A semi-automatic firearm called self-loading firearm or autoloading firearm, is one that not only fires a bullet each time the trigger is pulled but performs all steps necessary to prepare it to discharge again—assuming cartridges remain in the firearm's feed device. This includes extracting and ejecting the spent cartridge case from the firing chamber, re-cocking the firing mechanism, loading a new cartridge into the firing chamber. To fire again, the trigger is re-pressed. Ferdinand Ritter von Mannlicher produced the first successful design for a semi-automatic rifle in 1885, by the early 20th century, many manufacturers had introduced semi-automatic shotguns and pistols. In military use, self-loading rifles were used in World War I, most armies in World War II still relied upon bolt-action rifles, with the exception of the United States, who in 1937 had adopted the M1 Garand as the standard-issue infantry weapon; the first successful design for a semi-automatic rifle is attributed to Austria-born gunsmith Ferdinand Ritter von Mannlicher, who unveiled the design in 1885.
The Model 85 was followed by the innovative Mannlicher Models 91, 93 and 95 semi-automatic rifles. Although Mannlicher earned his reputation with his bolt-action rifle designs, he produced a few semi-automatic pistols, including the Steyr Mannlicher M1894, which employed an unusual blow-forward action and held five rounds of 6.5 mm ammunition that were fed into the M1894 by a stripper clip. A few years American gunsmith John Moses Browning developed the first successful semi-automatic shotgun, the Browning Auto-5, first manufactured in 1902 by Fabrique Nationale de Herstal and sold in America under the Browning name; the Auto-5 relied on long recoil operation. Production of the Auto-5 was ended in 1999. In 1903 and 1905, the Winchester Repeating Arms Company introduced the first semi-automatic rimfire and centerfire rifles designed for the civilian market; the Winchester Model 1903 and Winchester Model 1905 operated on the principle of blowback in order to function semi-automatically. Designed by T.
C. Johnson, the Model 1903 achieved commercial success and continued to be manufactured until 1932 when the Winchester Model 63 replaced it. By the early 20th century, several manufacturers had introduced semi-automatic.22 sporting rifles, including Winchester, Fabrique Nationale and Savage Arms, all using the direct blow-back system of operation. Winchester introduced a medium caliber semi-automatic sporting rifle, the Model 1907 as an upgrade to the Model 1905, utilizing a blowback system of operation, in calibers such as.351 Winchester. Both the Models of 1905 and 1907 saw limited police use. In 1906, Remington Arms introduced the "Remington Auto-loading Repeating Rifle." Remington advertised this rifle, renamed the "Model 8" in 1911, as a sporting rifle. This is a long recoil action designed by John Browning; the rifle was offered in.25.30.32, and.35 caliber models, gained popularity among civilians as well as some law enforcement officials who appreciated the combination of a semi-automatic action and powerful rifle cartridges.
The Model 81 superseded the Model 8 in 1936 and was offered in.300 Savage as well as the original Remington calibers. The first semi-automatic rifle adopted and issued by a major military power was the Fusil Automatique Modele 1917; this is a locked-breech, gas-operated action, similar in its mechanical principles to the future M1 Garand in the United States. The M1917 was fielded during the latter stages of World War I but it did not receive a favorable reception; however its shortened and improved version, the Model 1918, was much more favourably received during the Moroccan Rif War from 1920 to 1926. The Lebel bolt-action rifle remained the standard French infantry rifle until replaced in 1936 by the MAS-36 despite the various semi-automatic rifles designed between 1918 and 1935. Other nations experimented with self-loading rifles between the two World Wars, including the United Kingdom, which had intended to replace the bolt-action Lee–Enfield with a self-loader chambered for sub-caliber ammunition, but discarded that plan as the imminence of the Second World War and the emphasis shifted from replacing every rifle with a new design to speeding-up re-armament with existing weapons.
The Soviet Union and Nazi Germany would both issue successful self-loading and selective-fire rifles on a large scale during the course of the war, but not in sufficient numbers to replace their standard bolt-action rifles. In 1937, the American M1 Garand was the first semi-automatic rifle to replace its nation's bolt-action rifle as the standard-issue infantry weapon; the gas-operated M1 Garand was developed by Canadian-born John Garand for the U. S. government at the Springfield Armory in Springfield, Massachusetts. After years of research and testing, the first production model of the M1 Garand was unveiled in 1937. During World War II, the M1 Garand gave American infantrymen an advantage over their opponents, most of whom were issued slower firing bolt-action rifles; the Soviet AVS-36, SVT-38 and SVT-40, as well as the German Gewehr 43, were semi-automatic gas-operated rifles issued during World War II. In practice, they did not replace the bolt-action rifle as a standard infantry weapon.
Another gas-operated semi-automatic rifle developed toward the end of World War II was the SKS. Designed by Sergei Gavrilovich Simonov in 1945, it came e
The 2019 Turkmenistan Cup is the 26th season of the Turkmenistan Cup knockout tournament. The cup winner qualifies for the 2020 AFC Cup; the draw of the tournament was held on 6 July 2019. The competition started on 27 July 2018 and finished on 14 December 2020; the final match was played at the Nusaý Stadium in Ashgabat. The first leg match will be played on 27 July 2019; the second leg match will be played on 31 July 2019. First legs were played on 13 and 15 August 2019. Second legs were played on 18 September 2019. First legs were played on 2 November 2019. Second legs were played on 3 and 4 December 2019. Final was played on 14 December 2019; as of 15 December 2019 Official website Turkmenistan Cup Football of Turkmenistan, VK.com Sport, Turkmenportal.com Photo report: FC Altyn Asyr won the 2019 Turkmenistan Football Cup
Emily Louise Orr Elliott was a Canadian artist and fashion illustrator. She was born Emily Louise Orr in Montreal and studied at the Ontario School of Art in Toronto, the Art Students League of New York and the New York School of Design. Besides her oil paintings of figures and flowers, she provided sketches for the Eaton's and Simpson's catalogues and illustrated fashion designs for newspapers and magazines. Elliott wrote a column on boats and boating for the Toronto Star, composed songs and lectured on art, her work was exhibited at the Royal Canadian Academy, the Ontario Society of Artists, the Women's Art Association of Canada and the Canadian National Exhibition. She was founding chair of the Women's Committee of the Canadian National Exhibition, her work is on display in Victoria College, Emmanuel College, St. Hilda's College, the Queen Elizabeth Hospital and the Toronto Women's Press Club. In 1893, she married John Ephraim Elliott, she died in Toronto at the age of 84. Her work is held in the collections of the City of Toronto Market Gallery, the Toronto Public Library and The Robert McLaughlin Gallery in Oshawa.
Her collection of art published by other illustrators was donated to the Art Gallery of Ontario