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Semi-Automatic Ground Environment

The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment was a system of large computers and associated networking equipment that coordinated data from many radar sites and processed it to produce a single unified image of the airspace over a wide area. SAGE directed and controlled the NORAD response to a Soviet air attack, operating in this role from the late 1950s into the 1980s, its enormous computers and huge displays remain a part of cold war lore, a common prop in movies such as Dr. Strangelove and Colossus; the processing power behind SAGE was supplied by the largest computer built, the IBM-manufactured AN/FSQ-7. Each SAGE Direction Center housed an FSQ-7 which occupied an entire floor 22,000 square feet not including supporting equipment. Information was fed to the DCs from a network of radar stations as well as readiness information from various defence sites; the computers, based on the raw radar data, developed "tracks" for the reported targets, automatically calculated which defences were within range.

Operators used light guns to select targets on-screen for further information, select one of the available defences, issue commands to attack. These commands would be automatically sent to the defence site via teleprinter. Connecting the various sites was an enormous network of telephones and teleprinters. Additions to the system allowed SAGE's tracking data to be sent directly to CIM-10 Bomarc missiles and some of the US Air Force's interceptor aircraft in-flight, directly updating their autopilots to maintain an intercept course without operator intervention; each DC forwarded data to a Combat Center for "supervision of the several sectors within the division". SAGE became operational in early 1960s at a combined cost of billions of dollars, it was noted that the deployment cost more than the Manhattan Project—which it was, in a way, defending against. Throughout its development, there were continual concerns about its real ability to deal with large attacks, the Operation Skyshield tests showed that only about one-fourth of enemy bombers would have been intercepted.

SAGE was the backbone of NORAD's air defense system into the 1980s, by which time the tube-based FSQ-7's were costly to maintain and outdated. Today the same command and control task is carried out by microcomputers, based on the same basic underlying data. Just prior to World War II, Royal Air Force tests with the new Chain Home radars had demonstrated that relaying information to the fighter aircraft directly from the radar sites was not feasible; the radars determined the map coordinates of the enemy, but could not see the fighters at the same time. This meant the fighters had to be able to determine where to fly to perform an interception but were unaware of their own exact location and unable to calculate an interception while flying their aircraft; the solution was to send all of the radar information to a central control station where operators collated the reports into single tracks, reported these tracks out to the airbases, or sectors. The sectors used additional systems to track their own aircraft, plotting both on a single large map.

Operators viewing the map could easily see what direction their fighters would have to fly to approach their targets and relay that by telling them to fly along a certain heading or vector. This Dowding system was the first ground-controlled interception system of large scale, covering the entirety of the UK, it proved enormously successful during the Battle of Britain, is credited as being a key part of the RAF's success. However, the system was slow providing information, up to five minutes out of date. Against propeller driven bombers flying at 225 miles per hour this was not a serious concern, but it was clear the system would be of little use against jet-powered bombers flying at 600 miles per hour; the system was extremely expensive in manpower terms, requiring hundreds of telephone operators, plotters and all of the radar operators on top of that. This was a serious drain on manpower reserves, making it difficult to expand the network; the idea of using a computer to handle the task of taking reports and developing tracks had been explored beginning late in the war.

By 1944, analog computers had been installed at the CH stations to automatically convert radar readings into map locations, eliminating two people. Meanwhile, the Royal Navy began experimenting with the Comprehensive Display System, another analog computer that took X and Y locations from a map and automatically generated tracks from repeated inputs. Similar systems began development with the Royal Canadian Navy, DATAR, the US Navy, the Naval Tactical Data System. A similar system was specified for the Nike SAM project referring to a US version of CDS, coordinating the defense over a battle area so that multiple batteries did not fire on a single target. However, all of these systems were small in geographic scale tracking within a city-sized area; when the Soviets tested its first atomic bomb in August 1949, the topic of air defense of the US became important for the first time. A study group, the "Air Defense Systems Engineering Committee" was set up under the direction of Dr. George Valley to consider the problem, is known to history as the Valley Committee.

Their December report noted a key problem in air defense using ground-based radars. A bomber approaching a radar station would detect the signals from the radar long before the reflection off the bomber was strong enough to be detected by the station; the co

Bla┼ż Bertoncelj and Andrea Podlogar

BA Tango - Andrea Podlogar and Blaž Bertoncelj are a Slovenian dance and choreography team. Their focus is the Argentine tango, they won the International Dance Organization World Championship of Argentine Tango in 1998 and were invited to perform in Buenos Aires in 2003. They have performed in the U. S. China, Hong Kong, Germany, Poland and Austria, among other countries, over the past ten years, they have received the Waterman National Dance Award for their choreography in the dance performance "Tango Prohibido". Chorographies for the drama "Zadnji Tango za Debevca in Franje" Choreographies for movie "Marko Skače" for Slovenian national Television Performance on the opening night of the Bavarian State Opera Summer Festival - VHB Festspiel Nacht, June 2009 Tango Show "Subte" with tango quintet Distango, premiered in Augsburg, February 2008 Performances and Workshops in Cape Town, South Africa, December 2008 Tango choreography for a "Three Penny opera", Croatian National Theatre, November 2007 Performance in Križanke on Druga Godba Festival as guests of tango quintet Astorpia, July 2007 Tango Drama "Harmonia", premiered at the Cankar Centre, September 2006 Performance on the Opening Night of the 3rd Belgrade Tango Festival, September 2006 Choreography for a play "Češnjev vrt", Slovenian National Theatre, 2006 Performance on the Opening Night of the 2nd Belgrade Tango Festival, September 2005 Performance in Gdansk Philharmonic with tango quintet Distango, July 2004 Performance at the V.

International Festival of Argentine Tango in Buenos Aires, March 2003 Dancers and actors in a film Tango -5, January 2003 Choreographies for a drama Venice by Jorge Accame, directed by Argentinian Omar Viale, in Prešeren's Theatre in Kranj, 2002 Multimedia tango performance "Tango E-Mocion", premiered in Prešeren's Theatre Kranj, October 2002 Dance performance "Tango Prohibido", premiered at Dubrovnik Summer Festival, July 2001 World Champions of Argentine Tango, IDO World Championship of Argentine Tango, November 1998 www. BA-Tango.com Harmonia Tango Drama

Miguel Torga

Miguel Torga, pseudonym of Adolfo Correia da Rocha, is considered one of the greatest Portuguese writers of the 20th century. He wrote poetry, short stories, a genre in which he is considered a master, theater and a 16 volume diary, written from 1932 to 1993, he was born in the village of São Martinho de Anta in the Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro region, to small-time farmer parents Francisco Correia da Rocha and wife Maria da Conceição de Barros. After a short spell as student in a catholic seminary in Lamego, his father sent him to Brazil in 1920, where he worked on an uncle's coffee plantation, his uncle, finding him to be a clever student, decided to pay for his studies. Torga returned to Portugal in 1925 to complete high school and in 1933 graduated in Medicine at the University of Coimbra. After graduation he practiced in his village of São Martinho de Anta and in other places around the country. By this time, he started self-publishing his books for a number of years. In 1941, he established himself as an otolaryngologist physician in Coimbra.

He married Belgian Lecturer Andrée Crabbé and had an only daughter, Clara Crabée da Rocha, Literature Lecturer and second wife in 1985 of Vasco Graça Moura. He was a member of the literary movement Presença for a short period before founding two cultural magazines in the 1930s. After the publication of the book O Quarto Dia da Criação do Mundo he was arrested for two months, between December 1939 and February 1940, his agnostic beliefs are reflected on his work, which deals with the nobility of the human condition in a beautiful but ruthless world where God is either absent or nothing but a passive and silent, indifferent creator. The recognition of his work earned him several important awards, as the Montaigne Prize, in 1981, the first Prémio Camões in 1989, he was several times nominated for the Nobel Prize of Literature, from 1960 to 1994, it was believed that he would be the first Portuguese language writer to win it. Brazilian novelist Jorge Amado several times stated that Torga deserved that honour and the 1978 nomination had the support of Vicente Aleixandre, the winner of the previous year.

Prémio Diário de Notícias Prémio Internacional de Poesia Montaigne Prize Prémio Camões Prémio Vida Literária da Associação Portuguesa de Escritores Prémio da Crítica, for his entire work Portuguese Poetry

Brian Palermo

Brian Joseph Palermo is an American character actor and comedian. He has appeared in a number of television shows and movies, he is a writer whose credits include Warner Brothers' Histeria!, Disney's Dave The Barbarian and Disney's The Weekenders. His film credits include The Social Network, My Life In Ruins, Daddy Day Care and Big Momma's House among others. Television credits include Entourage, Gary Unmarried, 90210, Zeke and Luther, The Middle, State of Georgia and Grace, Digimon Data Squad, Malcolm In The Middle, Significant Others. Palermo has appeared numerous times on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno in sketches within the show, though in April 2011 he started doing "correspondent" pieces; these are introduced live by Jay Leno. Palermo has appeared as a recurring character on Tyler Perry's House of Payne as Phil who adopts a fake French accent and persona as "Phillipe". Palermo is a member of the improvisational and sketch comedy group called "The Groundlings" based in Hollywood, California.

He both teaches with this company. He has performed alongside many well-known comedians such as Will Ferrell, Eddie Izzard and Harland Williams. Palermo was raised in New Orleans, Louisiana, he attended St. Clement of Rome elementary school, Archbishop Rummel High School and the University of New Orleans, he earned a B. A. in Communications. Palermo won the 1988 "Big Easy" award for Best Actor for his role as "Teach" in David Mamet's American Buffalo. Brian Palermo on IMDb

Carmi Thompson

Carmi Alderman Thompson was a Republican politician in the U. S. state of Ohio, Speaker of the Ohio House and Ohio Secretary of State from 1907 to 1911. He fought in the Spanish–American War. Carmi Thompson was born at West Virginia, he was moved to Ironton, Lawrence County, Ohio when he was three years old, where he graduated from Ironton High School in 1886. Thompson graduated from Ohio State University in 1892, taught at the High School in Bement, Illinois for two years, he returned to Ohio State, graduated from the law school in 1895 with a degree Bachelor of Laws. He began practice in Ironton, he was appointed, elected City Solicitor of Ironton from 1896 to 1903. Thompson was elected to the Ohio House of Representatives in 1903 and served in the 76th and 77th General Assemblies, 1904–1906. In the 77th General Assembly, he was chosen Speaker of the House. In 1906, he was nominated, elected Secretary of State, resigned from the House, served in 1907–1911. During the Spanish–American War, Thompson was captain of Company I of the 7th O. U. S. V. I.

He was colonel of the 7th regiment, O. N. G. from 1901 to 1906. He was commander in chief of the United Spanish War Veterans in 1926, he was Treasurer of the United States, after 1913, he was in the iron ore and shipping business. In 1921 he was a member of the advisory committee to the conference on limitation of armaments held at Washington, D. C. In 1926, President Calvin Coolidge appointed him special commissioner to make a survey of the economic and internal conditions of the Philippines. Thompson lost to Democrat A. Victor Donahey. Thompson died on June 22, 1942 at Cuyahoga County and was buried at Woodland Cemetery in Ironton. Sandles, A P; the Biographical Annals of Ohio 1906–1907–1908: A Handbook of the Government and Institutions of the State of Ohio. State of Ohio

Portuguese Socialist Party

The Portuguese Socialist Party was a political party in Portugal. The party was founded in 1875. During its initial phase the party was influenced by Proudhonism, rejected revolutionary Marxism; the party suffered. In 1919 the leftwing of the party broke away. In general the Socialist Party lacked mass support, the trade union movement was led by anarchists and was not affiliated with the socialist International Federation of Trade Unions; the party claimed a membership of 2,500 as of 1925. It published the biweekly Heraldo, it had an educational and workers' sport organization, with a membership of 3,000. The headquarters of the party were located at 34, Lisbon; the party won two seats in the parliamentary elections of 1911, 1912, 1915 and 1925. The party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between March 1925 and 1933. After the military coup of May 1926, the Socialist Party was the only tolerated political party; the party adopted a passive tactic towards the military dictatorship.

The party distanced itself from the republic uprising in February 1927. The national conference of 1930 decided that the party should cooperate with the government. One of the main leaders of the party at the time, Ramado Curto, was commissioned by the government to formulate a labour code. From 1930 he worked with the reformist trade unions in the corporativist National Economic Committee. After the establishment of Estado Novo by António de Oliveira Salazar in March 1933 the party was banned; the party responded by dissolving itself