renault 3.5, Formula Three, For
Dunlop Rubber was a multinational company involved in the manufacture of various rubber goods. Its business was founded in 1889 by Harvey du Cros and he involved John Boyd Dunlop who had invented and developed the first pneumatic tyre, it was one of the first multinationals, under du Cros and, after him, under Eric Geddes grew to be one of the largest British industrial companies. J B Dunlop had dropped any ties to it; the business and manufactory was founded in Upper Stephens Street in Dublin. A plaque marks the site, now part of the head office of the Irish multinational departments store brand, Dunnes Stores. Dunlop Rubber failed to adapt to evolving market conditions in the 1970s despite having recognised by the mid 1960s the potential drop in demand as the new much more durable tyres swept throughout the market. After taking on excessive debt Dunlop was acquired by the industrial conglomerate BTR in 1985. Since ownership of the Dunlop trade-names has been fragmented. In 1888, John Boyd Dunlop, a Scottish veterinary surgeon living in Ireland discovered the pneumatic tyre principle.
Willie Hume created publicity for J B Dunlop's discovery by winning seven out of eight races with his pneumatic tyres. To own the rights and exploit the discovery, the Pneumatic Tyre and Booth's Cycle Agency Co. Ltd was incorporated in 1889 and floated by Harvey du Cros who was, amongst other things, president of the Irish Cyclists' Association; the invitation to du Cros to participate was made by a Dublin cycle agent. J B Dunlop who could see no prosperous future in his discovery, had informally made over his rights to Bowden. J B Dunlop held a 20 percent stake in the venture; the company and manufactory was first founded in Stephens Street in Dublin. The late 1880s was a period of great demand for John Kemp Starley's new safety bicycles. Pneumatic Tyre began cycle tyre production in Belfast in late 1890, expanded to fill consumer demand. However, in 1890, J B Dunlop's patent was withdrawn, it had been discovered that Robert William Thomson had first patented the pneumatic tyre in 1845. J B Dunlop and Harvey du Cros together worked through the ensuing considerable difficulties.
They employed inventor Charles Kingston Welch and acquired other rights and patents which allowed them to protect their business's position to some extent. In the early 1890s, Pneumatic Tyre established divisions in Europe and North America sending there four of du Cros's six sons. Factories were established overseas because foreign patents rights would only be maintained if the company was engaged in active manufacture where its tyres were sold. Pneumatic Tyre partnered with local cycle firms such as Clement Cycles in France and Adler in Germany in order to limit the necessary capital expenditure. An American business was established in the USA in 1893 with a factory in Buffalo, New York after Harvey du Cros junior was old enough to sign the necessary deeds. In 1893 home manufacture was relocated from Belfast and Dublin to Coventry, the centre of the British cycle industry; the Dublin Corporation had launched a case against Pneumatic Tyre claiming nuisance from the smell of rubber and naphtha.
Pneumatic Tyre soon spread developing interests in Birmingham. The following year a major interest was taken in their component supplier Byrne Bros India Rubber of Lichfield Road, Aston Birmingham; the same year du Cros started Cycle Components Manufacturing in Selly Oak to supply inner tubes. J B Dunlop resigned in 1895, sold most of his interest in Pneumatic Tyre. In 1896 Harvey Du Cros persuaded his board to sell Pneumatic Tyre to financier Ernest Terah Hooley for £3 million. Hooley drummed up support by offering financial journalists cheap shares and appointing aristocrats to the board, sold the business again this time as the Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company for £5 million providing a gross profit to Hooley's syndicate including du Cros of £1.7 million. Associate and supplier, Byrne Bros India Rubber, at their Manor Rubber Mills, Aston Cross, had moved from making tyre and tube components to complete inner tubes and covers. In June 1896 du Cros formed Rubber Tyre Manufacturing, to acquire Byrne Bros..
E J Byrne was contracted to be managing director for five years. From the late 1890s, Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre began to acquire its own rubber mills, began to process rubber, whereas it had assembled tyres using components from other manufacturers. In 1901 Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre used its majority holding to rename Rubber Tyre Manufacturing – Dunlop Rubber. Arthur Du Cros replaced E J Byrne. From 1900, Dunlop began to diversify from cycle tyres; the company manufactured its first motor car tyre in 1900. In 1906, a car wheel manufacturing plant was built. In 1910 Dunlop developed its first aeroplane golf ball. Between 1904 and 1909, the French Dunlop subsidiary lost a total of £200,000, as European rivals such as Michelin of France and Continental of Germany overtook it in the motor tyre market. In 1909, Dunlop of France, in 1910, Dunlop of Germany were wholly acquired by the British parent in order to enforce stronger quality control. In August 1912 Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre went out of business though retaining certain financial commitments.
It passed its activities to Dunlop Rubber in exchange for shares. It changed its name to The Parent Tyre Company Limited. Dunlop Rubber purchased certain of its assets including goodwill and trading rights and in exchange the tyre company shareholders now owned three-quarters of Dunlop Rubber; the amalgamation was intended to bring about a substantial reduction in overhead and clarify what had been seen as a confusing relationship between the two enterprises when they shared most shareholders. Arthur du Cros was made managin